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Viewing 1 to 30 of 11687
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2161
Gareth Floweday
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology has been an area of rapidly increasing research interest for the past 15 years and appears poised for commercialisation through the efforts of international research institutions and manufacturers alike. In spite of significant worldwide research efforts on numerous aspects of this technology, the need still exists for accurate and computationally efficient fuel auto-ignition models capable of predicting the heat release dynamics of two-stage auto-ignition, especially for full boiling range fuels, sensitive to the effects of pressure, temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and inert dilution.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2162
Patricia Anselmi, Julian Kashdan, Guillaume Bression, Edouard Ferrero-Lesur, Benoist Thirouard, Bruno Walter
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2167
Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz, Reed Hanson
Heavy-duty engine experiments were conducted to explore reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion through addition of the cetane improver di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) to pump gasoline. Unlike previous diesel/gasoline dual-fuel operation of RCCI combustion, the present study investigates the feasibility of using a single fuel stock (gasoline) as the basis for both high reactivity and low reactivity fuels. The strategy consisted of port fuel injection of gasoline and direct injection of the same gasoline doped with a small volume percent addition of DTBP. With 1.75% DTBP by volume added to only the direct-injected fuel (which accounts for approximately 0.2% of the total fueling) it was found that the additized gasoline behaved similarly to diesel fuel, allowing for efficient RCCI combustion. The single fuel results with DTBP were compared to previous high-thermal efficiency, low-emissions results with port injection of gasoline and direct injections of diesel.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2168
Vahid Hosseini, W Neill, Hongsheng Guo, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu, Wallace Chippior, Craig Fairbridge, Ken Mitchell
The effects of cetane number, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature (T90) on HCCI combustion were investigated using a fuel matrix designed by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The fuels were atomized and partially vaporized in the intake manifold. The engine was operated at a relative air/fuel ratio of 1.2, 60% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and 900 rpm. The compression ratio was varied over the range of 9:1 to 15:1 to optimize the combustion phasing for each fuel, keeping other operating parameters constant. The results show that cetane number and T90 distillation temperature significantly affected the combustion phasing. Cetane number was clearly found to have the strongest effect.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2172
James P. Szybist, Eric Nafziger, Adam Weall
A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present during the SA-HCCI operating mode, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum cylinder pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2169
Gareth Floweday
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology has been an area of rapidly increasing research interest for the past 15 years and appears poised for commercialisation through the efforts of international research institutions and manufacturers alike. In spite of significant worldwide research efforts on numerous aspects of this technology, the need still exists for accurate and computationally efficient fuel auto-ignition models capable of predicting the heat release dynamics of two-stage auto-ignition, especially for full boiling range fuels, sensitive to the effects of pressure, temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and inert dilution.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0066
Toshifumi Uehara, Kouji Miyake, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Yukitaka Tsuda
There is a growing demand for ethanol fuel for which attention is being paid as an alternative fuel for petroleum from the standpoint of CO2 reduction and fuel economy. Especially in Brazil under the government policy of bio-fuel promotion, the regular gasoline containing 20% of alcohol and 100% alcohol are being sold, requiring a system that can cope with a high-alcohol-content fuel mixing the aforementioned fuels. As the dusts in the fuel disperse in the form of fine particles because the high-alcohol-content fuel has a high affinity, the amount of dust that passes through the fuel filter increases. At the same time, there was such a concern that the pump case, which was composed of the pump cover and the pump housing, wore and reduced fuel flow as the amount of dust that entered the fuel feed pump (hereafter referred to as FFP) increased.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0064
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Minoru Iida
In a motorcycle gasoline engine, the port fuel injection system is rapidly spread. Compared to an automotive engine, the injected fuel does not impinge on the intake valve due to space restriction to install the injector. In addition, as the air flow inside the intake pipe may become very fast and has large cycle-to-cycle variation, it is not well found how the injector should be installed in the intake pipe to prepare “good” fuel-air mixture inside the intake pipe. In this study, the formation process of the fuel-air mixture is measured by using ILIDS system that is a 2-D droplets' size and velocity measurement system with high spatial resolution. Experiments with changing conditions such as flow speed and injection direction are carried out.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0067
Anand T. N. C., Madan Mohan Avulapati, Devendra Deshmukh, Ravikrishna Rayavarapu
