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2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0480
Ayatallah Gharehghani, Seyed Mirsalim, Seyed Jazayeri
A newly developed heavy duty diesel engine in dual fuel mode of operation has been studied in detail. The main fuel would be natural gas presented by Methane and diesel oil as pilot injection. The importance and effects of mixture preparation and formation through ports, valves and in cylinder flow field with different swirl ratio and tumble on diesel combustion phenomena is an accepted feature which has been studied using a developed CFD model together with a KIVA3-V2 code. This analysis is capable to investigate engine geometry, valves lift, and valves timing turbo charging, and its effects on dynamic flow field with variable dual fuel ratio on power and emission levels output. This complete open cycle study of a dual fuel engine has been carried out originally and for the first time. The validation is carried out using developed codes for same engine with experimental data available from test rig later on.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0481
Mate Zoldy, Andras Hollo, Artur Thernesz
The increasing fuel demand, decreasing natural reserves and environmental consciousness have together led to the testing and implementation of new fuels and blending components for internal combustion engines. Biofuels are very commonly added to fossil fuels, most commonly ethanol to gasoline and FAME to diesel. Harmonizing their properties with the engines is a great challenge for the automotive and oil industry. The increasing demand for diesel and decreasing demand for gasoline in Europe raised the question of how it is possible to increase the amount of bio extenders in diesel. Butanol as a potential second generation biofuel could be a future option for blending with diesel. A comprehensive analytical and empirical testing sequence was carried out in the MOL Group's Product Development laboratories to check the application properties of butanol-diesel mixtures.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0482
Rogelio González Oropeza, Stephen Samuel, Ahmed El-geushey Hassaneen, Francisco González-González, Fernando García-Puertos
The present work attempted to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using conventional diesel fuel with mixtures of animal and vegetable derived bio-diesel that are available in Mexico and ultra low sulphur diesel with varying proportions. This work aimed at studying the performance of the engine at representative ambient conditions of Mexico City which is at an altitude of 2240m above sea level. The work identified that the levels of CO in the exhaust has a strong correlation with the proportion of bio-diesel in the conventional diesel fuel used. However, the performance of the engine, torque and power, are not affected significantly by varying the proportion of animal and bio-derived fuels in diesel fuel. In addition it also identified the correlation between the proportions of bio-diesel in diesel with the engine out particulate matter and the performance of diesel oxidation catalyst.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0475
Valentin Soloiu, Kazuie Nishiwaki, Yoshinobu Yoshihara
With the constant increase of fossil fuel prices and resources depletion, the researchers look beyond the usual alternative fuels for diesel engines. A lot of research is going on the employment of plastic polymers as fuels since they have a high potential to reduce diesel oil consumption and many of the aspects of their operation in diesel engines are not clarified yet. The major advantage of plastic polymers is the high calorific value, a widespread availability, and lower prices if they come from recycling. The paper presents the results from the research on a novel polyethylene blended diesel fuel and its use as alternative fuel for combustion in diesel generation plants. The authors investigated the formulation, injection, combustion and emissions of a new polyethylene-diesel fuel, obtained by an original process. The low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been mixed 5-40% by wt. with diesel by a new technology at 200 deg.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0476
Zongjie Hu, Ying Zhou, Jun Deng, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
The swelling of ‘O’ rings of 3 typical rubbers (NBR, FKM, EPDM) and the corrosion of 2 typical copperish metal pieces (Copper, Brass) were investigated. The fuel samples included 14 kinds of biodiesels, 1 kind of diesel, and 4 kinds of blends respectively for 2 kinds of biodiesels. The changes in mass and size of ‘O’ rings were measured with an electronic balance and a vernier caliper. The surface corrosion of copperish metals was recorded with photos. It was found that the swelling of NBR in pure biodiesels were generally larger than those in diesel. The mass and size of FKM almost did not change in both pure biodiesels and diesel. The swelling of EPDM became less in pure biodiesels than that in diesel. When the blend ratios of biodiesels were less than 10%, the change rates in mass, inner diameter and section diameter of NBR, FKM and EPDM were similar between blended fuels and diesel.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0477
