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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1866
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0484
Jeong Soo Eo, Youn Kwang Jung, Dae Ro Park, Chung Hi Lee
The main objective of the combined control unit is to develop a cost effective and optimal control system that manage the proper torque distribution and minimize the loss of communication delay caused by individual inter-controller cooperative control. The control systems of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) are more complicated than conventional vehicle. The major difference of HEV has Power Electronics (PE) system. The control systems of PE-part in the HEV are consisted with Hybrid Control Unit (HCU), Motor Control Unit (MCU) and Battery Management System (BMS) individually. In this study, the controllers of PE system are combined into one PCB (1Board-1Micom). Vehicle-testing and dynamometer-testing results confirm that the combined control unit achieves approximately 45% cost and 47% weight reduction compare to the non-combined (Individual controllers) same hybrid vehicle.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0485
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Yuriy Usinin, Maxim Grigoryev, Konstantin Vinogradov, A. Shishkov, A. Bychkov
The field regulated reluctance machine is perspective for automotive transport electric drives. In this machine, the switching of a stator current is done in function of a rotor position. The massive salient rotor of the electric machine does not contain windings. The stator is fulfilled in the body and iron of serial ac induction motor. The stator winding sections, which conductors lay above between rotor poles intervals, serve as a excitation winding, and others sections, which conductors lay above rotor poles, the role of a armature winding. In most cases, the optimal winding current waveform is distinct from the sine waveform. For a case of use separate current sources for each phase, the ideal is rectangular waveform. At the rotation of the motor, the each stator section winding pass from a zone of “excitation” to a zone of “armature”. The stator has finite number of phases.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0346
Gui-Jia Su, Lixin Tang
The voltage source inverter (VSI) possesses several drawbacks that make it difficult to meet the requirements of automotive applications for inverter volume, lifetime, and cost. The VSI requires a very high performance dc bus capacitor that is costly and bulky. Other characteristics of the VSI not only negatively impact its own reliability but also that of the motor as well as motor efficiency. These problems could be eliminated or significantly mitigated by the use of the current source inverter (CSI). The CSI doesn't require any dc bus capacitors but uses three small ac filter capacitors and an inductor as the energy storage component, thus avoiding many of the drawbacks of the VSI. The CSI offers several inherent advantages that could translate into a substantial reduction in inverter cost and volume, increased reliability, a much higher constant-power speed range, and improved motor efficiency and lifetime.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0347
Abdenour Abdelli, Fabrice Le Berr
This paper presents an analytical approach to model an interior permanent magnet motor for a hybrid electric vehicle. Therefore, an analytical model for the calculation of parameters of an interior permanent magnet motor is presented. Furthermore, these parameter values are compared with good agreement to those from finite-element analysis and experimental data. An analytical model to simulate the behaviour of the motor and its control are developed and validated by comparison with experimental data. The thermal analysis of the motor prototype is also done. At the end, the presented model is embedded in the hybrid vehicle simulator and improvements are proposed, such as an analytical approach based on the finite element results to include the core saturation effect.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0348
Shin Aoki, Tadanobu Takahashi
Size reduction is a significant requirement for hybrid vehicle motors. To meet this requirement, a small new-structure transverse flux (T.F.) motor has been developed, with efforts focused on coil end elimination and a higher motor torque density. The new structure is characterized by a stator core with a three-dimensional flux path configuration. A prototype motor was also designed and produced using ring coils and stator cores made of soft magnetic composites (SMC). The prototype performance was tested to verify the validity of the new magnetic circuit configuration.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0441
Olivier Brunel, Rainer Moller
Electrification of the power train will play a key role in the struggle for higher energy efficiencies and reduced emissions of vehicles. Optimized control of modern electric motors requires precise measurement of the rotor position. In most industrial applications optoelectronic or magnetic incremental sensors or inductive resolves are used for the position measurement. Deploying electric drives in cars, however, adds additional requirements concerning robustness, manufacturing costs, integration and operating safety which are difficult to satisfy with traditional sensor technology. The drawbacks of current sensor technologies like high costs or sensibility to EMI will not be acceptable any more when electric power trains go into mass production. Electricfil has developed an Electric Motor Position Sensor (EMPOS) that provides a number of advantages over traditional sensors, including very high robustness to mechanical tolerances, a digital interface and low production costs [1].