In the present study, PFI injectors which are suitable for small engines were characterized to study the effect of pressure on various spray parameters. Two plate-type PFI injectors were studied: one with two orifices, and the other with four orifices. The nozzle orifice sizes were determined by microscopy. The fuel quantity injected at pressures of 200 kPa, 500 kPa and 800 kPa, were measured by collecting the fuel, for injection pulses of different durations. The spray structure of the PFI sprays was determined by shadowgraphy. A single pulsed Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with fluorescent diffuser optics was used as the light source for shadowgraphy. Backlit images of the spray were obtained at various times after the start of injection using a CCD camera. This was done for sprays at different pressures, and different pulse durations. The spray angle, and spray tip penetration were determined from the processed shadowgraphy images.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0057
Junya Watanabe, Dai Arai, Masataka Tanaka, Takeru Abe, Atsushi Ogasawara, Masahiko Tsuchiya, Ryushi Tsubota
Large motorcycles have a strong recreational aspect. Therefore, in addition to the sportiness that comes from the direct torque feel and the comfort that comes from the ease of operations, users demand improvements to fuel economy from the perspective of the environment and riding economics. In order to satisfy these needs, we have developed the world's first dual clutch transmission (hereinafter referred to as DCT) for motorcycles. In order to make the DCT more compact, we adopted a dual shaft construction for the main shaft, two hydraulic clutches arranged in-line, the basic structure of the gear shift mechanism carried over from a manual transmission (hereinafter referred to as MT) vehicle, a hydraulic circuit consolidated into the engine side cover, and shared use of engine oil for clutch actuation. Through these innovations, it became possible to carry over the die of the crankcase used on the MT vehicle as well as being able to load it onto the same frame as the MT vehicle.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0084
Peter Britanyak, Alex Fuhrman, Dylan Dixon, Karen R. Den Braven, Nicholas Harker
The University of Idaho's (UI's) entry into the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) was a semi-direct-injection (SDI) two-stroke powered REV-XP snowmobile modified to use flex-fuel. The flex-fuel engine produces stock engine power on any blend of ethanol and gasoline from E10 to E85. The emissions output was reduced using an oxidation catalyst located after the exhaust silencer. Noise from the engine compartment was reduced by custom-carbon fiber hood and side panels, which allowed placement of extra sound absorbing materials. The UICSC design produces 80.5 kW, is lightweight at 238 kg wet, and achieves a fuel economy of 5.65 km/L on E85 fuel. The UI snowmobile achieved Third Place in the competition, while producing the best fuel economy and winning several other awards, including Best Acceleration, Best Value, Best Ride (fueled class) and Best Subjective Handling.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0085
Shinya Akizuki
This paper reports the results of engine development for our Formula SAE competition vehicle. To utilize growth rate effect of power train weight on overall vehicle weight, single cylinder engine, Honda CRF450, was chosen as the base unit. However, as this base engine is naturally aspirated and its piston displacement of 0.45 1 is much less than the regulation upper limit, we installed a turbocharger unit for a three cylinder engine having 0.6 1 piston displacement installed on Suzuki mini-cars because of its size and price. In the first step, we estimated the engine performances using gas exchanging process simulation using AVL Boost because the software has convenient function of modeling turbocharger. Because of the lack of both our experience and data base, we discarded the idea of driving the turbocharger dynamically following the engine operating conditions precisely.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0086
Yoichi Ishibashi, Hideaki Morikawa
By using a four-stroke gasoline engine equipped with a fully variable valve operation system, combustion performance was investigated from the aspect of a gas exchanging difference at various internal exhaust gas recirculation conditions due to the negative valve overlap variations. The in-cylinder gas temperature throughout the cycle process was analyzed thermodynamically. The experimental data revealed that in-cylinder gas temperature at the end of compression stroke (TAI) dominates the onset of autoignition and ΔT, which is an index that represents the heat capacity of the working gas, dominates the heat release of auto-ignition. This paper intends to evolve the experimental knowledge to an engineering tool, which could predict possibilities and limits of auto-ignition. As a result, a controlling mechanism of auto-ignition is proposed. According to this mechanism, a possible maximum load of auto-ignition operation is estimated and also demonstrated in the engine experiments.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0087
Hideaki Morikawa, Yoichi Ishibashi
As an index to control the heat release of auto-ignition combustion, our previous paper introduced a concept of ΔT. It was the difference between the adiabatic flame temperature and the initial in-cylinder gas temperature before the heat release, i.e., ΔT physically represents the heat capacity of the in-cylinder gases relative to the calorific value supplied in a cycle. Firing tests of a four-stroke auto-ignition gasoline engine revealed that the heat release process could be successfully controlled when ΔT was maintained at a proper level. This paper evolved the ΔT theory into the every possible gas exchanging state in the four-stroke engines and found out a chain of the low-temperature combustion cycle (LTC), which continuously varied from the spark-ignition (SI) to auto-ignition (AI). By using a hydraulic-electromagnetic fully-free valve actuator system, the LTC was examined in our 650 cm₃ single-cylinder experimental-engine.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0083
Gregory W. Davis