Hu Li, Gordon E. Andrews, Dimitrios Savvidis
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function of cold start and ambient temperatures. A real-world driving cycle has been developed at Leeds and referred as LU-BS, which has an urban free flow driving pattern. The test vehicle was driven on the same route by the same driver on different days with different ambient temperatures. All the journeys were started from cold. An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was installed on a EURO2 emission compliance SI car for emissions measurement at a rate of 0.5 Hz. This emission measurement system was calibrated on a standard CVS measurement system and showed an excellent agreement on the CO₂ measurement with the CVS results. The N₂O and CH₄ were calibrated by calibration gas bottles.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0478
R. Anand, G. R. Kannan, S. Nagarajan, S. Velmathi
Waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCO-ME) is produced by the transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) on laboratory scale setup and it can be used as a biodiesel in stationary diesel engine. The proceeding study investigates the effect of biodiesel and its blends varying from B10 to B80 on the engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics. The properties of diesel and biodiesel are examined and compared. The experimental results show that the use of WCO-ME in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine has yielded higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) due to low calorific value. It is also observed that at full load the brake specific energy consumption of biodiesel blends are higher than that of diesel. Further, biodiesel blends show a reduction in emission properties such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and smoke opacity with slight increase in nitric oxide (NO) emission compared to diesel at full load.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0470
Giovanni Cerri, Laila Chennaoui, Mauro Miglioli, Fabio Botta
An innovative Emulsification Engine Feeding System (EEFS) has been developed in the Roma Tre University Fluid Machinery Lab. It is based on an emulsification loop, where fuel and water are fed in real time with the emulsion injection. Thus no chemicals are used to stabilize water in diesel fuel or ethanol in diesel fuel emulsions. The system assures the emulsion stability levels sufficient for the emulsion to be injected inside the engine. Tests carried out on the EEFS, developed for a 6 cylinder, four stroke, 12.88 liter, 382 kW diesel engine, have shown the good quality of the emulsion in terms of water droplet diameters and volumetric mixing ratio, at the various off line tests over emulsion flow rates varying about 2.5 l/h to 150 l/h representative of the idle (2 l/h of fuel) to full load (130 l/h of fuel) conditions with the engine rpm ranging from 500 to 2300.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0472
Chiara Guido, Carlo Beatrice, Silvana Di Iorio, Valentina Fraioli, Gabriele Di Blasio, Alberto Vassallo, Claudio Ciaravino
The present paper describes some results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori of CNR aimed at studying the impact of FAME and GTL fuel blends on the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of the latest-generation automotive diesel engines. The investigation was carried out on the newly released GM 2.0L 4-cylinder “torque-controlled” Euro 5 diesel engine for PC application and followed previous tests on its Euro 4 version, in order to track the interaction between the alternative fuels and the diesel engine, as the technology evolves. Various blends of first generation biodiesels (RME, SME) and GTL with a reference diesel fuel were tested, notably B20, B50 and B100. The tests were done in a wide range of engine operation points for the complete characterization of the biodiesels performance in the NEDC cycle, as well as in full load conditions.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0473
Mark Winston-Galant, Steven Salley, Ka Yuen Ng, Philip Dingle
Biodiesel offers a potentially viable alternative fuel source for diesel automotive applications. However, biodiesel may present problems at colder temperatures due to the crystallization of fatty acid methyl esters and precipitation of other components, such as unreacted triglycerides and sterol glycosides in biodiesel. At lower temperatures, the fuel gels until it solidifies in the fuel lines, clogging the fuel filter, and shutting down the engine. A laboratory-based continuous loop fuel system was utilized to determine the flow properties at low temperatures of biodiesel in B100, B20, and B10 blends for soybean and choice white grease (pig fat) biodiesel fuel. The continuous loop fuel delivery system was designed to be similar to those that can be found in engines and vehicles currently in use, and provided a mechanical pump or an electric pump as a means to simulate systems found in the different types of vehicles.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0474
