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1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210010
CHARLES A. HEERGEIST
Automobile body building derives its origin from carriage body building, which was highly developed before automobiles were thought of. The introduction of automobile bodies fitted to a metal frame changed body builders' rules and calculations. The influence of the metal frame is discussed briefly and the limiting sizes of body members are considered also. According to the ideas expressed, the weight of bodies can be reduced if the metal frame is designed so as to support the weight of the passengers and the body. The dead-weight also can be reduced if the frame is built in proportion to the amount of weight carried, the number of passengers and the style of bodies being considered. But in the construction of enclosed bodies, as in sedans, coaches and broughams, very little weight can be saved if stability, durability and lasting quality are to be retained.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210029
L L SCOTT
The paper describes the steam-operated 2-ton truck developed by E. C. Newcomb and the author. It has a direct drive-shaft from the engine to a rear-axle worm, with a 5 to 1 gear-reduction at the axle, and is operated without any transmission or clutch. The engine has been simplified since the author's first report on it in 1919, the changes relating to valve-gear, crankshaft and cam design. After presenting illustrations and describing them, the author gives nine specific advantageous features in this steam powerplant and comments upon them, submitting charts of torque curves which are analyzed. The engine control, fuel, oil and water consumption are next described and discussed and the results of acceleration tests are then shown in tabular form, with comments thereon.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210030
N J SMITH
The object of this paper is to point out some of the difficulties of motor-truck maintenance and to suggest lines of improvement. The buyer and user of a motor truck sometimes experiences disappointments due to the lack of coordination between the engineering and sales departments of a truck company. The term “service” is often misunderstood by the purchaser and misrepresented by the salesman, which results in dissatisfied customers. Salesmen should have accurate information on the service policy of their company and on all guarantees which they are authorized to make. After rehearsing many of the difficulties encountered in truck maintenance, the author discusses in some detail the needed improvements in truck design, passing then to details of maintenance practice and methods of handling repairs.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210032
A W SCARRAT
The author describes the development of an alcohol-burning tractor engine, after having stated a few of the fundamental requirements for burning alcohol economically and the results that can be attained by following them. The first trials were with 127-lb. gage compression at a normal operating speed. The problems attacked were those of what amount of heat applied to the mixture is desirable and its general effect on economy, output and operation; power output; general operation of the engine; and fuel consumption. The experimental work was done on a 4¼ x 6-in. four-cylinder 16-valve engine; this is described in detail and the results are presented in chart form. The conditions necessary for the proper use of alcohol as a fuel are discussed.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210028
N J OCKSREIDER
In this day of transportation engineering, the requirements of each customer must be diagnosed accurately and the economic waste due to wrong selling eliminated. Stating that 32 classes of trades, divided into 350 sub-classes, use motor trucks, the author expresses the view that, in applying the science of selling by analysis, it is necessary to know the cost of shipping every pound of goods, deducing in turn the correct size of truck for a given kind of work. Referring to the fact that a truck cannot be designed to stand up under all conditions and that selling a truck which is unsuitable for a particular task means a dissatisfied customer, the author gives the opinion that a truck of mediocre merit will in many cases perform more satisfactorily than the best truck built operating under improper conditions.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210027
J B HANEY
The author describes the progress of the work of artillery motorization in the year 1920, beginning this with a statement of the recommendations made by the Westervelt Board, appointed by the War Department to make a study of the subject, for the development of track-laying equipment, the use of wheeled trailers on which the track laying materiel could be loaded and towed over good roads by trucks, and in regard to the possibility of incorporating trailer wheels in the track-laying vehicles themselves. The various types of materiel constructed during 1920 are illustrated, described and commented upon, inclusive of heavy tractors, supply and maintenance equipment, gun-mounts and tanks. It is stated that the recommendations of the Westervelt Board will be the basis of armament development for some time to come.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210001
H W Alden
