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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3335
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2015
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2014
Chris Merkle, Lisa Kennedy
Manufacturers have engineered high voltage batteries and highly efficient electric motors that have been combined with an internal combustion engine (ICE) or in some cases, replaced the engine altogether. While this advancement is beneficial in many ways, service technicians are faced with new challenges in servicing high voltage vehicle systems. Although highly trained in many areas, today's automotive and commercial vehicle service technicians traditionally have not been trained to work with high voltage (HV). To ensure proper and safe HV service, information and training is critical. This paper will highlight some typical safety precautions and service procedures directed by manufacturers, such as the use of high voltage insulation gloves, proper tools needed and the practices of performing HV disabling procedures including zero voltage checks.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2013
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Jean-Sebastien Foisy
The experience with the implementation of IV-ITS (In-vehicle Intelligent Transportation Systems, also know as EOBR or electronic onboard recorders) type tools and services in previous projects showed that there is an opportunity to standardize an infrastructure that would increase a project's rate of success. As such, a project that defined, streamlined and standardized a tech transfer approach to IV-ITS products and services was initiated. Therefore, the objective of the project was to develop a standard procedure based on technology transfer best practices and defining the steps and actions required to increase the rate of success and the optimization of the implementation of IV-ITS products and services. A literature review was conducted to identify technology transfer and implementation best practices and to assist in defining a survey for measuring the success of the implementation of participants in IV-ITS implementation projects.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2012
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0261
Nathan T. Dorris, Kelly A. Burke
In a previous SAE paper (2001-01-0046), the authors reviewed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) activities in the development of mandatory air bag warnings and analyzed those activities against the framework of the available human factors engineering (HFE) and warning literature. That analysis concluded that in both rulemaking procedures, NHTSA developed labeling requirements that appropriately addressed the respective injury prevention policies and strategies of those respective timeframes. In most regards, the agency properly identified and responded to HFE criteria although some methodological improvement could be obtained. Since the previous paper, the rulemaking process has continued and there have been significant changes to the mandatory air bag warnings. Some of these changes reflect the improvements in advanced air bag technologies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0267
William W. Van Arsdell, Paul Weber, Charles Stankewich, Daniel Davee, Marie Moralde
This study investigates the technique used and forces applied on the latch plate and buckle during typical seat belt operation and driving conditions. These techniques and forces are relevant to whether the latch plate can be partially engaged with the buckle during typical operation and whether the latch plate will dislodge during vehicle operation. In addition to studying the insertion of the latch plate, we examined the tensile forces that are applied to the latch plate and buckle during typical, non-crash driving conditions, and how these forces compare to the performance requirements established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) as part of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 209. These tensile forces are important in understanding whether the latch plate is likely to dislodge from the buckle if it is in a position of partial engagement.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0432
André Levesque, Jennifer Johrendt
The following paper presents an outline of the current state of driver modeling along with the various methods that are employed in their development. In recent years, vehicle manufacturers have implemented various systems that, in some manner, improve the operation of their vehicles. Many of these systems include an electronically controlled device which is capable of making decisions based on the immediate conditions affecting the vehicle. Much of the influence to develop such systems stems from the issue of safety: in emergency situations the control device is capable of making a decision quicker than the driver and thus reduces the potential for some form of collision. Another motivating factor behind these systems is to improve fuel efficiency, specifically in regard to hybrid vehicles where more than one form of propulsion is used and such devices can aid the driver to operate in a more efficient manner.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0210
Yu-Sung Chen, Jia-Xiu Liu, Chung-Chih Tsai, Chia-Tseng Chen
This study proposes an anti-counterfeiting system of drunk driving, which prevents drivers from drunken driving and cheat of driver's alcohol detection. The study develops the technology of driver's facial image match by a serial image processes. The methodology of facial image match uses the Adaboost algorithm, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to extract the facial features of drivers, is suitable to be applied under the internal environments of cabin. By analyzing the facial features of drivers, the time of driver's exchange is detected, and the driver's identity is indentified. When the cheat act of driver's alcohol detection occurred, the system will generate warning signals through a buzzer to notice the driver to take alcohol detection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0206
