Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 4727
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0600
Christophe Pfister, Soeren Bernhardt, Ulrich Spicher
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection demonstrates great potential to reduce both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, conventional materials used in high-pressure pumps wear severely under fuel injection pressures above 20 MPa as the lubricity and viscosity of gasoline are very low. The use of ceramic components promises to overcome these difficulties and to exploit the full benefits of spray-guided GDI-engines. As part of the Collaborative Research Centre “High performance sliding and friction systems based on advanced ceramics” at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a single-piston high-pressure gasoline pump operating at up to 50 MPa has been designed. It consists of 2 fuel-lubricated sliding systems (piston/cylinder and cam/sliding shoe) that are built with ceramic parts. The pump is equipped with force, pressure and temperature sensors in order to assess the behaviour of several material pairs.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0389
Francesca Furno, Romain Gonard
The detailed 1D model of a solenoid injector for high pressure Diesel-injection systems has been developed using the LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim platform. The paper presents the simulation results focusing on the most important physical events occurring in automotive Diesel injection equipments typically working in unsteady-flow conditions. Inertial effects of hydraulic lines (external connecting pipe, injector return lines and internal piping) are important, especially for studying the hydraulic coupling between pilot and main injections in case of small separation angles. The pilot injection induces important wave propagations inside the injector that can affect the total injected mass during the subsequent injection event - the main injection - especially when the timing is quite reduced.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0684
Junyong Lee, Namho Kim, Hyowon Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
The measurement of spray penetration length is one of crucial tasks for understanding the characteristics of diesel spray and combustion. For this reason, many researchers have devised various measurement techniques, including Mie scattering, schlieren photography, and laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF). However, the requirements of expensive lasers, complicated optics, delicate setups, and tracers that affect fuel characteristics have been disadvantages of previous techniques. In this study, the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique is employed to measure the vapor penetration length of diesel spray for the first time. The BOS technique has a number of benefits over the previous techniques because of its quantitative, non-intrusive nature which does not require lasers, mirrors, optical filters, or fuel tracers.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0685
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Daniele Ettorre, Tommaso Lucchini, Federico Brusiani, Giulio Cazzoli
Today, Direct-Injection systems are widely used on Spark-Ignition engines in combination with turbo-charging to reduce the fuel-consumption and the knock risks. In particular, the spread of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) systems is mainly related to the use of new generations of multi-hole, high-pressure injectors whose characteristics are quite different with respect to the hollow-cone, low-pressure injectors adopted in the last decade. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign conducted on the spray produced by a GDI six-holes injector into a constant volume vessel with optical access. The vessel was filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Different operating conditions were considered for an injection pressure ranging from 3 to 20 MPa. For each operating condition, spray images were acquired by a CCD camera and then post processed to evaluate the spray penetration and cone angles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0687
Akira Kato, Katsuya Matsuura, Takazo Hakozaki, Osamu Suzuki, Shigenori Haraguchi, Yasuhiro Yoshimi, Takahiro Katano, Tomoyuki Hashimoto
For reduction of NOx and soot emission with conventional diesel diffusion combustion, the authors focused on enhancement of the rate of injection (hereafter referred to as RoI) to improve air availability, thus enhancing the fuel distribution and atomization. In order to increase opening ramp of the RoI (hereafter referred to as fast injection rate), a hydraulic circuit was improved and nozzle geometries were optimized to make the greatest use of the advantages of the hydraulic circuit. Two different common rail injectors were prepared for this research. One is a mass production-type injector with piezo actuator that achieved the EURO-V exhaust gas emission standards, and the other is a prototype injector equipped with the new hydraulic circuit. The nozzle needle of the prototype injector is directly actuated by high-pressure fuel from common rail to improve the RoI.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0688
Peter Hottenbach, Thorsten Brands, Gerd Grünefeld