The author brings to attention very emphatically the responsibility of the automotive industry for some things besides the actual building and selling of motor cars. The progress of civilization can be measured very largely by advances in means of communication. The transfer of messages by wire and wireless has made wonderful advances of a fundamental nature in recent years, but the transportation of commodities from place to place has not made such strides. The automotive industry has been concerned mostly with the actual development and production of the motor car and, as an industry, has stopped there without developing those allied activities which are vital to the long-time success of the business. The railroads afford a good example to follow in principle.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210007
KINGSTON FORBES
The field of body engineering is broader than it is ordinarily considered to be; the author's intention is to bring to the attention of the automotive industry the breadth and scope of body engineering and outline the way this side of the industry can be considered and developed. After describing the body engineer's position, the author then discusses at some length the conflict between art and economy in this connection. He classifies a body-engineering department under the six main divisions of body construction, open and closed; sheet metal, body metal, fenders, hood, radiators and the like; trimming; top building; general hardware; painting and enameling, and comments upon each. Following this he elaborates the reasons for need of attention to details in body designing and mentions the opportunity there is at present for bringing the materials used in body construction to definite standards.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210006
A C FIELDNER, A. A STRAUB, G W JONES
The data given in this paper were obtained from an investigation by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the New York and New Jersey State Bridge and Tunnel Commissioners to determine the average amount and composition of the exhaust gases from motor vehicles under operating conditions similar to those that will prevail in the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel. A comprehensive set of road tests upon 101 motor vehicles including representative types of passenger cars and trucks was conducted, covering both winter and summer operating conditions. The cars tested were taken at random from those offered by private individuals, corporations and automobile dealers, and the tests were made without any change in carbureter or other adjustments. The results can therefore be taken as representative of motor vehicles as they are actually being operated on the streets at the various speeds and on grades that will prevail in the tunnel.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210040
CHARLES FROESCH
Statistics taken from a report made by the Department of Agriculture regarding the number and size of farms in the United States indicate that approximately 2,580,000 farms are available as a market for the isolated gas-electric lighting plant. The common types of lighting plant are classified in three groups, each of which is subdivided into three classes, and these are illustrated, described and discussed. The characteristics of the ideal farm lighting-plant are enumerated and discussed as a preface to a somewhat lengthy consideration of the factors that influence the design of the component parts, which are grouped as pertaining to the engine, the generator, the switchboard and the battery. Storage batteries are still considered the weakest part of the isolated plant and they are specially commented upon. The author emphasizes that much still remains to be accomplished as regards the stability of design, reliability and economy of the isolated plant.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210053
CHARLES O GUERNSEY
The majority of the reputable truck builders are attempting to build a high-quality product that will operate over a period of years with the minimum of maintenance expense; however, many designers lose sight of the effect of shocks and strains, which is of even greater importance. Stating that a truck is scrapped for some one or a combination of the three reasons of obsolescence of design, wear on vital parts that cannot be replaced economically and failure of parts due to shock loads, fatigue or crystallization, the author comments upon these and then discusses chassis strains under five specific headings, illustrations also being given.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210051
ETHELBERT FAVARY
Following a review of some of the factors that are productive of excessive weight in a motor vehicle, which causes fuel wastage, and a statement that a more thorough standardization of frames and other parts would eliminate much of this waste, the author presents in detail frame-stress calculations intended to enable the designer to proportion frames and parts with this end in view. Shearing stresses are treated in a similar manner and for a similar reason, use being made of diagrams that facilitate analysis of specific instances cited and being inclusive of a table of bending-moments derived from the diagrams. Laboratory tests of the ultimate strength, elastic limit, yield-point, elongation and reduction in area of materials are then described in some detail and the results obtained stated.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210054
MAURICE OLLEY
