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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2783
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0261
Nathan T. Dorris, Kelly A. Burke
In a previous SAE paper (2001-01-0046), the authors reviewed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) activities in the development of mandatory air bag warnings and analyzed those activities against the framework of the available human factors engineering (HFE) and warning literature. That analysis concluded that in both rulemaking procedures, NHTSA developed labeling requirements that appropriately addressed the respective injury prevention policies and strategies of those respective timeframes. In most regards, the agency properly identified and responded to HFE criteria although some methodological improvement could be obtained. Since the previous paper, the rulemaking process has continued and there have been significant changes to the mandatory air bag warnings. Some of these changes reflect the improvements in advanced air bag technologies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0260
Rachel Strauss, Megan Bland, Adam Biddle, Matthew P. Reed
As passenger car use becomes more common in developing countries, the number of child passengers killed and injuries also increases. Rates of child restraint use appear to be much lower in developing countries than in the U.S. or Europe. One barrier to increased restraint use is the relatively high cost of child restraints in low- and middle-income countries, where the cost of child restraints can be similar to the U.S. but incomes and typical vehicle prices are much lower. As part of a broader effort to improve child passenger safety worldwide, a team at the University of Michigan has begun development of a child restraint that is intended to be fabricated using low-cost technology in developing countries with minimal capital investment. Providing a design that has been tested successfully to regulatory standards may reduce barriers to entry and allow the restraints to be marketed at low prices.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0267
William W. Van Arsdell, Paul Weber, Charles Stankewich, Daniel Davee, Marie Moralde
This study investigates the technique used and forces applied on the latch plate and buckle during typical seat belt operation and driving conditions. These techniques and forces are relevant to whether the latch plate can be partially engaged with the buckle during typical operation and whether the latch plate will dislodge during vehicle operation. In addition to studying the insertion of the latch plate, we examined the tensile forces that are applied to the latch plate and buckle during typical, non-crash driving conditions, and how these forces compare to the performance requirements established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) as part of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 209. These tensile forces are important in understanding whether the latch plate is likely to dislodge from the buckle if it is in a position of partial engagement.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0265
Matthew P. Reed
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 specifies a bench seat that is used in dynamic testing of child restraint systems. To assess the representativeness of the FMVSS 213 bench, data from 54 passenger cars, minivans, and SUVs were analyzed to quantify the side-view profile of the seat centerlines in second-row, outboard seats. SAE J826 H-point measurements were performed on all seats and on the FMVSS 213 bench. A landmark-based resampling method was used to obtain a meaningful average seat contour after aligning on H-point. Principal component analysis and regression were conducted to quantify the effects of seat cushion angle, cushion length, and back angle on the seat profile. When aligned on H-point, the cushion length and surface angles of the FMVSS 213 bench were similar to the mean contour, except that no seats were as flat as the bench profile.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0013
June-Young Song, Kangwook Lee, Byung-Jae Ahn
The main role of CAB(side curtain airbag) is to protect the occupant's head in the event of side crash. The updated US NCAP for model year 2010 requires more extended coverage of CAB. It is not only required to cover the 50th%ile driver but also the 5th%ile driver and rear passenger. Although the general safety analysis model using only concerned sub-structure of the vehicle and prescribed structural motion is sufficient to handle frequent jobs, the analysis model with increased efficiency is needed when optimization is to be studied as it requires more runs and the model gets enlarged to consider extended sub-structure. In this study, three types of simplified analysis models are introduced. The first has an impactor which is composed of the head and neck with prescribed translational motions. It only uses the upper parts of the original sub-structure hence the run time is saved by 60∼70%.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0018
Xuru Ding, Yi-Pen Cheng, Wenyu Lian, Fuchun Zhu, Zaifei Zhou
Accurate prediction of the responses from the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in vehicle crash tests is critical to achieving better vehicle occupant performances. In recent years, automakers have used finite element (FE) models of the ATDs in computer simulations to obtain early assessments of occupant safety, and to aid in the development of occupant restraint systems. However, vehicle crash test results have variation, sometimes significant. This presents a challenge to assessing the accuracy of the ATD FE models, let alone improving them. To resolve this issue, it is important to understand the test variation and carefully select the target data for model improvement. This paper presents the work carried out by General Motors and Humanetics Innovative Solutions (formerly FTSS) in a joint project, aimed at improving the FE model of the Hybrid III-50 ATD (HIII-50) v5.1.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0104
Yoshinori Tanaka, Hideki Yonezawa, Naruyuki Hosokawa, Yasuhiro Matsui