Kim Winther
In order to demonstrate the higher blends of Tallow Methyl Ester (TME) up to 30% in Nordic regions and to highlight possible technical obstacles regarding distribution and long-term use in standard vehicles, a large-scale demonstration took place in Denmark. In 14 months, from November 2008 to the end of 2009, the vehicles covered 10 million km and used 3 million liters of biodiesel blend. Investigations included chassis dynamometer tests, emission measurements, filter plugging issues, engine oil deterioration and durability of auxiliary equipment. The output of the project was an insight into both economic and technical obstacles and benefits arising from a broader introduction of higher blend TME fuels in the Nordic regions.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0468
Mitsuharu Oguma, Shinichi Goto, Terukazu Nishimura, Yasuhiko Mikita
DME as a fuel for compression ignition (diesel) engines has been actively studied for about ten years due to its characteristically low pollution and reputation as a “smokeless fuel”. During this time, the practical application is taking shape based on necessary tasks such as analysis of injection and combustion, engine performance, and development of experimental vehicles. At this moment, standardization of DME as a fuel was started under ISO in 2007. There are concerns regarding the impurities in DME regarding the mixing during production and distribution as well as their effect on additives for lubricity and odor. In this report, the effect of DME fuel impurities on performance of a DME powered diesel engine was investigated. The platform was a DME engine with common-rail fuel injection and was evaluated under partial load stable mode and Japanese transient mode (JE05) testing parameters.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0737
Michael Kind, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping, Dorothea Liebig, Richard Clark, Andrew Harrison, Rene Van Doorn
GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0738
Mohamed I. Khalil
The operating costs of a vehicle depend on variety of factors generally grouped under the two headings of standing costs and running costs. On the other hand, the running costs are function in the traveled kilometers. The aim of this paper reduces the running costs of the public transport buses by minimizing the non-productive distance, where the non-productive distance are the distance between garages and first bus station to start the trip and inverse. The proposal model is based on using the transportation technique for minimizing the total non-productive distance by redistribution the buses on their garages. Using this model is powerful for minimizing the running cost of public transport companies, addition to reducing the bus emission and saving the energy.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0739
Y. Gong, O. Kaario, A. Tilli, M. Larmi, F.X. Tanner
Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) is a high-cetane number alternative fuel with the potential of drastic emissions reductions in high-pressure diesel engines. In this study the behavior of HVO sprays is investigated computationally and compared with conventional diesel fuel sprays. The simulations are performed with a modified version of the C++ open source code OpenFOAM using Reynolds-averaged conservation equations for mass, species, momentum and energy. The turbulence has been modeled with a modified version of the RNG k-ε model. In particular, the turbulence interaction between the droplets and the gas has been accounted for by introducing appropriate source terms in the turbulence model equations. The spray simulations reflect the setup of the constant-volume combustion cell from which the experimental data were obtained.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0740
R. Muthu Shanmugam, Nilesh M. Kankariya, Jacques Honvault, L. Srinivasan, H. C. Viswanatha, Patrice Nicolas, N. Saravanan, Dias Christian
Most of the energy consumed in today's mobility industry is derived from fossil fuels. The demand for clean, renewable and affordable alternative energy is forcing the automotive industry to look beyond the conventional fossil fuels. Fuels options like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and ethanol blends are quickly finding widespread acceptance as alternative sources. This paper presents the results of experimental studies conducted on a 1.2-liter MPI engine with three different alternate fuels. The fuels considered for the evaluation (apart from base gasoline) are 10% ethanol-blended fuel (E10), LPG (gaseous propane: butane mix) and CNG (gaseous methane). Experiments were conducted to compare their effect on engine performance and emissions. The test results show that E10 has the lowest power drop whereas CNG has the highest power drop (12%) as compared to gasoline. The maximum power drop in LPG is 4%, which is close to the theoretical predictions.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0741
Gregory Bogin, Anthony M. Dean, Matthew A. Ratcliff, Jon Luecke, Bradley T. Zigler