The paper surveys the differences between American and European conditions in the automotive industry and then considers briefly the reasons for them. The governing conditions are stated and their effects are traced. The subjects discussed include motorcycles and small cars, road conditions, car idiosyncracies, selling conditions in Europe, and a comparison of design in general. The differences of practice are stated and commented upon. Six specific points are emphasized in the summary. The author states that the outlook for American cars the world over is seemingly good. In recent American designs, equal compression - volumes are often assured by machining the heads; six-cylinder crankshafts have seven bearings and are finished all over in the circular grinding machine; pressure lubrication is used for all moving parts of the engine; and in all ways the highest practice is aimed at. America is trying to improve the quality without increasing the cost.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210049
FRED C ZIESENHEIM
The paper is divided into three parts; the fuel problem, the selection of the most economical internal-combustion engine for adaptation to automotive purposes and the details of the development work undertaken. After stating the fuel problem, inclusive of production, volatility and price charts, the methods of increasing the engine-fuel supply, the characteristics of present engine fuels and general considerations regarding the selection and adaptation of the most economical engine are discussed. Classifying internal-combustion engines as being of low, medium or high compression, the essential factors, advantages and disadvantages of each class are commented upon in detail. High-compression engines are classified, as to their method of injecting the fuel into the combustion-chamber, into the three general classes of air, gas-pressure and mechanical injection.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210048
W S JAMES
The paper analyzes and states the factors affecting the power requirements of cars as rubber-tired vehicles of transportation over roads and the factors affecting the amount of power supplied the car as fuel to produce at the road the power required for transportation. Quantitative values are given wherever possible to indicate the present knowledge of the relation between the factors involved, and the text is interspersed with numerous references, tables, charts and diagrams. Among other important factors specifically discussed are mixing and vaporization, charge quantity control, the heat of combustion, gas-pressure, transformation loss and power transmission efficiency. Six appendices contributed by other associates of the Bureau of Standards are included.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210044
H L HORNING
This paper is a collection of notes gathered from investigation of the subject in the literature on the development of internal-combustion engines and memoranda set down during a long series of tests. The paper includes a discussion of the physical and chemical aspects of the subject and sets forth a working theory that has proved of value. Several methods of measuring turbulence are stated. After outlining the history of the subject and giving references, the effect of turbulence on flame propagation is discussed at length and illustrated by diagrams. Two methods of producing turbulence are then copiously illustrated and described, inclusive of seven diagrams showing characteristic turbulence in typical cylinders. Following the description of the methods of measuring turbulence, the effects of turbulence in performance are summarized under 10 specific divisions.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210042
H C DICKINSON
Emphasis is placed upon the propriety of applying the term “research” only to such lines of investigation as are capable of yielding general results that can be utilized by other than the original observers. The distinction between research thus defined and much else that can be classed correctly as research according to its dictionary definition is explained. In stating the purpose and aim of the Research Department of the Society, the divisions of the thought include research personnel requirements, the support of research, the importance of research, problems suitable for research in the industrial, educational and independent laboratories, the general research program and the avoidance of duplication of research work.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220007
AUGUSTUS TROWBRIDGE
Believing that it is one of the functions of the purely scientific man to direct engineering attention to practical possibilities that will be of use in solving important problems, the author outlines the history of the photographic recording apparatus he describes later in detail and comments upon its general features that are of advantage in engineering practice, with illustrations, inclusive of the use that is made of the string galvanometer. The subject of indicators for high-speed engines is discussed in general terms introductory to a full and detailed description of how this automatic photographic recording apparatus can be used to overcome difficulties that pertain to ordinary indicator-diagrams taken on the internal-combustion engine by former methods. A further use of this apparatus is in anti-knock research and its recent usage for this purpose is described and illustrated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220002
THOMAS MIDGLEY,