Tailor-made multi-component fuels are currently being developed for advanced Diesel engines. Accordingly, there is renewed interest in the detailed evaporation characteristics of such multi-component fuels, in particular because soot formation in reacting Diesel sprays generally depends on the mixture formation upstream of the lift-off location. It is also well established that fuel components with different volatility are generally not coevaporative due to fractional distillation in the mixture formation process of spark-ignition engines, but it is not clear if this holds for Diesel-like sprays, in which evaporation and mixing are expected to be more rapid. Unfortunately, little work has been done in this field, and some of the previous results appear to be contradictory. This paper presents a new laser diagnostic approach, which yields the vapor-phase concentrations of two fuel components simultaneously in Diesel-like sprays.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0673
Victor Salazar, Sebastian Kaiser
The in-cylinder charge motion during the compression stroke of an optically accessible engine equipped with direct injection of hydrogen fuel is measured via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The evolution of the mean flow field and the tumble ratio are examined with and without injection, each with the unmodified 4-valve pent-roof engine head and with the intake ports modified to yield higher tumble. The measurements in the vertical symmetry plane of the cylinder show that intake modification produces the desired drastic increase in tumble flow, changing the tumble ratio at BDC from 0.22 to 0.70. Either intake-induced flow is completely disrupted by the high-pressure hydrogen injection from an angled, centrally located single-hole nozzle. The injection event leads to sudden reversal of the tumble. Hence the tumble ratio is negative after injection. However, the two intake configurations still differ in tumble ratio by about the same magnitude as before injection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0675
Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Nicholas Matthias, Victor Salazar, Sebastian Kaiser
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0679
Deyang Hou, Yiqun Huang, Ming Huo, Way Lee Cheng, Xuan Feng, Cai Shen, Chia-Fon Lee
HCCI/PCCI combustion concepts have been demonstrated for both high brake thermal efficiency and low engine-out emissions. However, these advanced combustion concepts still could not be fully utilized partially due to the limitations of conventional fixed spray angle nozzle designs for issues related to wall wetting for early injections. The micro-variable circular orifice (MVCO) fuel injector provides variable spray angles, variable orifice areas, and variable spray patterns. The MVCO provides optimized spray patterns to minimize combustion chamber surface-wetting, oil dilution and emissions. Designed with a concise structure, MVCO can significantly extend the operation maps of high efficiency early HCCI/PCCI combustion, and enable optimization of a dual-mode HCCI/PCCI and Accelerated Diffusion Combustion (ADC) over full engine operating maps. The MVCO variable spray pattern characteristics are analyzed with high speed photographing.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0611
Shenghui Cong, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Colin Garner
Low temperature diesel combustion (LTC) exhibits ultra low NOx and smoke emissions, but currently it has the problems of increased CO and THC emissions, and higher combustion instability compared to conventional diesel combustion. This study evaluated the effects of fuel injection parameters on combustion stability in a single cylinder research diesel engine running at low and intermediate speeds and loads under LTC operating conditions. The LTC operation was achieved using high rates of EGR. In this work, the fuel injection timing and injection pressure were varied to investigate their effects on combustion stability at fixed engine speed and total fuel quantity. The cylinder pressure and THC emissions were measured during the tests. The THC emissions and the coefficient of variability of IMEP (CoV(IMEP)) were used to assess combustion stability. The relationship between these two parameters was also evaluated.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0229
Subramaniam Dhandapani Iyer
This Paper presents the results of experimental work conducted on a four-stroke spark ignited engine to reduce the emissions and to enhance the performance using semi direct electronic fuel injection. A comparative study was carried out with the base engine for finding out the effect of semi direct injection. The injector is mounted on the inlet manifold in such a way that the fuel is injected on the back of the inlet valve. The in-cylinder pressures were recorded for 1000 continuous cycles using a piezo-electric pressure pickup and PC based data acquisition system. The results show that the stratified mixture formation achieved by semi-direct injection results in improved engine performance and reduced emission & cycle-to-cycle variations.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0630
Pierre Solard, Alain Maiboom, Xavier Tauzia