Clean snowmobile technology has been developed and applied to an existing commercially available snowmobile. The goals of this effort included reducing exhaust emissions to levels which are below the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 standard. Additionally, noise levels were to be reduced to below the noise mandates of 78 dB(A). Further, this snowmobile can operate using any blend of gasoline and ethanol from E20 to E30. All of these goals were achieved while keeping the cost affordable. Snowmobiling is, after all, a recreational sport; thus the snowmobile must remain fun to drive and cost effective to produce. The details of this design effort including performance data are discussed in this paper. Specifically, the effort to modify a commercially available snowmobile using a three cylinder, four-stroke engine is described. This snowmobile was modified to run on a range of ethanol blended fuels using a closed-loop engine control system.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2320
Markus Jochim, Thomas M. Forest
FlexRay is a time triggered automotive communication protocol that connects ECUs (Electronic Control Units) on which distributed automotive applications are executed. If exact agreement (e.g. on physical values measured by redundant sensors on different ECUs) must be reached in the presence of asymmetric communication faults, a byzantine agreement protocol like Signed Messages (SM) can be utilized. This paper gives examples of how byzantine faults can emerge in a FlexRay-based system and proposes optimizations for a FlexRay-specific implementation of the SM protocol. The protocol modifications allow for a reduction in the number of protocol messages under a slightly relaxed fault model, as well as for a reduction in the number of messages to be temporarily stored by the ECUs.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2319
Mukund Ghangurde
With Ford SYNC, Microsoft Corporation and Ford Motor Company have democratized in-vehicle infotainment systems - delighting consumers and bringing a new kind of agility to the automobile industry. Built on Microsoft Auto (now Windows Embedded Automotive), Ford SYNC is a factory-installed, voice-controlled communications and entertainment system that allows drivers to converge their digital lifestyle with their life on the road. Windows Embedded Automotive is an industry leading technology platform that provides integrated infotainment features and a rich user interface. Car manufacturers and suppliers worldwide can use this software to create differentiated, infotainment in-vehicle systems that are immediately attractive to consumers.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2318
Chris Domin
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) networks within the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) lead to safety and mobility improvements in vehicle road traffic. This paper presents case studies that support the realization of the ITS architecture as an evolutionary process, beginning with driver information systems for enhancing feedback to the users, semi-autonomous control systems for improved vehicle system management, and fully autonomous control for improving vehicle cooperation and management. The paper will also demonstrate how the automotive, telecom, and data and service providers are working together to develop new ITS technologies.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2324
Prasanta Sarkar, Debarsish Hazarika
This paper describes the development of Tata Nano Engine Management System and the related electrical and electronics architecture. The design criteria for the electrical and electronics architecture are discussed in detail in the body of the paper. When the Nano project was first conceived, the existing low cost car in India was not affordable by common people. The Nano project was targeted for a family of 4 which was using a two wheeled vehicle for commuting, irrespective of the season. For engineers, it was difficult to conceive the idea of the Nano vehicle and powertrain. How do you design a benchmark which meets both Indian and export needs and should also be extremely low in cost? There was no low cost car available either for the Nano to benchmark against. It was also clear that the strict pollution regulations existing in India could not be met without an Engine Management System and thus the focus centered on a low cost Engine Management System (EMS).
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2323
Keith Lang, Michael Kropinski, Tim Foster
GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2322
Robert Gee
The interdisciplinary and structured integration of subsystems into a functioning whole is at the root of Systems Engineering. Until recently in the automotive market, much of this has been specific to an automotive subdomain such as Telematics, Infotainment, Chassis Control, or Engine Management Systems. In the realm of Telematics and Connected Vehicles, the recent trend has been outward from the vehicle, focusing on expanding connectivity and data sources. Systems Engineering for Telematics now includes multiple transports spanning PAN, WLAN, and WAN communications, and beyond that has grown to include entities on the far side of the network link, including data servers, aggregation portals, and network security.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2313
Robert White, Tao Zhang, Paul Tukey, Kevin Lu, David McNamara
This paper presents modeling, analysis, and results of the business viability of a set of IntelliDrive 1 safety applications in a free market setting. The primary value drivers for motorists to adopt the IntelliDrive system are based on a set of safety applications developed and analyzed by the US DOT. The modeling approach simulates IntelliDrive on-board equipment adoption by motorists based on the value of the safety applications. The simulation model uses parameters that are based on adoption rates in a similar dynamical system from recent history and incorporates feedback loops such as the positive reinforcement of vehicle-to-vehicle applications value due to increased adoption. This approach allows the analysis of alternative IntelliDrive business approaches, deployment scenarios, and policies. The net present value of the IntelliDrive system to the nation is computed under alternative scenarios.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2312
Masanori Ueda, Toshio Hirota, Atsushi Hatano
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2314
Niall T. Berkery