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0397
Hiromichi Kawamura, Ken Ito, Takaaki Karikomi, Tomohiro Kume
This paper describes a shaking vibration suppression approach for electric vehicles to support their quick and smooth acceleration response. Applied to the Nissan LEAF that has been specifically designed as a mass-market EV, the shaking vibration control system achieves a balance between highly responsive acceleration obtained with the electric drive motor, producing maximum torque of 280 Nm and maximum power of 80 kW, and a comfortable ride. A vehicle powered by an electric motor can provide quick acceleration response, thanks to the motor's fast torque response. However, the fast rate of increase in motor torque causes an uncomfortable shaking vibration that originates in the torsional torque of the drive shaft. The unique shaking vibration control system has been developed to achieve a balance between vehicle acceleration performance and ride comfort. Driving test results have confirmed that highly responsive acceleration is obtained without any shaking vibration.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0425
Jody Shaw, Yukihisa Kuriyama, Marc Lambriks
FutureSteelVehicle’s (FSV) objective is to develop detailed design concepts for a radically different steel body structure for a compact Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It also will identify structure changes to accommodate larger Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) and Fuel Cell (FCEV) vehicle variants. The paper will demonstrate seven optimised structural sub-systems that contribute to the programme's 35 percent mass reduction goals and meet its safety and life cycle emissions targets. It will explain the advanced design optimisation process used and the resulting aggressive steel concepts.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0671
Kristel Coronado, John Lyons, Randy Curtis, Thomas Wang
Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0666
Sowmyalatha Jayaraman, Gordon Anderson, Shailendra Kaushik, Philip Klaus
Fuel economy and stringent emissions requirements have steered the automotive industry to invest in advanced propulsion hybrids, including Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and Fuel cell vehicles. The choice of battery technology, its power and thermal management and the overall vehicle energy optimization during different conditions are crucial design considerations for PHEVs and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Current industry focus is on Li-Ion batteries due to their high energy density. However, extreme operating temperatures may impact battery life and performance. Different cooling strategies have been proposed for efficient thermal management of battery systems. This paper discusses the modeling and analysis strategy for a thermally managed Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) battery pack, with coolant as the conditioning medium.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0668
Yue Ma, Ho Teng
Lithium ion batteries can be developed for vehicle applications from high power specification to high energy specification. Thermal response of a battery cell is the main factor to be considered for battery selection in the design of an electrified vehicle because some materials in the cells have low thermal stability and they may become thermally unstable when their working temperature becomes higher than the upper limit of allowed operating range. In this paper the thermal characteristics of different sizes and forms of commercially available batteries is investigated through electro-thermal analysis. The relation between cell capacity and cell internal resistance is also studied. The authors find that certain criteria can be defined for battery selection for electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. These criteria can be served as design guidelines for battery development for vehicle applications.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0670
Danghe Shi, Xinran (Sharon) Xiao, Wei Wu, Xiaosong Huang, Hamid Kia
A separator is a membrane that prevents the physical contact between the positive and negative electrodes while enabling ionic transport. The integrity of the separator is vital to the performance and reliability of a battery. This paper presents finite element stress analysis for the separator in a lithium-ion battery using a macro-scale battery cell model. In this model, the porous electrodes were treated as homogenized media and represented with the effective properties estimated using the rule of mixtures. To compute the deformation due to lithium (Li) intercalation & deintercalation and temperature variation, the Li concentration distribution and temperature change due to electrochemical reactions must be known. These parameters were computed using a multi-physics model in COMSOL and mapped to the macro-scale model in ANSYS. Numerical simulations were conducted to identify the locations and magnitudes of the maximum strain and stress of the separator in the pouch cell.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0667
Ramesh Rebba, Jeong Hun Seo, Ann Marie Sastry, Mary Fortier