Pollutant emissions standards (such like EURO 6 in Europe) are increasingly severe and force a search of new in-cylinder strategies and/or aftertreatment devices / schemes at a reasonable cost. On a conventional Diesel engine an excess of air is usually used to allow very high combustion efficiencies and reasonable levels of soot which can then be after-treated in a diesel particulates filter (DPF). As a consequence, NOx emissions cannot be easily after-treated (lean NOx trap (LNT) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are quite expensive even if effective, solutions), as a result they are generally controlled by means of internal measures such as High Pressure (HP) or Low Pressure (LP) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In light of ever more stringent NOx emissions regulations, NOx aftertreatment devices seem to be becoming unavoidable.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1201
Rudolf Flierl, Stephan Schmitt, Mark Paulov, Wilhelm Hannibal, Gerd Kleinert
A 2.0 l turbocharged gasoline engine with port injection and a comparable turbocharged gasoline engine with direct injection have been investigated on a test bench at Kaiserslautern Technical University. Both engines were driven with throttle-free load control by fully mechanically variable valve actuation (CVVL). The basic series-production turbocharged engine in this comparison is the version with direct injection without the fully variable valve train. The focuses of the fired tests were investigation of the fuel consumption at part load and of maximum torque behavior at low engine speeds at full load. In both engine modes, use of fully variable valve actuation shows improvements compared with the turbocharged engine versions without CVVL. Better turbocharger response enabled the torque behavior to be optimized.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0875
Fan Liyun, Zhu Yuanxian, Ma Xiuzhen, Tian Bingqi, Song Enzhe, Li Wenhui
A new fuel injection equipment, the Electronic In-line Pump (EIP) system has been developed in this paper, in order to meet The China's PHASE III and IV emission legislations. The EIP is a product which is assembled together by mechanical hydraulic and electrical magnetic system, and it includes electronic magnetic pump and electronic magnetic injector. The fluctuation in cycle fuel injection quantity (CFIQ) influences not only on the coherence of the product performance, but also on the quality qualification rate of the product. A numerical model of the EIP system was built in the AMESim environment for the purpose of creating a design tool for engine application and system optimization. The model was used to predict key injection characteristics, i.e. injection pressure, injection rate, injection duration at different operating conditions, etc. To validate these predictions, experimental tests were conducted at the same model conditions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0885
Michael Russell, Jill Cummings, Timothy Cushing, William Studzinski
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0892
Yuan Zhuang, Guang Hong
Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) is a new technical approach to make the use of ethanol fuel more effective and efficient in spark ignition (SI) engines. Ethanol fuel direct injection timing, as one of the primary control parameters in EDI+GPI engines, directly affects the quality of the fuel/air mixture and consequently combustion and emissions. This paper reports the experimental investigation to the effect of ethanol injection timing and pressure on engine performance, combustion, emissions of a single cylinder SI engine equipped with EDI+GPI. Firstly, the effect of EDI timing before and after the inlet valve closing, defined as early and late injection timings (EEDI and LEDI) was investigated at three injection pressure levels of 40 Bar, 60 Bar and 90 Bar and a fixed ethanol/gasoline ratio. Spark timing was fixed at original engine setting to investigate the potential engine efficiency improvement due to the EDI solely.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2423
Rishikesh Venugopal, Neerav Abani, Ryan MacKenzie
This paper presents analytical and measured results on the effects of injection pattern design on piston thermal management in an Opposed-Piston, Two-Stroke (OP2S) diesel engine. The OP2S architecture investigated in this work comprises two opposing pistons forming an asymmetric combustion chamber with two opposing injectors mounted on the cylinder wall. This unique configuration offers opportunities to tailor the injection pattern to control the combustion heat flux and resulting temperatures on the piston surfaces while optimizing combustion simultaneously. This study utilizes three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with state-of-the-art spray, turbulence and combustion models that include detailed chemistry to simulate the in-cylinder combustion and the associated flame/wall interactions. In addition, the measurements comprise a real-time thermocouple system, which allows for up to 14 locations to be monitored and recorded on the intake and exhaust pistons.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2771
Vladimir Markov, Sergey P. Gladyshev, Sergey Devianin, Andrey Stremyakov, Kiril Mizev
The design of the injector tips is the primary factor of influence the fuel delivery system on parameters of a diesel engine. The location of the entrance edges spraying holes of injector tips is one of the most significant design data. In modern diesel engines, the injector tips are used with entrance edges of spraying holes are located in a volume of a cavity under a needle of an injector tip or on locking cone of the needle saddle. In this paper, the two different locations of the entrance edges of spraying holes are considered. Two real injector tips where selected for analyses and tests with different location of the entrance edges of spraying holes. The selected injector tips where modeled by using finite elements method and also these injector tips where installed on diesel and diesel characteristics where received. For selected injector tips, the three dimensional model of the injector tip parts was created.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0149