Abstract Connectivity, software and services are the key elements that will define the next-generation vehicle experience. Drivers are being provided new innovative solutions that seamlessly integrate their online digital lifestyle into their vehicle environment, enabling automakers increased opportunity for brand differentiation, while giving drivers the ability to personalize their vehicles down to an individual level. This will be accomplished through “virtual accessorization” - where drivers will personalize their connected vehicle experience by choosing applications and services that best suit their individual needs. After selecting applications from an online automotive apps exchange, the apps are sent wirelessly to the car or the driver's smartphone for immediate use. The in-vehicle apps can also be configured based on who is driving, so that preferences and personal functionality moves with each driver.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2336
Veerender Kaul, Sarwant Singh, Krishnasami Rajagopalan, Michael Coury
1. ABSTRACT The U.S. National Highway Transportation and Safety Agency's (NHTSA) early estimates of Motor Traffic Fatalities in 2009 in the United States [1] show continuing progress on improving traffic safety on the U.S. roadways. The number of total fatalities and the fatality rate per 100 Million Vehicle Miles (MVM), both show continuing declines. In the 10 year period from 1999 through 2009, the total fatalities have dropped from 41,611 to 33,963 and the fatality rate has dropped from 1.5 fatalities per 100MVM to 1.16 fatalities per 100MVM, a compound annual drop of 2.01% and 2.54% respectively. The large number of traffic fatalities, and the slowing down of the fatality rate decline, compared to the decade before, continues to remain a cause of concern for regulators.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2337
Michael Darms, Florian Foelster, Jochen Schmidt, Dominik Froehlich, Alfred Eckert
Data fusion plays a central role in more and more automotive applications, especially for driver assistance systems. On the one hand the process of data fusion combines data and information to estimate or predict states of observed objects. On the other hand data fusion introduces abstraction layers for data description and allows building more flexible and modular systems. The data fusion process can be divided into a low-level processing (tracking and object discrimination) and a high level processing (situation assessment). High level processing becomes more and more the focus of current research as different assistance applications will be combined into one comprehensive assistance system. Different levels/strategies for data fusion can be distinguished: Fusion on raw data level, fusion on feature level and fusion on decision level. All fusion strategies can be found in current driver assistance implementations.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2334
Falke Hendriks, Riné Pelders, Martijn Tideman
Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are added to existing comfort systems, rather than adding new safety systems to the vehicle. Comfort systems such as cruise control are extended via ACC to pre-crash braking systems. Testing of active safety systems must follow these developments. Whereas standardized test programs are available for passive safety systems, such test programs are hardly available yet for active safety systems. Furthermore, test programs for passive safety systems consist of only a handful of scenarios. Test programs for active safety systems, however, should consist of much more scenarios, as those systems should function well in many different situations.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2335
Jeffrey D. Rupp, Anthony G. King
Successful demonstrations of fully autonomous vehicle operation in controlled situations are leading to increased research investment and activity. This has already resulted in significant advancements in the underlying technologies necessary to make it a practical reality someday. Not only are these idealized events sparking imaginations with the potential benefits for safety, convenience, fuel economy and emissions, they also embolden some to make somewhat surprising and sometimes astonishing projections for their appearance on public roads in the near future. Are we now ready for a giant leap forward to the self-driving car with all its complexity and inter-dependencies? Humans will need to grow with and adapt to the technological advancements of the machine and we'll deeply challenge our social and political paradigms before we're done. Even if we as engineers are ready, is the driving public ready?
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2339
Richard Altendorfer, Sebastian Wirkert, Sascha Heinrichs-Bartscher
Driver assistance systems are incorporating more and more advanced safety functions. As these functions have to react quickly and reliably in emergency situations with a false alarm rate close to zero a high integrity of the environmental perception is required. This elevated level of signal integrity can be achieved by data fusion, where the information of several, in general heterogeneous sensors is combined to obtain a better model of the environment in terms of accuracy, object integrity, object identity, etc. As an example, we demonstrate the power of sensor fusion by an automatic emergency brake (AEB) system whose environmental perception is based upon a video camera and a radar sensor. In particular we discuss the improvement of kinematic attributes such as object lateral distance as well as the object's confidence or probability of existence.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2328
Jinming Yang, Jason Bauman, Al Beydoun
An effective methodology for design verification and product validation is always a key to high quality products. As many body control applications are currently implemented across multiple ECUs distributed on one or more vehicle networks, verification and validation of vehicle-level user functions will require availability of both the vehicle networks and multiple ECUs involved in the implementation of the user functions. While the ECUs are usually developed by different suppliers and vehicle networks' infrastructure and communication protocols are normally maintained and developed by the OEM, each supplier will be faced with a similar challenge - the ECU being developed cannot be fully verified and tested until all other ECUs and their communication networks are available in the final development stage.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 11687

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