Accident data show that the head and the chest are the most frequently injured body regions in side impact fatal accidents. Curtain side air bag (CSA) and thorax side air bag (SAB) have been installed by manufacturers for the protection devices for these injuries. In this research, first we studied the recent side impact accident data in Japan and verified that the head and chest continued to be the most frequently injured body regions in fatal accidents. Second, we studied the occupant seating postures in vehicles on the roads, and found from the vehicle's side view that the head location of 56% of the drivers was in line or overlapped with the vehicle's B-pillar. This observation suggests that in side collisions head injuries may occur frequently due to contacts with the B-pillar. Third, we conducted a side impact test series for struck vehicles with and without CSA and SAB.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0107
Yan Fu, Guosong Li, Ren-Jye Yang, Baohua xiao, Krishnakanth Aekbote
With the increasing demands of developing vehicles for global markets, different regulations and public domain tests need to be considered simultaneously for side impact. Various side impact countermeasures, such as side airbags, door trim, energy absorbing foams etc., are employed to meet multiple side impact performance requirements. However, it is quite a challenging task to design a balanced side impact restraint system that can meet all side impact requirements for multiple crash modes. This paper presents an integrated multi-objective optimal design and robustness assessment framework for vehicle side impact restraint system design.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0056
Eric Armengaud, Markus Zoier, Andreas Baumgart, Matthias Biehl, DeJiu Chen, Gerhard Griessnig, Christian Hein, Tom Ritter, Ramin Tavakoli Kolagari
Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0804
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, John Melvin
Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the implementation and advancement of head and neck restraints (HNR), minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy-absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper summarizes three non-injury case studies of actual on-track incidents, including the acceleration pulses, principal direction of force, restraint systems used and driver anthropometry information. Also discussed are the NASCAR personal safety equipment requirements as well as frontal, oblique and side sled testing data of similar input acceleration magnitudes for the Hybrid III (H-III) fiftieth percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD).
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0800
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Over the last twenty years, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) racing series. While proper occupant protection requires both occupant restraint and preservation of sufficient occupant survival space, this study is focused mainly on the latter of these two necessities. The NASCAR tubular vehicle chassis has evolved through the years to provide improved protection for the driver in rollover incidents. The chassis has continued to progress over time to improve its strength as unique crashes sometimes highlighted opportunities for advancement. Recent enhancements tested using computer modeling, quasi-static testing, and full scale drop tests have improved the roof structure of the stock car chassis. These improvements have been incorporated into the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup and Nationwide Series cars.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1263
Wesley Vandiver, Isaac Ikram, Bryan Randles
The accuracy of pre-crash data recorded in an Airbag Control Module (ACM) with Event Data Recorder (EDR) functionality has been studied and quantified for vehicles from several vehicle manufacturers. Most published research has involved vehicles with accessible data that can be downloaded via commercially available crash data retrieval equipment. Some Mitsubishi vehicles, including the 2009 Mitsubishi Lancer GTS, are capable of recording crash data that can be accessed only by the manufacturer. The accuracy of such data becomes important when it is intended to be used as part of a collision analysis. The pre-crash speed data recorded by a 2009 Mitsubishi Lancer vehicle was evaluated by generating artificial deployment events while running the vehicle on a 4-wheel dynamometer and simultaneously capturing data through the OBDII port. The tests were run at speeds up to approximately 145 kilometers per hour (90 miles per hour).
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1155
Kathleen D. Klinich, Miriam Manary, Carol Flannagan, Jamie Moore, Jessica Jermakian
This project assessed current or proposed protocols for improving the usability of LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children). LATCH hardware in the left second-row position of 98 2011 or 2010 model-year vehicles was evaluated using ISO and SAE LATCH usability rating guidelines. Child restraint/vehicle interaction was assessed using ISO and NHTSA proposed procedures. ISO ratings of vehicle LATCH usability ranged from 41% to 78%, while vehicles assessed using the SAE draft recommended practice met between 2 and all 10 of the recommendations that apply to all vehicles. There was a weak relationship between vehicle ISO usability ratings and the number of SAE recommended practices met by a vehicle. Twenty vehicles with a range of vehicle features were assessed using the ISO vehicle-child restraint form and 7 child restraints; ISO vehicle-child restraint interaction scores ranged from 14% to 86%.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1157
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Seat belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant protection. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 210 specifies requirements for the layout of the anchorages relative to the seating reference point and seat back angle established by the SAE J826 H-point manikin. Sled testing and computational simulation has established that belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant kinematics, particularly for child occupants using the belt as their primary restraint. As part of a larger study of vehicle geometry, the locations of the anchorage points in the second-row, outboard seating positions of 83 passenger cars and light trucks with a median model year of 2005 were measured. The lower anchorage locations spanned the entire range of lap belt angles permissible under FMVSS 210 and the upper anchorages (D-ring locations) were distributed widely as well.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1159