Rechargeable energy storage systems with Lithium-ion pouch cells are subject to various ambient temperature conditions and go through thousands of charge-discharge cycles during the life time of operation. The cells may change their thickness with internal heat generation, cycling and any other mechanisms. The stacked prismatic cells thus experience face pressure and this could impact the pack electrical performance. The pack consists of stiff end plates keeping the pack in tact using bolts, cooling fins to maintain cell temperature and foam padding in between cells. The pack level thermal requirements limit the amount of temperature increase during normal operating conditions. Similarly, the structural requirements state that the stresses and the deflection in the end plates should be minimal. Uncertainties in cell, foam mechanical and thermal properties might add variation to the pack performance.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0669
Azadeh Sheidaei, Xinran (Sharon) Xiao, Xiaosong Huang, Jixin Wang
The mechanical behavior of a commercially available single layer polypropylene (PP) separator was investigated using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). Samples were tested along the machine direction (MD) and transverse direction (TD). The tensile stress-strain, tensile creep and viscoelastic behaviors were studied. Experiments were performed in two conditions: (1) dry and (2) wet, i.e., samples submersed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The experimental results revealed that the mechanical properties of the separator were much lower while being submersed in DMC. This finding suggests that the mechanical properties measured at a dry condition may not be sufficient to represent the in-situ material behavior. Therefore, it is important to conduct material characterization in an environment close to the service condition.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0653
Vijayakanthan Damodaran, Siva Murugan, Vinod Shigarkanthi, Sunil Nagtilak, Karthikeyan Sampath
This paper deals with the development of a generic approach for the thermal management of batteries used in electric vehicles. A lumped parameter model was used to determine the worst case scenario of the battery operation from thermal management standpoint. Certain driving conditions were identified as the worst load cases of battery thermal management and these driving conditions were then used to conduct on-road tests. Using the results obtained from the vehicle performance simulation and on-road tests CFD simulations were carried out to establish a relationship between the air flow requirements and the heat generated from the battery. These relations help to obtain a quick estimate of the air flow requirement to keep the battery within safe temperature limits. This methodology developed is valid for all types of batteries used in electric vehicles such as Lead Acid, Lithium Ion, Ni-MH etc.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1088
Nobuyuki Kitamura, Kota Manabe, Yasuhiro Nonobe, Mikio Kizaki
Toyota has been developing fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHV) since 1992 and is currently working to resolve issues that remain for commercialization. This research focused on one of the main issues for fuel cells (FC), namely water content of the electrolyte membrane, to develop a FC water content control system based on AC impedance measurement. Adopting this control system in the FCHV resolved the issue of reduced efficiency caused by FC membrane dry-out, and makes it possible to start up the FCHV in temperatures down to -30°C by performing appropriate water content control for freezing environments.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1091
Jung Do Suh
End-plates are highly stiff plates that hold together the components composing a fuel cell stack, i.e. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs), Gas Distribution Layers (GDLs) and bipolar plates, offering sufficient contact pressure between them. The proper contact pressure is required not only to improve energy efficiency of a stack by decreasing ohmic loss but also to prevent leakage of fluids such as hydrogen, air, or coolant. When a fuel cell starts in cold environment, heat generated in a fuel cell stack as a result of electrochemical reactions should not be used much to increase the temperature of endplates but to melt ice inside the stack to prevent ice-blocking and to increase the temperature near the three-phase-boundary on MEAs. However, to satisfy the high stiffness required, massive metallic endplates have been used despite their inferior thermal characteristics: high thermal conductivity and large thermal inertia.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1090
Matthias Marx, Markus Ozbek, Dirk Soeffker
In this paper, a fuel cell-based/SuperCapacitor (SuperCap) hybrid electric powertrain concept is studied for different power management strategies. For a series hybrid, range extender topology and a given load profile different power management strategies are structurally compared. Furthermore considerations about principal optimization approaches will be introduced. First, a power management with the usage of a rate limiter on the fuel cell power is studied. The usage of a rate limiter mitigates fast deterioration of the fuel cell service life. The limited power rate affects the power demand from the hybrid secondary power source, i.e. the SuperCaps, and a compromise needs to be found. A second power management focuses the use of fuel cells as a range extender for charging when a lower limit for the State-of-Charge (SOC) of the SuperCaps is reached. The charging however is done at the maximum power output of the fuel cells and stops, when a certain SOC is reached.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1092