Hiroyuki Tachibana
Recently, automobile features designed to improve maneuverability and convenience are being improved. However, many drivers still have difficulty with parking maneuvers. Although parking is unavoidable for drivers, yet ranks third among the most difficult driving situations for Japanese drivers. Drivers in other countries also consider parking to be difficult and even skill drivers would appreciate some assistance. Therefore, a parking support system has been developed to reduce the workload for all drivers while also improving parking performance. The parking support system Human-Machine Interface (HMI) operation should be designed to easy to use for best performance. The back-in perpendicular parking performance of drivers with different skill levels was studied to see the effect of the parking support system. Back-in perpendicular parking is the major parking method in Japan.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0130
Darshan Gopalrao Pahinkar, Vivek Kumar
An analytical model, which takes care of thermal interactions of human body with surroundings via basic heat transfer modes like conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation, is compiled. The analytical model takes measurable inputs from surroundings and specific human parameters. Using these parameters a quick calculation entailing all heat transfer modes ensues in net heat exchange of human body with surroundings. Its magnitude and direction decides the qualitative indication of thermal comfort of concerned human being. The present model is scaled on actual human beings by noting the subjective assessment in comfortable as well as uncomfortable surroundings. As a part of validation, it is implemented in an actual Climatic Wind Tunnel Heater test, where temperatures and other parameters on different parts of the body are noted down and fed to the model as input. Output of the equation is then compared with the subjective assessment of human beings.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0132
Sambhaji Jaybhay, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Sangeet Kapoor
In cold climatic regions (25°C below zero) thermal comfort inside vehicle cabin plays a vital role for safety of driver and crew members. This comfortable and safe environment can be achieved either by utilizing available heat of engine coolant in conjunction with optimized in cab air circulation or by deploying more costly options such as auxiliary heaters, e.g., Fuel Fired, Positive Temperature Coefficient heaters. The typical vehicle cabin heating system effectiveness depends on optimized warm/hot air discharge through instrument panel and foot vents, air directivity to occupant's chest and foot zones and overall air flow distribution inside the vehicle cabin. On engine side it depends on engine coolant warm up and flow rate, coolant pipe routing, coolant leakage through engine thermostat and heater core construction and capacity.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0062
Bradley Howard, Jingzhou (James) Yang
Digital human modeling and posture prediction can only be used as a design tool if the predicted postures are realistic. To date, the most realistic postures have been realized by simultaneously optimizing human performance measures (HPMs). These HPMs currently consist of joint discomfort, delta potential energy, and visual displacement. However these HPMs only consider the kinematics of human posture. Dynamic aspects of human posture such as external loads and mass of limbs have not yet been considered in conjunction with the current HPMs. This paper gives the formulation for a new human performance measure combination including the use of joint torque to account for the dynamics of human posture. Postures are then predicted using multi-objective optimization (MOO) techniques to optimize the combination of the new HPM and the current. The predicted postures are then compared with the benchmark postures which are those obtained from using the current HPMs only.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0527
Diana M. Wegner, Matthew P. Reed
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0577
Christopher Edwards, Jon Hankey, Raymond Kiefer, Donald Grimm, Nina Leask
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, roadway efficiency, and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0578
M. Lucas Neurauter, Robert E. Llaneras, Brian Li, Charles Green
Alternative implementations of a Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system intended to actively notify drivers of the presence of rear cross-path traffic when backing were evaluated in naturalistic settings. The feature is one of several emerging technologies designed to assist drivers when backing - in this case, enhancing drivers' awareness of traffic approaching from the rear. The study allowed performance under a range of RCTA system driver interface implementations to be contrasted with conventional and wide Field of View (FOV) Rear Vision systems. Evaluations were conducted using a sample of 70 drivers under naturalistic settings and environments with repeated exposures to backing tasks. The study also made use of a staged conflict situation with a confederate vehicle in order to more precisely quantify driver behavior and system usage across drivers under controlled conflict situations.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0593
Lucian Andrei Gheorghe, Takashi Sunda
In order to build a useful and comfortable in-car human machine interface systems, the information presentation method should be easy to understand (low mental workload) and one should be able to respond with ease to the information presented (low response workload). We are making efforts to establish an evaluation method that would differentiate between mental workload and response workload. Here, we present the results of our trial using brain waves measurements (Eye Fixation Related Potentials). We focus on the relation between P3 latencies and drivers response workload compared to mental workload in a task involving eye movements. Previous experiments showed that P3 latency correlates strongly with the amount of information presented. The current experiment shows that P3 latencies seem to be independent to the type of response the subject is requested to perform.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0591
Haruhiko Nishiguchi, Kei Oshida
This paper presents a verification of the effectiveness of an image processing method, used to reduce the inconsistent speed perception caused by using the camera images in conjunction with side-view mirrors. Vision assistance technology using cameras is widely used in practical applications today. However, speed and distance perceived with camera images may differ from those viewed directly or viewed with conventional side-view mirrors. That is particularly evident in wide-angle camera images, and can easily cause a sense of discomfort experienced by the driver. A Side View Camera (SVC) shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. It is a system to compensate side-view mirrors, broadening the driver's field of view to eliminate bind spots. SVC is used in conjunction with the side-view mirrors.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0589
Jaime Lopez, Jose Manuel Barrios, Mario Nombela
Driving is a highly complex activity which requires the driver's full attention. Presently, the human factor is related to 90% [1] of accidents and driver distraction is one of the principle causes. The objective of this project was to create a semi-autonomous system for testing with somnolent drivers. Our system is comprised of a GPS which checks position and velocity of the car continuously, a robot which decides with data from the CAN and GPS if the vehicle is being driven properly and an actuator on the brakes and the engine to stop the car. The robot will monitor these parameters continuously in order to take control of the car if it detects that the vehicle is not being properly driven in order to avoid a possible accident. This device will be on standby. To do this, it was necessary to create a system which allows the driver to handle the car without any influence, but when it detects driving errors can stop the car to put it in a safe state.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0598
Nonnwats Anantapal, Songkran Kantawong, Tanasak Phanprasit
Advances in image processing and display technology have been increased interesting in using camera-based systems for all around view vision system especially for all rear-vision functions. The camera-based system is raised the possibility gain of providing driver with wide fields of view than conventional rear view mirrors such as eliminate blind spot area and reduce this sense of incongruity associated with perceiving vehicle movement. This paper presents a development of adaptive camera adopted to improve the image quality of the all-around view system. The all-around view or wide view images are analyzed and synthesized to create a single image seen from a virtual perspective overhead vehicle camera by image processing methods and display in a real view image as closed as possible.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0597
Shannon O'Day, Louis Tijerina
The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0596
Matthew P. Reed
This paper describes the development of the fixed seat eyellipse in the October 2008 revision of SAE Recommended Practice J941. The eye locations of 23 men and women with a wide range of stature were recorded as they sat in each of three second-row bench seats in a laboratory mockup. Testing was conducted at 19-, 23-, and 27-degree seat back angles. Regression analysis demonstrated that passenger eye location was significantly affected by stature and by seat back angle. The regression results were used to develop an elliptical approximation of the distribution of adult passenger eye locations, applying a methodology previously used to develop the driver eyellipse in SAE J941-2002.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0595
Robert E. Llaneras, M. Lucas Neurauter, Charles Quinn, Charles Green
Research was conducted to assess driver acceptance and performance associated with a spotter mirror feature intended to reduce the incidence of lane-change conflicts by enhancing drivers' ability to detect vehicles in their side blind zone. The spotter mirror consisted of an integrated spherical convex blind zone mirror inset within a larger planar mirror. The spotter mirror's field-of-view was designed to target the vehicle's side blind zone area and to help drivers quickly detect the presence or absence of a vehicle in the blind zone. The study captured normative lane-change behavior during an extended drive on public roadways, with and without access to the spotter mirror system, for a sample of familiar and unfamiliar supplemental mirror users. In order to capture more naturalistic lane-change behavior, drivers were informed that the purpose of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of existing road signs for navigating to a destination.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0594
Silviu Pala, Thomas Schnell, Nicole Lynn Becklinger, Carolina Giannotti, Bo Sun, Hiroaki Tanaka, Ifushi Shimonomoto
DENSO International America, Inc. and the University of Iowa-Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL) have developed a series of new Multi-Modal Interface for Drivers (MMID) in order to improve driver safety, comfort, convenience and connectivity. Three MMID concepts were developed: GUI 1, GUI 2 and GUI 1-HUD. All three of the MMIDs used a new Reconfigurable Haptic Joystick (RHJ) on the steering wheel and new concept HMI Dual Touch Function Switches (DTFS) device. The DTFS use capacitive and mechanic sensing located on the back of the steering wheel as input operation devices. Inputs from the new controls were combined with a large TFT LCD display in the instrument cluster, a Head Up Display (HUD) and Sound as output devices. The new MMID system was installed in a Lexus LS-430. The climate control panel and radio panels of the LS-430 were used as a baseline condition to which the new designs were compared.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0777
G. Mastinu, M. Gobbi, M. Pennati
A comprehensive research is presented aiming at assessing the ride comfort of subjects seated into road or off-road vehicles. Although many papers and books have appeared in the literature, many issues on ride comfort are still to be understood, in particular, the paper investigates the mutual effects of the posture and the vibration caused mostly from road unevenness. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, a mathematical model of a seated subject is validated by means of actual measurements on human subjects riding on a car. Such measurements refer to the accelerations acting at the subject/seat interface (vertical acceleration at the seat cushion and horizontal acceleration at the seat back). A proper dummy is used to derive the seat stiffness and damping.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0773
Liu Yijun, Yanhua Shen, Huang Xiaxu
It is an important problem that people can drive with the comfortable posture while they maintain optimum vision field. For the design of dump truck cab, the traditional design is ‘bottom-up’, which based on the H point. However, ‘Design by H-point’ can not meet the requirement of posture and vision field at the same time, people would always adjust their driving posture to achieve the needs of vision. A method of ‘design by eye-point’ was proposed to satisfy comfortable seating posture and vision field, in which the eye point was taken as a reference point instead of the H point. An experiment on the dump truck cab was designed to collect sitting posture photos of 55 participants. According to these statistical data, the optimum eye point can be located, and the distribution types of human joint points were given. The mathematical expressions were derived to describe the relationships between human joint points and eye point.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0779
M. Kolich
Having, by now, introduced several new vehicles that comply with FMVSS 202a, manufacturers are reporting an increased number of complaints from consumers who find that the head restraint is too close; negatively affecting their posture. It is speculated that one of the reasons that head restraints meeting the new requirement are problematic is that the FMVSS backset measurement is performed at a back angle that is more reclined than the back angle most drivers choose and the back angle at which the seat / vehicle was designed. The objective of this paper is to confirm this hypothesis and elaborate on implications for regulatory compliance in FMVSS 202a.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0774
Chee Fai Tan, Wei Chen, Matthias Rauterberg
This paper described a survey that was designed to examine the seat discomfort and travel time factors for Dutch truck driver seat to reduce discomfort. Truck drivers were at risk of body discomfort for long hours sitting, and experience significant discomfort at different body parts. For the truck seat questionnaire, 217 Dutch truck drivers completed self administered questionnaires. Statistical methods were applied to analyze the surveys. Body discomfort level after one hour and five hours were studied. The outcomes from the analytical results were important and required more attention to reduce the body discomfort for long hour sitting.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1954
Glenn Pietila, Gabriella Cerrato
Binaural recordings are often used for added realism in subjective listening studies, but are commonly played back in environments that are different than those in which the recordings were taken. An important component of the added realism is the ability of the listener to locate the acoustic sources in a three dimensional space. While humans can generally do a good job of locating acoustic sources through inter-aural time differences (ITD) and inter-aural intensity differences (IID), some well documented ambiguities exist when using these acoustic cues by themselves (i.e. ITD and ILD for a source in front of or behind a listener are identical). To resolve these ambiguities, humans often rely on supplemental information from either direct visual feedback or from their knowledge of and comfort with the listening environment.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1953
Nikolina Samardzic, Colin Novak
This study provides an overview of a novel method for evaluating in-vehicle speech intelligibility using the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII). The approach presented is based on a measured speech signal evaluated at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT) in a simulated driving environment. In this context, the impact of different band importance functions in the evaluation of the SII using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in a driving simulator is investigated.
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