Paul R. Weber, William Van Arsdell, Charles J. Stankewich, Brian Larson
The performance of two types of forward facing child restraint systems (CRSs), belt-positioning boosters (BPBs) and CRSs with an integral 5-point harness were compared in frontal and side-impact testing. Performance criteria in frontal impacts (head injury criteria (HIC), chest acceleration, head excursion and knee excursion) was evaluated by comparing a large set of NHTSA-run FMVSS 213 compliance test data generated with the 3-year-old-sized anthropomorphic dummy (ATD). Side-impact performance was evaluated by conducting a series of sled tests and comparing the relative head excursion of a 3-year-old-sized ATD. FMVSS 213 compliance test data shows that the average HIC, chest acceleration, and head and knee excursions are comparable for BPBs and harness CRSs. ATDs in BPBs experienced a slightly higher average HIC, and a slightly lower average head excursion than ATDs in harness CRSs without a tether.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1162
Mauro Velardocchia, Michiel Unger, Alessandro Vigliani, Nicola Leone, Kajetan Kietlinski, Enrico Galvagno
The paper presents a simulation methodology created to support an integrated safety system development process which was tested for the side impact collision load case. The methodology is based on the coupled and complementary use of two software packages: PreScan and Madymo. PreScan was utilized for designing two traffic scenarios and the sensing and control systems for the side collision recognition, while Madymo was utilized for assessing the effects of pre-crash deployment of thorax airbag. The collision conditions from the scenarios were used as input to define a Madymo side collision model of the host vehicle and to investigate and optimize several airbag deployment parameters: pre-crash deployment time, airbag permeability, vent hole size and vent hole opening time.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1158
Alain Tramecon, Joerg Kuhnert PhD
Models to represent in position situations based upon uniform pressure assumptions are well established and have been used extensively in the automotive industry for more than 15 years. More recently, in the beginning of the year 2000, advanced simulation techniques with Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) approaches, such as VPS-PAMCRASH/FPM (Finite Point Method) have been introduced in the development of airbag restraint systems. Their main fields of application are Out Of Position (OOP) situations, where the occupant is close to the airbag casing. For these load cases the deployment kinematics of the airbag and local associated pressures play a major role and require modeling precisely the gas flow. Similarly these techniques are used for side airbags like curtain airbags or knee bags where the deployment kinematics are highly dependent upon local pressures on the membrane of the airbag. The turbulence and viscous flow effects cannot be neglected for curtain bags.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1160
Libo Cao, Ruifeng Zhang, Huiqin Chen, Xianyang Zhao
Child Restraint Systems (CRS), when used properly, can effectively avoid or reduce injury for children in motor vehicle crashes. To deal with the problems of the high rate of misuse of the CRS and submarining in frontal crashes when child occupants using traditional vehicle seat belts, a novel integrated child safety seat (ICSS) with a four-point seat belt and a ring-shaped lap belt was developed in this study. It is easy to operate and has lower rate of misuse. To study the protection performance of the newly developed ICSS in frontal crashes, a sled test and a series of simulations were conducted. The frontal impact sled test was conducted according to the European regulation ECE R44, which includes a Q6 anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and the impact velocity is 50 km/h. The simulation model included the ICSS model and the Q6 ATD model was developed in the MADYMO software, and the simulation model was validated by the sled test.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0001
Jonas Östh, Jóna Marín Ólafsdóttir, Johan Davidsson, Karin Brolin
The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0002
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert, Jason J. Hallman
A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0003
David Poulard, François Bermond, Karine Bruyère
Thoracic injuries are a major cause of mortality in frontal collisions, especially for elderly female and obese people. Car occupant individual characteristics like age, gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) are known to influence human vulnerability tolerance in crashes. The objective of the this study was to perform in vivo test experiments to quantify the influence of subject characteristics in terms of age, gender and anthropometry and on thorax mechanical response variability under belt loading. Thirty-nine relaxed volunteers of different anthropometries, genders and age were submitted to non-injurious sled tests (4 g, 8 km/h) with a sled buck representing the environment of a front passenger restrained by a 3-point belt. A resulting shoulder belt force FRes was computed using the external and internal shoulder belt loads and considering shoulder belt geometry.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0004
Stephen W. Rouhana, Srinivasan Sundararajan, Derek Board, Priya Prasad (Retired), Jonathan D. Rupp, Carl S. Miller, Thomas A. Jeffreys, Lawrence W. Schneider
NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0460
Sean Haight, Randa Radwan Samaha, David Biss
The objective of this study was to analyze the position of the shoulder belt and adjustable upper anchorage (AUA) relative to the occupant in recent (2011-2012) NHTSA NCAP frontal crash tests. Since 2011, certain changes have been made in the NCAP test procedure. These changes include different Hybrid III occupant sizes as well as variations in the methods for calculating injury risk. One of the most significant changes has to do with thoracic injury risk calculation which was previously associated with chest acceleration and is now based on chest deflection as the measurable parameter. Using the NHTSA NCAP database, as well as other crash test data sources, a comparison was made between the designated upper anchorage position prior to a crash test and the actual position of the belt webbing with respect to the chest deflection measurement potentiometer sub-assembly of the Hybrid III.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0179