Kota Manabe, Yoshiaki Naganuma, Yasuhiro Nonobe, Mikio Kizaki, Tomoya Ogawa
The Fuel Cell is a highly efficient device that when integrated with hybrid technology yields even higher system-level efficiencies. This impressive efficiency is one of the key reasons fuel cell technology is one of the most promising future power sources. However, this benefit creates a significant challenge in cold climates. With so much of the energy converted directly to power, there is little waste heat compared to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) technologies. This challenge is particularly apparent at system start up from ambient sub-freezing temperatures due to the fact that the fuel cell heats-up slower than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Clearly, the amount of heat generation can be increased if the total power produced by the system is increased proportionally, but this method can be challenging because the excess power must be consumed in some manner (such as by a cabin heater).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1093
Keigo Ikezoe, Yuichiro Tabuchi, Fumio Kagami, Hidetaka Nishimura
To promote widespread use of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), further improvement of cold start capability is required for operation in various extreme temperature regions all over the world. Sub-freezing, cold start issues of fuel cells must be resolved through gaining a better understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in a cell during cold start and by elucidating the mechanisms hindering cold startup. Nissan has improved its understanding of the physical phenomena occurring in a fuel cell (FC) during cold startup by a laboratory-scale FC experiment at subfreezing temperatures and a numerical calculation that expresses various transport processes in a fuel cell, including those of the reactant gases, water, electrons and heat. The results have identified several necessary conditions for mass transport in a cell during cold startup and the factors that limit and govern the phenomena involved.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0743
Christof Paar, Andy Rupp, Kai Schramm, Andre Weimerskirch, Marko Wolf
Due to economic, environmental and political reasons, there is an increasing demand for zero-emission vehicles. With the wide-scale deployment of electric car systems, a variety of parties with conflicting interests will be interacting, and there will be incentives for dishonest behavior. Consequently, new technical challenges that are related to IT security and embedded security arise in the context of electric vehicle systems. For instance, payment and metering needs to be secured, privacy needs to be preserved, and the infrastructure needs to be protected. This work investigates for the first time the security threats that must be addressed in intelligent transportation systems, it discusses possible solutions, and it presents the benefits that IT security provides in this context.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0207
Jeffrey Konchan, Frank Arabia Jr, Kris Tomaszewski, Ray Zeller, Shant Pailian
Small electric DC (Direct Current) motors used to actuate various mechanisms in vehicles have failed prematurely when exposed to some formulations of lubricants, which leached into the motor and caused shorting. The subject study explored this failure mechanism in detail as evidenced in vehicle power door lock actuators. Experiments were conducted through the application of various types of lubricants to motors in varying ways to re-create the failure mode experienced by the authors, and to determine an optimized selection of lubricant for maximized cycle life, robust to inherent component manufacturing process variation in both the amount and location of lubrication placement. The detailed data, photographs and conclusions which resulted were summarized. The electric motor failure mode experienced in the example situation was first explained and illustrated with detailed photography.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0069
Paulo Reynaldo Calvo Alfaro, Fernando Velázquez Villegas, Antonio Zepeda Sánchez, Mariano García del Gállego
The goal of this work is to optimize an automotive chassis for a 3 wheeled hybrid vehicle. This vehicle is intended for touristic and low speed performance, 2 of the more relevant features are, that the vehicle has 3 wheels and that it is battery powered by 7 cells which are distributed under the driver seat and the first line of seats. Therefore, the vehicle has to be very light but still strong enough to endure the daily loads it is driven into. In order to obtain the final topological region an improving process in the topological region's geometry was needed, starting with regions with 30 mm element's size to 16 mm element's size, so the available equipment could compute the optimization in similar amounts of time. Topological optimization is used to acquire a very close shape to the optimal one for structural problems design from a conceptual viewpoint.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0610
Jan Macek, David Fuente, Miloslav Emrich