Marco Chiodi, Antonella Perrone, Paolo Roberti, Michael Bargende, Alessandro Ferrari, Donatus Wichelhaus
In the last years motorsport is facing a technical revolution concerning the engine technology in every category, from touring car championships up to the F1. The strategy of the car manufacturers to bring motorsport engine technology closer to mass production one (e.g. turbo-charging, downsizing and direct injection) allows both to reduce development costs and to create a better image and technology transfer by linking motorsport activities to the daily business. Under these requirements the so-called Global Race Engine (GRE) concept has been introduced, giving the possibility to use one unique engine platform concept as basis for different engine specifications and racing categories. In order to optimize the performance of this kind of engines, especially due to the highly complex mixture formation mechanisms related to the direct injection, it is nowadays mandatory to resort to reliable 3D-CFD simulations.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0148
Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Modern Diesel engines have become complex systems with a high number of available sensor information and degrees of freedom in control. Due to recent developments in production type in-cylinder pressure sensors, there is again an upcoming interest for in-cylinder pressure based applications. Besides the standard approaches, like to use it for closed loop combustion control, also estimation and on-board diagnostics have become important topics. Not surprising in general the trend is to utilize those sensors for as many tasks as possible. Consequently this work focuses on the estimation of the injection parameters based on the indicated pressure signal information which can be seen as first step of a combustion control based on desirable indicated pressure characteristics which may be utilized for e.g. the minimization of NOx emissions. Currently the acquisition of the cylinder pressure traces can be done in real-time by fast FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based systems.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0146
Riccardo Amirante, Luciano A. Catalano, Carlo Coratella
Since the needle displacement exerts a fundamental influence in the operation of a Common Rail Diesel injection equipment, an accurate measurement of the instantaneous position of the control piston is crucial for a more thorough analysis of the behavior of the injectors, in particular when multiple injections are employed. Moreover, the development of a cheap instrumentation would allow to enlarge the Diesel engine on-board equipment with an instrumentation for the diagnosis of the injector operation. Eddy current sensors have been traditionally used in lab activities to measure the position of the needle inside the injector; apart from its high cost, the scientific literature clearly shows their inadequacy, given the presence of electromagnetic disturbance: the current pulse which controls the opening of the injector nozzles generates electromagnetic fields which strongly affect the acquisition of data.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0112
E. Mattarelli, M. Borghi, D. Balestrazzi, S. Fontanesi
Standard design practice usually adopts steady flow tests for addressing optimisation of the intake valve-port assembly. Recently, with more user-friendly CFD tools and with increased computing power, intake stroke simulations, handling both piston and valves motion, have become practical. The purpose of this paper is to compare the design guidelines provided by the standard steady flow tests (both experimental and numerical) and the information coming from a CFD-3D intake stroke analysis. Reference is made to a four valve HSDI Diesel engine. Three swirl control strategies are investigated. It is supposed that one intake valve is kept closed, while the other one operates normally (first strategy). The second strategy consists in a 50% reduction of the lift of both valves. Finally, the third possibility is the blockage of one intake port by means of a simple butterfly valve.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0123
F. Mallamo, M. Badami, F. Millo
Design of Experiments (DoE) methodologies have been applied in conjunction with objective functions to the experimental optimization of multiple injection strategies for a small displacement Common Rail (CR) off-road diesel engine. One operating point, which corresponds to the 5th mode of the ISO 8178 - C1 test cycle (intermediate speed / full load), was considered during this analysis: this operating condition is one of the most critical as far as exhaust emissions for the considered engine are concerned. Three injections were actuated per engine cycle during the experimental tests, with different strategies characterized by different timings and durations of each injection. It was found that DoE techniques for the reduction of experimental plans can be very effective in finding the optimum values for the injection parameters, leading to a remarkable reduction in the calibration process time, compared to full factorial designs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0125