Shoji Muramatsu, Yuji Otsuka, Hiroshi Takenaga, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Tatsuhiko Monji
A new automotive vision platform has been developed for practical applications. The vision platform simultaneously realizes high-performance computing power and reliability for automotive use by using a newly developed dedicated image processor. The developed processor has specialized and novel hardware allowing it to process a large amount of image data at high speed under a moderate clock frequency. The vision platform has enough capability to process multiple applications at the same time. In this paper, we describe the unified memory architecture in the vision platform. We introduce specific functional units for various applications such as the edge analysis unit. We report results from experiments with a real-time on-board lane recognition system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0205
Robert Boys
Consumer and safety requirements are increasing the number of airbags per vehicle that need to be controlled in an intelligent manner. Smart air bag controllers can determine which bags are fired and at what times and which sequences in order to increase occupant survivability and reduce the cost of airbag replacement for repairable vehicles. Some vehicles already have an excess of 10 air bag systems and clearly a need for computer control to implement advanced features exists. The critical need to maintain the current high reliability factors in terms of misfiring and unintentional deployment must be maintained and perfected while adding more features. The Safe-by-Wire consortium has been formed to address these concerns and they have designed a new bus protocol. This article will examine some of the issues regarding air bag systems and the Safe-by-Wire protocol specifically.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0335
Madana Gopal, Ken Baron, Minoo Shah
Automotive rollover is a complex mechanical phenomenon. In order to understand the mechanism of rollover and develop any potential countermeasures for occupant protection, efficient and repeatable laboratory tests are necessary. However, these tests are not well understood and are still an active area of research interest. It is not always easy or intuitive to estimate the necessary initial and boundary conditions for such tests to assure repeatability. This task can be even more challenging when rollover is a second or third event (e.g. frontal impact followed by a rollover). In addition, often vehicle and occupant kinematics need to be estimated a-priori, first for the safe operation of the crew and equipment safety, and second for capturing and recording the event. It is important to achieve the required vehicle kinematics in an efficient manner and thus reduce repetitive tests. Mathematical modeling of the phenomenon can greatly assist in understanding such kinematics.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0336
Naoki Kaneko, Masayuki Wakamatsu, Masanobu Fukushima, Shigeru Ogawa
Development of anti-whiplash technology is one of the hottest issues in the automotive safety field because of the frequent occurrence of rear impact accidents. We analyzed the whiplash mechanism and conducted a study to seek the optimized seat characteristics with BioRID II and MADYMO simulations. A parameter study was made to construct a conceptual theory to decrease NIC, Neck Injury Criteria, with the MADYMO model. As a result of the study, head restraint position and seatback stiffness were found to affect dummy movement and injury values. Applying the NIC mechanism and the influential parameters to the MADYMO model, the optimized seat characteristics for whiplash prevention were obtained.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0340
M. Kröninger, R. Lahmann, T. Lich, M. Schmid, H. Güttler, T. Huber, K. Williams
This paper describes a new system for early detection of tripped rollover crashes. The main goal of this system is to improve the protection of restraint devices, such as curtain window bags, in these rollover situations. This is achieved by a new rollover sensing (RoSe) algorithm in the airbag controller which produces a very early and robust deployment decision. Based on the analysis of tripped rollover test data, this paper shows how improved rollover sensing performance can be achieved by considering information about the vehicle's driving state before the rollover occurs. The results of this new approach are discussed in terms of deployment times. Finally a combined active and passive safety system architecture for the realization of the approach is suggested.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0341
Hermann Steffan, Andreas Moser
Due to the increasing number of minivans and sport utility vehicles, rollovers have become more significant. As a result, various accident reconstruction programs have been developed to address this issue. To reconstruct rollover crashes, various requirements have to be fulfilled. These consist of: providing a simple method that is able to model three dimensional environments that often play a major role in rollovers. including suspension, tire and collision models must be provided. This is particularily important in the rollover initiation phase. including proper vehicle geometry and contact stiffness must be available. These are important for simulation of body contacts that affect the vehicle motion. This study focuses on one program, PC-CRASH. This program was developed to allow simulations of vehicle 3-dimensional movements before, during and after the impact. The study also discusses the physical background of the models, their capabilities as well as their limitations.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0342
David C. Viano, Chantal S. Parenteau
This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
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