This paper reports the development of new fuel ignition quality and combustion experiments performed using the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). Prior SAE papers (961182, 971636, 1999-01-3591, and 2001-01-3527) documented the development of the IQT constant volume combustion chamber experimental apparatus to measure ignition qualities of diesel-type fuels. The ASTM International test method D6890 was developed around the IQT device to allow the rapid determination of derived cetane number (DCN). Interest in chemical kinetic models for the ignition of diesel and biodiesel model compounds is increasing to support the development of advanced engines and fuels. However, rigorous experimental validation of these kinetic models has been limited for a variety of reasons. Shock tubes and rapid compression machines are typically limited to premixed gas-phase studies, for example.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0618
Zhenhong Lin, David Greene
To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0735
Jeffrey McAulay, John B. Heywood
The goal of this paper is to quantitatively assess the implications of congressionally mandated biofuel targets on requirements for ethanol blending, distribution, and usage in spark ignition engines in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. The “blend wall” is a term that refers to the maximum amount of ethanol that can be blended into the gasoline pool without exceeding the legal volumetric blend limit of 10%. Beyond the blend wall, the additional ethanol fuel must be used in higher blends of ethanol like E85. Once the blend wall is reached, the existing fleet of flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) will be required to use E85 for some percentage of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in order to achieve the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0734
Tamer Yanni, Paul J. Th. Venhovens
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has several methods in use to determine the overall fuel economy of a vehicle which is one of the mandatory fields on the Monroney sticker (better known as window sticker) of new cars and trucks. The fuel economy of a typical vehicle depends on many design properties physically known as the inertial-, wind- and rolling resistance. Each of these resistive forces is determined by several key design parameter (such as mass, frontal area, drag coefficient and rolling resistance coefficient) which are predetermined quite early in the design process. These design parameters, to a large extent, cannot freely be determined, are considerably co-dependent and have a large amount of interaction with other vehicle properties including overall vehicle costs. To optimize the design, careful consideration of the cost/benefit analysis for each of the design parameters must be made.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0736
Teruo Suzuki, Masato Murase, Yukio Akasaka
A fundamental understanding of the relationship between chemical composition and combustion quality may provide an improved means of assessing fuel combustion characteristics. As such, a fuel parameter based on the average molecular structure of multi-component fuels, including petroleum-derived fuels and alternative fuels such as bio-fuel, is applied to predict both ignition and anti-knock quality. This parameter is derived from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis indicating hydrogen type distribution of fuel molecules. The predicted cetane number (PCN) calculated by the equation developed with 1H-NMR in this study shows a good correlation to the cetane number for a wide range of fuels.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1301
Gary D. Neely, Jayant V. Sarlashkar, Darius Mehta
The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III emissions standard which will require significant reductions of hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from current levels. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines so the time required to achieve effective emissions control with current aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diesel cold-start emissions control strategy for achieving LEV III emissions. The strategy combines several technologies to reduce HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2462
Reza Torbati, Marco Federico Pidria, Giovanni Cerciello, Davide Rodonò
Partial flow filters (PFF) are devices that can capture particulate matter (PM) for a period of time sufficient for its catalytic oxidation. The filter consists of alternating layers of corrugated metal foil and porous sintered metal fleece which captures the particulates. The captured particles are then re-generated passively by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) produced by the oxidation of NO on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) placed before the filter. The filter's robust design and the ability to operate without any maintenance, i.e. no vehicle downtime, have led to an increasing demand for both heavy duty (HD) and light duty (LD) retrofit applications worldwide. Unlike diesel particulate filter (DPF), the PFF will not plug once filled with soot to its maximum capacity in the absence of passive regeneration (low load and low exhaust temperature conditions). Instead, the PM conversion efficiency will gradually decrease, allowing PM emissions to pass through.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2441