Daisuke Shimo, Motoshi Kataoka, Hidefumi Fujimoto
A new nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction concept is suggested. A strong vertical vortex generated within the combustion bowl can mix hot burned gas into the cold excess air at the center of the combustion-bowl. This makes the burned gas cool rapidly. Therefore, it is possible to reduce NOx, which would be produced if the burned gas remained hot. In this paper the effect was verified with a 3D-CFD analysis of spray, air, combustion gas, and thermal efficiency as well as experiments on a 4-cylinder 2.0-liter direct injection diesel engine. The results confirmed that the vertical vortex was able to be strengthened with the change of spray characteristics and the combustion bowl shapes. This strengthened vertical vortex was able to reduce NOx by approximately 20% without making smoke and thermal-efficiency worse. Above results proved the effectiveness of this method.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0126
Hoojoong Kim, Namil Heo, Yongmo Kim, Je-Hyung Lee, Joon Kyu Lee
The Representative Interactive Flamelet(RIF) concept has been applied to numerically simulate the combustion processes and pollutant formation in the direct injection diesel engine. Due to the ability for interactively describing the transient behaviors of local flame structures with CFD solver, the RIF concept has the capabilities to predict the auto-ignition and subsequent flame propagation in the diesel engine combustion chamber as well as to effectively account for the detailed mechanisms of soot and NOx formation. In order to account for the spatial inhomogeneity of the scalar dissipation rate, the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model using the multiple flamelets has been employed. Special emphasis is given to the turbulent combustion model which properly accounts for vaporization effects on turbulence-chemistry interaction.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0127
Cheolwoong Park, Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae
Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0563
Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai, Fan Zhang
In this paper, the detailed chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code to study the combustion process in HCCI engines. An extended hydrocarbon oxidation reaction mechanism (89 species, 413 reactions) used for high octane fuel was constructed and then used to simulate the chemical process of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation in HCCI conditions. The three-dimensional CFD / chemistry model (FIRE/CHEMKIN) was validated using the experimental data from a Rapid Compression Machine. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments. Finally, the improved multi-dimensional CFD code has been employed to simulate the intake, spray, combustion and pollution formation process of the gasoline direct injection HCCI engine with multi-stage injection strategy. The models account for intake flow structure, spray atomization, spray/wall interaction, droplet evaporation and gas phase chemistry in complex multi-dimensional geometries.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0564
Lucien Koopmans, Johan Wallesten, Roy Ogink, Ingemar Denbratt
To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0549
Terry Alger, Jeff McGee, Steven Wooldridge
The influence of mixture preparation on misfires at idle in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine was investigated. A wall-guided DISI engine was run at idle conditions in a stratified charge mode (750 rpm / 90 kPa MAP). Images of the mixture composition at the spark plug were taken at spark timing using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for several different End-of-Injection (EOI) timings and spark timings. Cylinder pressure data were acquired simultaneously with the images to identify misfire cycles. The misfire rate was found to increase as the EOI timing was advanced from the optimal timing, defined by maximum stability and lowest ISFC. Images show that the misfire rate at a particular operating condition can be correlated to the fuel distribution and the location of the stratified charge in the engine. Cycles that showed a lower amount of stratification (overmixing) and/or high gradients in fuel concentration near the spark plug were the least stable.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0548
Jeff McGee, Terry Alger, Erica Blobaum, Steve Wooldridge
A PLIF measurement system was designed and applied for imaging direct-injected stratified charge fuel preparation. An extensive measurement plane was achieved through novel design features in the system. Measurement and processing uncertainties were assessed at ±15% for the semi-quantitative fuel density. Tracer selection among suggested iso-octane candidates was found not to have a significant effect on PLIF results under the conditions tested. Stratified charge fuel distribution images were acquired for three piston and fuel injector combinations. The effect of piston design in guiding the fuel mixture position was most notable. Fuel distribution features correlated reasonably well with measured data from a thermodynamic engine of similar design.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4727

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: