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2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0272
David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau, Roger Burnett
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0276
Si-Woo Kim, So-Jung shim, Myung-Won Suh
A large study of rear-end collisions was conducted for the neck injury indicators and test procedures. Neck injury in low-speed rear-end collisions is a big issue because there are a lot of patients despite low-speed rear-end collisions. Europe, Korea and Japan introduced the specific part in the New Car Assessment Program to reduce whiplash injury in low-speed rear-end collisions. From the legal point of view, to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries caused by rearward displacement of the head in rear-end collision, USA, EC, Korea, Japan and others internationally cooperated to make the global technical regulation (GTR) in UNECE/WP29. In 2008, after much meandering, GTR No. 7 head restraints were established. However the GTR No.7 is not a unique regulation because many countries had their own opinions and domestic regulations, and many questions related to injury criteria and biomechanical issues of dummy remain unresolved.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0273
Jeffrey Braganza, Massoud S. Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
The rear seat occupant has been the subject of an increasing number of research efforts in recent years. However, the majority of the research has focused on frontal impact, while there are also a number of studies concerned with low to moderate delta-V rear impact. Very limited work exists regarding the fate of the rear seat occupant involved in high-severity rear impact, especially when utilizing the BioRID anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Furthermore, it is evident that the out of position rear occupant, as defined by leaning forward prior to rear impact, is also of relevance to this line of research. The objective of this study is to explore and compare the response of BioRID and 50 th percentile Hybrid III in conjunction with the effects of head restraint geometry and the occupant seating configuration (normal seating versus forward leaning) in high-severity rear impact tests.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0451
Florian Schmidt
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in modern cars contain actively reacting functionality, like autonomous steering or braking assistants. The demand for functional Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) testing of these systems contains the need to create realistic models of the car's surrounding. Generating high-resolution photorealistic 3D-graphics in real-time proved to be critical, but with modern graphics technology, “Visual Loop” test-systems can be built. Integrated into test processes and with automated test case generation, these testing tools can improve the performance and quality of functional verification and validation significantly.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0516
Michelle F. Heller, William N. Newberry, Janine E. Smedley, Senthil K. Eswaran, Jeffrey J. Croteau, Michael R. Carhart
Rollover events involving multiple revolutions are dynamic, high-energy, chaotic events that may result in occupant injury. As such, there is ongoing discussion regarding methods that may reduce injury potential during rollovers. It has been suggested that increasing a vehicle's roof strength will mitigate injury potential. However, numerous experimental studies and published field accident data analyses have failed to show a causal relationship between roof deformation and occupant injury. The current study examines occupant kinematics and injury mechanisms during dolly rollover testing of a vehicle with a high roof strength-to-weight ratio (SWR = 4.8). String potentiometers and high-speed video cameras were used to capture and quantify the dynamic roof motion throughout the rollover. Instrumented Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in the front occupant positions allowed for the assessment of occupant kinematics, loading, and injury mechanics during the rollover event.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0014
Yuji Fujiyama, Daisuke Sonoyama, Kazuhiro Obayashi, Qiang Yu PhD
Evaluations of dummy injury readings obtained in regulatory crash tests and new car assessment program tests provide indices for the development of crash safety performance in the process of developing new vehicles. Based on these indices, vehicle body structures and occupant restraint systems are designed to meet the required occupant injury criteria. There are many types of regulatory tests and new car assessment program tests that are conducted to evaluate vehicle safety performance in side impacts. Factoring all of the multiple test configurations into the development of new vehicles requires advanced design capabilities based on a good understanding of the mechanisms producing dummy injury readings. In recent years, advances in computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and computer processing power have made it possible to run simulations of occupant restraint systems such as side airbags and seatbelts.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0018
Xuru Ding, Yi-Pen Cheng, Wenyu Lian, Fuchun Zhu, Zaifei Zhou
Accurate prediction of the responses from the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in vehicle crash tests is critical to achieving better vehicle occupant performances. In recent years, automakers have used finite element (FE) models of the ATDs in computer simulations to obtain early assessments of occupant safety, and to aid in the development of occupant restraint systems. However, vehicle crash test results have variation, sometimes significant. This presents a challenge to assessing the accuracy of the ATD FE models, let alone improving them. To resolve this issue, it is important to understand the test variation and carefully select the target data for model improvement. This paper presents the work carried out by General Motors and Humanetics Innovative Solutions (formerly FTSS) in a joint project, aimed at improving the FE model of the Hybrid III-50 ATD (HIII-50) v5.1.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0111
John D. Bullough
Photometric performance specifications for vehicle headlamp specifications in North America are given in terms of luminous intensity values at various angular locations with the objective of providing sufficient illumination for forward visibility while controlling for glare toward oncoming and preceding vehicle drivers. Abundant evidence suggests that luminous intensity is an appropriate metric for characterizing the degree to which a headlamp can produce disability glare through veiling luminances under a wide range of viewing conditions. Notwithstanding that discomfort glare exhibits a differential spectral sensitivity from the photopic luminous efficiency function used to characterize light, luminous intensity does not always predict discomfort glare. For example, the luminance of the luminous element(s) can be more predictive of discomfort when headlamps are viewed from relative close distances.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0110
John D. Bullough
Recent technological developments have begun to add a number of new configurations for vehicle forward lighting to the realm of possibility, including high-intensity discharge and light-emitting diode headlamps, and adaptive forward-lighting systems. These systems can offer substantial differences in performance and appearance from conventional filament-based headlamps that have been ubiquitous for many decades. These differences have not gone unnoticed by the U.S. driving public. A review of newspaper articles published during the past several years was conducted in order to assess public perceptions of vehicle headlamps in terms of their ability to support visibility and their impacts on headlamp glare.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0070
Stuart J. Brown
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0541
Mahmoud Yousef Ghannam, Todd Clark, Yeruva Reddy, Jinkoo Lee
This work presents a study of crash energy and severity in frontal offset Vehicle-To-Vehicle (VTV) crash tests. The crash energy is analyzed based on analytical formulations and empirical data. Also, the crash severity of different VTV tests is analyzed and compared with the corresponding full frontal rigid barrier test data. In this investigation, the Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) concept is used to calculate the initial impact velocity of frontal offset VTV test modes such that the offset VTV tests are equivalent to full frontal impact tests in terms of crash severity. Linear spring-mass model and collinear impact assumptions are used to develop the mathematical formulation. A scale factor is introduced to account for these assumptions and the calculated initial velocity is adjusted by this scale factor. It is demonstrated that the energies due to lateral and rotational velocity components are very small in the analyzed frontal VTV tests.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1249
Guy S. Nusholtz, Zine Aoun, Laura Di Domenico, Timothy Hsu, Manuel A. Gracián, Jesús A. Prado
Reliable testing of a mechanical system requires the procedures used for the evaluation to be repeatable and reproducible. However, it is never possible to exactly repeat or reproduce the tests that are used for evaluation. To overcome this limitation, a statistical evaluation procedure can generally be used. However, most of the statistical procedures use scalar values as input without the ability to handle vectors or time-histories. To overcome these limitations, two numerical/statistical methods for determining if the impact time-history response of a mechanical system is repeatable or reproducible are evaluated and elaborated upon. Such a system could be a vehicle, a biological human surrogate, an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD or dummy), etc. The responses could be sets of time-histories of accelerations, forces, moments, etc., of a component or of the system. The example system evaluated is the BioRID II rear impact dummy.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1027
Kei Oshida, Haruhiko Nishiguchi
This paper explains the effectiveness of camera images in reducing accidents when changing lanes. A Side View Camera shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. The effectiveness of a rear-view camera for parking at low speed is well-known, but little has been verified on the effectiveness of the camera for changing lanes at high speed on a freeway. We used a driving simulator to verify the effectiveness of camera images to assist the driver to confirm safety. The simulator reproduces various dangerous scenes a driver may encounter when changing lanes in a freeway environment. The accident rate when drivers change lanes using common methods, such as the driver looking over his or her shoulder and checking the side-view mirror, were compared with the addition of images from the Side View Camera that offered the same view as the side-view mirror plus the blind spot displayed on an in-vehicle monitor.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1029
Rajiv Mehta, John Martuscelli
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in driver visibility. This is, in part, due to increasing emphasis placed on design factors influencing visibility such as: aerodynamics, styling, structural stiffness and vehicle packaging. During the development process of a vehicle, it is important to be able to quantify all of these factors. Visibility, however, owing to its sensory nature, has been harder to quantify. As a result, General Motors (GM) has undertaken a study to gain deeper insight into customer perceptions surrounding visibility. Clinics were conducted to help determine the relative importance of different metrics. The paper also explores several new metrics that can help predict customer satisfaction based on vehicle configuration.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0010
Erik G. Takhounts, Matthew J. Craig, Kevin Moorhouse, Joe McFadden, Vikas Hasija
Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0460
Sean Haight, Randa Radwan Samaha, David Biss
The objective of this study was to analyze the position of the shoulder belt and adjustable upper anchorage (AUA) relative to the occupant in recent (2011-2012) NHTSA NCAP frontal crash tests. Since 2011, certain changes have been made in the NCAP test procedure. These changes include different Hybrid III occupant sizes as well as variations in the methods for calculating injury risk. One of the most significant changes has to do with thoracic injury risk calculation which was previously associated with chest acceleration and is now based on chest deflection as the measurable parameter. Using the NHTSA NCAP database, as well as other crash test data sources, a comparison was made between the designated upper anchorage position prior to a crash test and the actual position of the belt webbing with respect to the chest deflection measurement potentiometer sub-assembly of the Hybrid III.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0459
Tatsuya Fukushima, Masafumi Shitamichi, Toshikazu Torigaki, Hidetoshi Sokusai, Masato Nishi, Takahiko Miyachi
FMVSS 226 will become effective on September 1, 2013 with the purpose of mitigating occupant ejections through the vehicle side windows. In order to use deployable counter measures to mitigate ejection, vehicle rollover tests are needed to design deployment algorithms for rollover condtions. Vehicle manufacturers have to define their own test procedures, because FMVSS 226 does not define any rollover test methods. The soil trip rollover test is a vehicle rollover test method in which a vehicle is propelled into a soil pool to measure its rollover characteristics. Some of difficulties in soil trip rollover tests include proper maintenance of soil, for example, under fluctuating humidity and homogeneity of soil in the pool, so as to ensure stable repeatability of test results. Protection of onboard measurement equipment in a test vehicle from soil incursion when the vehicle rolls over can also be a challenge.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0466
Yibing Shi, Guy Nusholtz
Regression models are used to understand the relative fatality risk for drivers in front-front and front-left crashes. The field accident data used for the regressions were extracted by NHTSA from the FARS database for model years 2000-2007 vehicles in calendar years 2002-2008. Multiple logistic regressions are structured and carried out to model a log-linear relationship between risk ratio and the independent vehicle and driver parameters. For front-front crashes, the regression identifies mass ratio, belt use, and driver age as statistically significant parameters (p-values less than 1%) associated with the risk ratio. The vehicle type and presence of the ESC are found to be related with less statistical significance (p-values between 1% and 5%). For front-left crashes the driver risk ratio is also found to have a log-log linear relationship with vehicle mass ratio.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0188
Christoph Knotz, Bernd Mlekusch
Many safety regulations in the automotive engineering use impactor testing (e.g. FMVSS201 in the US; Pedestrian Protection, ECE-R21, proposal for EEVC WG13 in Europe) in the certification process. Through the increasing demand for very short development times virtual engineering has become an inevitable tool. We show a complete virtual development process for the Free-Motion-Headform (FMH) regulation (FMVSS201u), where we use a combination of self-developed and standard software. The process starts with the definition of the target-points, the possible and allowed positioning of the FMH, the detection of worst case angles, the automated generation of section cuts, the Finite-Elements (FE) analysis and the web based documentation of the results. Our self-developed tools play an important role in the FMH-positioning/worst case detection area as well as in the result analysis and documentation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0183
Y. Wang, P. K. Mallick
This paper describes the results of dynamic denting experiments conducted on AA5754 and AA6061 alloys. Dynamic denting tests were performed using a drop weight impact machine. The drop height was varied from 38 mm to 914 mm to generate impact velocities ranging from 53.4 m/min to 254 m/min. The dent depth created at different drop heights was related to the input impact energy and peak load observed in the tests. The effects of sheet thickness and yield strength were explored.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0336
Naoki Kaneko, Masayuki Wakamatsu, Masanobu Fukushima, Shigeru Ogawa
Development of anti-whiplash technology is one of the hottest issues in the automotive safety field because of the frequent occurrence of rear impact accidents. We analyzed the whiplash mechanism and conducted a study to seek the optimized seat characteristics with BioRID II and MADYMO simulations. A parameter study was made to construct a conceptual theory to decrease NIC, Neck Injury Criteria, with the MADYMO model. As a result of the study, head restraint position and seatback stiffness were found to affect dummy movement and injury values. Applying the NIC mechanism and the influential parameters to the MADYMO model, the optimized seat characteristics for whiplash prevention were obtained.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0342
David C. Viano, Chantal S. Parenteau
This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0348
Chen Xiaodong, Lin Haiyan, Ge Ruhai, You Guozhong, Luo Yan, Shi Guangkui, Zhu Xichan
Now, crash simulation has brought remarkable advances using the finite element method for evaluating vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection. In accordance with the first full-scale side impact test in China, the finite element model of CHERY side crash simulation including CHERY car, Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB), and EuroSID-I dummy is modeled using nonlinear finite element analysis program visual proving ground (VPG) of engineer technology associate (ETA), inc. The results of simulation show excellent correlation with the test data, which provides the confidence of the simulation prediction. Finally, mend application for vehicle side crashworthiness is evaluated using the side impact model.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0350
Suzanne Tylko, Dainius Dalmotas
The responses of a 5th percentile female ATD in the driver and/or rear passenger positions of 56 crashes are described. The Transport Canada side impact programme consisted of LTV-to-car impacts, car-to-car impacts and IIHS barrier-to-car tests. The majority of the tests involved severe crash conditions for which the vehicles were not designed. The SID-IIs head, chest and abdominal responses were compared to determine the effects of the striking bullet geometry, the angle of impact, the impact point and the self-protective elements of the struck vehicle, including airbag technology and armrest designs. The SID-IIs head responses and deflection measures were sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the various striking vehicles, crash configurations, airbag systems and armrest characteristics.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0380
Timothy M. Boundy, Nicholas A. Vitale, Dan W. Figlioli
A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1483
Michael Keranen, Kumar Kulkarni, Jeff Stasevich, Ravi Thyagarajan
Interior compartment doors are required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201, to stay closed during physical head impact testing, and when subjected to specific inertia loads. This paper defines interior compartment doors, and shows examples of several different latches designed to keep these doors closed. It also explores the details of the requirements that interior compartment doors and their latches must meet, including differing requirements from automobile manufacturers. It then shows the conventional static method a supplier uses to analyze a latch and door system. And, since static calculations can't always capture the complexities of a dynamic event, this paper also presents a case study of one particular latch and door system showing a way to simulate the forces experienced by a latch. The dynamic simulation is done using Finite Element Analysis and instrumentation of actual hardware in physical tests.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0837
Zhiqing Cheng, Annette L. Rizer, Joseph A. Pellettiere
The performance of inflatable toepan padding for mitigating lower limb injuries was investigated. A rigid multi-body model was used to describe the scenario of an occupant in an automobile frontal crash with toepan intrusion. The emphasis was placed on the lower limb responses during impact. The interaction between the lower limbs and the inflatable toepan padding was described by the contact between the feet and the load distribution plate of the padding. Computational simulations were performed to analyze the effects of the controlled motion of this plate on the lower limb impact responses.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0844
Raj S. Roychoudhury, James K. Conlee, Michael Best, David Schenck
Deployable or active knee bolsters are being introduced by many OEMs, primarily on the driver side, as an improvement to the fixed or passive knee bolsters. There are shortcomings with the fixed knee bolster and many of them can be overcome with a deployable knee bolster. Also the deployable knee bolster has a few other advantages that make it a critical restraint system component for reducing the occupant injury numbers in frontal impact crashes. With the latest revision of FMVSS208, vehicle manufacturers must now demonstrate occupant performance for a wide range of test conditions. OEMs are now required to evaluate the 5th percentile female and the 50th percentile male in both belted and unbelted scenarios. A wide range of crash conditions must also be evaluated, including rigid barriers, angled impacts and offset deformable barriers.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0843
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert, Michael E. Carlson
This paper describes the design and development of a family of surrogate child restraints that are intended for use in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. Detailed measurements were made of the geometry and mass distribution characteristics of 34 commercial child restraints, including infant restraints, convertibles, combination restraints, and boosters. The restraints were installed in three test seats with appropriately sized crash dummies to obtain data on seat-surface pressure patterns and the position and orientation of the restraint with belt loading. The data were used to construct two surrogates with removable components. The convertible surrogate can be used to represent a rear-facing infant restraint with or without a base, a rear-facing convertible, or a forward-facing convertible. The booster surrogate can represent a high-back belt-positioning booster, a backless booster, or a forward-facing-only restraint with a five-point harness.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0854
Daniel Davee, William Van Arsdell, Christine Raasch
Detailed investigations continually demonstrate that vehicle collision environments are extremely unlikely to produce accelerations of sufficient magnitude and duration to cause inertial release of seat belt buckles. Recently, it has been proposed that the dynamic response of an end-release buckle mounted to the vehicle structure via a metal strap or wire rope can amplify acceleration levels experienced at the floor of the vehicle by a factor of 10 or more, to levels that are high enough to cause inertial release. Experiments and modeling presented here confirm that accelerations may be amplified from the floor of the vehicle to the seat belt buckle, but not by more than a factor of 1.3, and only for acceleration pulse durations that are very short. Shock table testing of end-release seat belt buckles shows that, even with amplification, the resulting buckle accelerations are far below those required to cause inertial release, even at very low webbing tension.
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