The current state-of-the-art offers two extremes of engine mechanical loss models: pure empirical models, using, e.g., regression models based on experimental results, and full-sized 3-D hydrodynamic friction models, solving Reynolds-like lubrication equations for complicated geometry of piston ring/cylinder liner or load-distorted shapes of crankshaft/connecting rod bearings and journals. Obviously, the former method cannot be reliably extrapolated while the latter is too complicated, especially for the early stage of design. The aim of the current paper is describing the development and experimental calibration of the physical cranktrain model for FMEP prediction, based on simplified phenomenological model of mixed friction. The model uses simply defined shapes of Stribeck curves (friction coefficient) in dependence on Sommerfeld number, i.e., on effective sliding velocity, oil viscosity, dimension scaling factor and the normal force load.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1266
David Smith, Henning Lohse-Busch, David Irick
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1251
James Gafford, Michael S. Mazzola, Marshall Molen, Chris Parker, David Sheridan, Volodymyr Bondarenko, Jeffrey Casady
A 1200-V, 600-A silicon carbide (SiC) JFET half-bridge module has been developed for drop-in replacement of a 600-V, 600-A IGBT intelligent power module (IPM). Advances in the development of SiC field effect transistors have resulted in reliable high yield devices that can be paralleled and packaged to produce high-voltage and high-current power modules not only competitive with existing IGBT technology but the modules have expanded capabilities. A SiC vertical junction field effect transistor VJFET has been produced with the properties of lower conduction loss, zero tail current, higher thermal conductivity, and higher power density when compared to a similarly rated silicon IGBT or any practical SiC MOSFETs previously reported. Three prototype SiC JFET half-bridge modules with gate drivers have been successfully integrated into a three-phase 30-kW (continuous), 100-kW (intermittent) AC synchronous motor drive designed to control a traction motor in an electric vehicle.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1249
J.W.G. Turner, D.W. Blundell, R. J. Pearson, R. Patel, D. B. Larkman, P. Burke, S. Richardson, N. M. Green, S. Brewster, R.G. Kenny, R.J. Kee
The paper describes the principal features of Omnivore, a spark-ignition-based research engine designed to investigate the possibility of true wide-range HCCI operation on a variety of fossil and renewable liquid fuels. The engine project is part-funded jointly by the United Kingdom's Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Department of the Environment of Northern Ireland (DoENI). The engineering team includes Lotus Engineering, Jaguar Cars, Orbital Corporation and Queen's University Belfast. The research engine so far constructed is of a typical automotive cylinder capacity and operates on an externally-scavenged version of the two-port Day 2-stroke cycle, utilising both a variable charge trapping mechanism to control both trapped charge and residual concentration and a wide-range variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism in the cylinder head.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1252
Shingo Kato
This paper proposes a new motor design procedure for reducing motor loss in hybrid vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). To find an optimum design in a short time, a non-linear magnetic circuit model was developed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Speed-torque curves and motor losses were calculated based on this model. Combined with Energy Management Simulation, this model makes it possible to find an optimum motor design with minimum loss.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1253
Prakash H. Desai, Mohammad Anwar, Sean Gleason, Shawn Hawkins
General Motors has developed a portfolio of advanced propulsion vehicles that has set the standard for optimal fuel economy in full-size utility vehicles. An overview of power electronics used in this portfolio, already available in the market, is presented. These components are key enablers for the strategic products in portfolio. Block diagrams for various configurations are also described to show common power electronics components used in traction and auxiliary systems. Briefly real wheel drive (RWD) and front wheel drive (FWD) vehicle applications are described. Specific analysis and test results are presented from development of Traction Power Inverter used in RWD vehicles. Vehicle-based durability profiles are used in analysis to predict IGBT power modules thermal performance. Using key metrics for volume and mass, benchmarking data is also presented.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1254
Charles Lizhi Zhu, Miaosen Shen, Matthew Obrigkeit
One potential system configuration for future hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV) is to use a single coolant loop for both internal combustion engines and power electronics inverters/converters. Under these conditions, coolant temperatures could be as high as 105°C. This paper proposes a high power DC/DC converter topology suitable for high temperature application. The new interleaved topology implements the power sharing on both high voltage side and low voltage side to alleviate the thermal stress. The DC/DC converter topology features a wide soft switching range to reduce the switching loss of the power semiconductor devices. In addition, a power module design approach is proposed to reduce the thermal resistance of the power semiconductor devices. The power-module-based approach provides for a higher level of integration by means of a wirebond-interconnected power stage.
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