The paper is an exposition of the theoretical analysis made by the author of the experimental work of Woodbury, Canby and Lewis, on the Nature of Flame Movement in a Closed Cylinder, the results of which were published in THE TRANSACTIONS for the first half of 1921. No experimental evidence is presented by the author that has not been derived previously by other investigators. The relation of pressure to flame travel is derived first, the relation of mass burned is considered and a displacement diagram constructed, described and analyzed. The break of the flame-front curve, called the “point of arrest,” enters prominently into the discussion and computations; the pressure in the flame-front is studied; the reaction-velocities are calculated; and general comments are made.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220001
HARRY R RICARDO
The author describes the research work on the internal-combustion engine done recently in his laboratory in England, and presents his deductions therefrom, based upon an analysis of the evidence he has obtained to date. Fuels are discussed at length under three specific headings, many tabular data being included and commented upon, and the calculation of thermal efficiency described. Mean volatility and detonation are discussed and the author's present views regarding turbulence are stated, this being followed by a brief summary of the conclusions reached by Mr. Tizard, a colleague of the author, following recent investigations. The influence of the nature of the fuel upon detonation is presented, a lengthy discussion of the subject of stratification being given under three specific divisions, inclusive of comment upon the benefits derived from using weak fuel-mixtures.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210059
A R SMALL
Presuming that insurance protection against the theft of automobiles will continue to be furnished, the author considers ways and means of restricting the losses to an extent that will permit the protection afforded by insurance to be provided at non-prohibitive cost. The use of the word “retard,” in contrast to “prevent” or “protect,” is emphasized because the property of mobility is a primary essential of the automobile and, speaking generally, the prevention of theft while mobility persists is not possible. This has been recognized by classifying automobile locking devices as “theft retardants,” it being believed futile to proceed on the theory that prevention is practicable. The automobile-theft problem from the insurance viewpoint is stated and theft retardants described and commented upon. Theft and other forms of automobile insurance are discussed, the relation of design to insurance is outlined and the schedule method for automobile fire-insurance classification is presented.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210057
A T GOLDBECK
The aim of this paper is to stimulate thought on how to accomplish the greatest possible economy in transportation over highways. The fundamental thought is that the expense of highway transportation involves a large number of items that can be grouped into those directly concerned with motor-truck operation and those involving the highway, and that highways and motor vehicles should be adapted mutually so that the greatest economy of transportation will result. Urging that the automotive and the road engineer cooperate in gathering information that will give them a more definite basis upon which to design the truck and the road, the present rapid destruction of roads is discussed and remedial measures suggested. The designing of motor trucks to conserve the roads is treated at some length and a plea for cooperation between the Society and the highway officials is made.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240044
JOHN R REYBURN
A bumper is a bar attached transversely in front of or behind a car body to prevent contact between an obstruction and the car body or to cushion the shock of collision between vehicles. The impact-bars have various sectional forms, from flat to round and from tubes to channels, and are composed of steel, wood or rubberized fabric. The attaching devices are sometimes yielding, sometimes rigid. The evolution of the bumper is shown in the records of the Patent Office. Early types had yielding attaching-parts and rigid impact-parts. These were followed by types having a rigid bar connected with the frame by only a spiral spring, by those having channel-steel impact-bars and others having round spring-steel extending from the frame-horns. A strip of rectangular spring-steel was then used by a Western blacksmith, and later a similar non-reinforced bumper appeared which was cut in two in the middle, the ends being overlapped and the overlapped parts clamped together.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240043
TOM W GREENE
In this investigation to determine strength and physical properties 12 motor-truck rear-wheels were tested, comprising two each of the following types: Class-B trucks, standard wood; Class-B truck, cast-steel; I-beam type; steel disc; aluminum; and rubber-cushion, each having a 34-in. diameter and a 12-in. tread. The wood, the I-beam and the cushion wheels each had 14 spokes; the aluminum and the steel-disc wheels had a solid web between the hub and the rim. All the wheels were tested without tires or brake-bands, were bushed to fit a 4-in. axle and the area of contact between the hub and the bushing was the same as that in service. Illustrations show the construction of the wheels. Requirements considered essential in a wheel were listed, and the tests were conducted to obtain data concerning them. One wheel of each type was subjected to a radial-compression test.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240049
W L BEAN
Gasoline rail-cars for branches of trunk-line railroads and for short-line roads have been the subject of much discussion since 1920. Mechanical officers of interested railroads, the engineers of companies building highway motor-trucks and others specializing on this subject have now developed designs to meet the different service requirements. Several hundred cars of various types have been built and are in service. The railroad with which the author is connected has in operation or on order 24 cars. Consideration of several principal factors of design is necessary if a selection is to result in obtaining equipment suitable for the particular service requirements of the carrier and if the knowledge accruing from the engineering development and operating experience of the past several years is to be of value.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240037
E H LOCKWOOD, L B KIMBALL
A portable instrument of the seismograph type has been designed for measuring the riding-quality of vehicles. Headings are made by a continuously revolving counter that automatically sums up the vertical displacements of a partly suspended weight. As the counter readings are a measure of the riding-quality, a large reading indicates poor riding and, conversely, a small reading indicates good riding. An arbitrary scale graduated into revolutions of the counter per mile of travel translates the readings into riding-quality; a reading of 10 indicates “very smooth,” 20, “good,” etc. The instruments have been calibrated in a special testing-machine in which the readings can be observed under an harmonic motion of fixed period and amplitude. Comparison of the riding-qualities of balloon tires and of cord tires, made on three different automobiles run over a variety of roads, shows results that are very favorable to balloon tires.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240038
S P HESS
Riding-comfort is defined as the transportation of an automobile passenger in so easy a manner that the trip will be a pleasure and not a hardship. Since spring-suspension constitutes the basis of riding comfort in passenger-cars, the paper deals with some of the important factors that determine correct chassis spring-suspension. An analysis made by the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce of replies received to a questionnaire it circulated among 20,000 car-owners is presented in proof of the genuine interest the motoring public has in the riding-quality of a car and the variable factors that have an influence on spring-suspension are stated to be the type of spring used, its physical dimensions, the amounts of sprung and unsprung weight, frame construction, wheelbase dimension and the kind of material used. Horizontal, vertical and sidewise motions of a car are analyzed, and a periodicity chart is shown for passenger cars of from 112 to 116-in. wheelbase.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240026
J F WINCHESTER
Solicitation of sales and the delivery of the product to the customer constitute the most important operative features of the motor-truck fleet supervised by the author. Endeavor is made to install the vehicles in the various fields along standardized lines. The volume and the extent of the business and the topographical conditions of each locality determine the size and the mechanical equipment of the vehicle that is employed, and it is installed only after a study of all the conditions pertaining to its operation. Adequate training of vehicle operators, not only along mechanical lines but also as direct sales representatives of the company, is made a feature; and so is accident prevention. These interests are promoted in various standard ways and are furthered by the publication of “house organs.” After a vehicle is installed the slogan adopted is: Keep It Moving With a Pay Load.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240022
ARTHUR T UPSON, LEYDEN N ERICKSEN
Shortage of the most desirable kinds of wood for automobile-body purposes has necessitated the substitution of second-choice woods having the essential required properties and the buying of stock for body parts in cut-up dimensions that conform in size with those now produced in the cutting-room. An investigation by the United States Forest Products Laboratory as to the species, kinds, grades, sizes and amounts used by the automotive industry shows that maple and elm comprise over one-half the total amount used and that ash and gum constitute one-half of the remainder. Although the quantity of ash used has not decreased, the increase in the production of medium and low-priced cars in the last few years bas caused a proportional increase in the demand for maple and elm.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240025
E J BRENNAN
A brief summary of the history of motor rail-car equipment on the railroad represented by the author is given in his paper. Three gasoline-driven rail-cars were put into operation in 1910. The engine used for each car was a six-cylinder, 10 x 12-in., slow-speed, four-cycle reversible-type having overhead valves, an open crankcase and a 200-hp. rating, but experience has proved that the four-cycle reversible-type engine equipped with an air-operated starting-apparatus makes rather a complicated unit that is the cause of many difficulties. Details are given concerning these first three cars, their performance and the changes made in their equipment. In 1922, a two-car train consisting of a motorcoach and a trailer was installed. The coach is 28 ft. long, has a 12-ft. baggage-space, carries 30 passengers and weighs 28,000 lb.; the trailer is 32 ft. long, weighs 17,000 lb. and seats 36 passengers.
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