Xinyu Ge
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2758
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Sriram T, M Ravi
Indian Bharat Stage (BS) vehicular emission norms were introduced in the year 2000 which was two emission stages behind Europe. During last decade India has progressed faster compared to Europe and have implemented BS-IV emission norms in 2010 which is one stage behind Europe. This paper reviews progress of Indian vehicular emissions, and On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) legislations. Further, it also explores the technology advancements in engine emission control devices and Fuel quality happened due to tightening of emission norms.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0141
Hideaki Itakura, Tetsuya Kato, Naoya Kato, Takashi Nishimoto
CARB (California Air Resources Board) has required the evaporative emissions to be restricted to 1/4th of the parameter stated in the 1995 regulations. Furthermore, hydrocarbons (hereafter, HC) from the fuel system must be reduced to near 0.0 grams, according to the PZEV (Partial Zero Emission Vehicle) regulations enforced from 2003. The wet film in intake ports and fuel leaking from the injector nozzles evaporate and diffuse while the car is parked, and consequently may cause HC to leak the air cleaner inlet. The air cleaner which prevents HC leakage from the air intake system is already in mass production. In the course of designing this product to be installed in a vehicle, the authors developed a method to estimate the amount of HC that reaches the air cleaner. Based on detailed investigation on HC distribution and the changes that occur during parking, the HC amount reaching the air cleaner was calculated by both the equation of diffusion and the equation of state.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0140
Frank Hunt, Jonathan Borg, Shigeru Oho., Ayumu Miyajima, Kiyoshi Amou, Takanobu Ichihara
This paper describes a cold start emission reduction system developed for a 3.0L V6 test vehicle in order to meet SULEV emission regulations. The emphasis of this research is how the system can be used to meet SULEV emission standards without the need for a heavily loaded catalyst. A fuel-vaporizing device has been developed that generates vaporized fuel to be consumed during engine start up. The device allows for lean A/F ratio control during engine start and idle and is called a Combustion Stabilizing Device (CSD). A vehicle with a CSD mounted to the engine was tested in an emission lab. The test vehicle resulted in approximately 50% HC emission reduction in the first 20s of engine startup and had a catalyst warm-up time to T50 (50% converter efficiency) of less than 20s.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0149
H. Lochmann, H. Schlessmann, J. Schlossarczyk, S. Richter, F.-W. Kaiser, T. Nagel
This paper gives an overview of the development work for an aftertreatment system, used in hand held powertools to fulfil the corporate average US Limits. The paper will start with a description of the annual reductions in US Limits with differences in CARB and EPA legislation and the consequences of the legislation in Europe from 2007 onwards. There then follows a chapter describing space restrictions in the given muffler leading to a maximum size for the substrate. Tests results are shown, giving an idea of additional measures taken to avoid dangerous temperatures on the muffler surface and of the emitted exhaust gas. The exothermic temperature increase created under service conditions imposes an additional thermal load from the catalyst back towards the engine itself. Therefore, some modifications regarding gas flow and positioning of the catalyst had to be made to find an adequate solution for series production.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0577
Marco Ranalli, Stefan Schmidt, Lee Watts
Simultaneous particulate and NOx reduction represents the next step to the reduction of diesel emissions. One of the most promising concepts to achieve this target involves the combination of two technologies already in use in the after-treatment technology - Diesel Particulate Filter and NOx Storage Catalyst - in the same component. The major issue to be solved is the design of a complex thermal strategy, for the regeneration of NOx emissions, particulate matter and possibly sulfates. For this set-up to function properly the engine must periodically generate a rich spike to induce the NOx desorption process. The system must also increase the exhaust gas temperature to induce the soot oxidation process. Complicating matters further, the regeneration process of the filter must also be controlled to avoid substrate or washcoat damage.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0380
Timothy M. Boundy, Nicholas A. Vitale, Dan W. Figlioli
A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
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