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2012-10-18
WIP Standard
AIR5699A
Consideration for the damaging effects to aircraft from the failure of wheels and tires should be evaluated. This document discusses the types of problems in-service aircraft have experienced and methodology in place to assist the designers when evaluating threats for new aircraft design. The purpose of this document is to provide a history of in-service problems, provide a historical summary of the design improvements made to wheels and tires during the past 40 years and to offer methodology which has been used to help designers assess the threat to ensure the functionality of systems and equipment located in and around the landing gear and in wheel wells.
HISTORICAL
2007-08-02
Standard
AIR5697
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains regulatory and guidance information related to airplane wheels, tires, and brakes. It contains certain Civil Air Regulations (CAR) and Federal Aviation Regulations (formerly referred to as FARs) from Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in their current version as well as the historical versions. This gives the reader an ability to assemble certain CAR/CFR parts as they existed at any date in the past (referred to as a Regulatory Basis). A certain amount of preamble explanatory material is included, which led to the regulatory rule changes (Amendments to the CFR).
CURRENT
2007-11-26
Standard
AIR5699
Consideration for the damaging effects to aircraft from the failure of wheels and tires should be evaluated. This document discusses the types of problems in-service aircraft have experienced and methodology in place to assist the designers when evaluating threats for new aircraft design. The purpose of this document is to provide a history of in-service problems, provide a historical summary of the design improvements made to wheels and tires during the past 40 years and to offer methodology which has been used to help designers assess the threat to ensure the functionality of systems and equipment located in and around the landing gear and in wheel wells.
CURRENT
2012-10-15
Standard
AIR5697A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains regulatory and guidance information related to airplane wheels, tires, and brakes. It contains certain Civil Air Regulations (CAR) and Federal Aviation Regulations (formerly referred to as FARs) from Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in their current version as well as the historical versions. This gives the reader an ability to assemble certain CAR/CFR parts as they existed at any date in the past (referred to as a Regulatory Basis). A certain amount of preamble explanatory material is included, which led to the regulatory rule changes (Amendments to the CFR).
CURRENT
1994-02-01
Standard
AIR1780A
This document is divided into five parts. The first part deals with flotation analysis features and definitions to acquaint the engineer with elements common to the various methods and the meanings of the terms used. The second part identifies and describes the various methods used. To accomplish the minimum intent of this document, techniques could be limited to those needed for flotation analysis only; however, because of the close relation between flotation analysis and runway design, methods for the latter are also included. In fact, runway design criteria are used for flotation and evaluation in some cases, and are periodically the governing procedure in specific, if isolated, instances. From time to time, it may be necessary to deal with runways built to obsolete criteria. Therefore, a listing of most of these constitutes the third part.
HISTORICAL
1993-04-01
Standard
AIR1780
The substance of this report is divided into five parts. The first part deals with flotation analysis features and definitions to acquaint the engineer with elements common to the various methods and the meanings of the terms used. The second part identifies and describes the various methods used. To accomplish the minimum intent of this report, techniques could be limited to those needed for flotation analysis only. Because of the close relation between flotation analysis and runway design, methods for the latter are included. In fact, runway design criteria are used for flotation and evaluation in some cases, and are periodically the governing procedure in specific, if isolated, instances. From time to time, it may be necessary to deal with runways built to obsolete criteria. Therefore, a listing of most of these constitutes the third part.
2017-05-02
WIP Standard
AIR6168A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses past and present approaches for monitoring the landing gear structure and shock absorber, methods for transient overload detection, techniques for measuring the forces seen by the landing gear structure, and methods for determining the fatigue state of the landing gear structure. This AIR covers the landing gear structure and shock absorber. It does not include the landing gear systems or landing gear wheels, tires and brakes. Landing gear tire condition and pressure monitoring are detailed in AIR4830 and ARP6137, respectively.
CURRENT
2015-12-27
Standard
AIR6246
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will review new landing gear (engine off) taxi system technologies currently being developed by various companies and describe the basic design concepts and potential benefits and issues. This AIR will identify the associated systems that could be affected by this new technology. The document will review basic design and operational requirements, failure modes and identify system certification requirements that may need to be addressed. The technology is evolving as this paper is being written and the data present is currently up to date as of 2015.
HISTORICAL
2005-12-14
Standard
AIR5451
The landing gear system is a major airframe system that needs to be integrated very efficiently to minimize the penalties of weight, cost, dispatch reliability and maintenance. As the landing gear system business develops and large scale teaming arrangements and acquisitions become increasingly common, it may be desirable in some instances to procure an Integrated Landing Gear System. This document provides guidelines and useful references for developing an integrated landing gear system for an aircraft and is divided into four sections: Landing Gear Configuration Requirements (Section 3) Landing Gear Functional Requirements (Section 4) Landing Gear System Integrity Requirements (Section 5) Landing Gear Program Requirements (Section 6) The landing gear system encompasses all landing gear structural and subsystem elements. Structural elements include shock struts, braces, fittings, pins, wheels, tires and brakes.
CURRENT
2017-07-12
Standard
AIR5451A
The landing gear system is a major and safety critical airframe system that needs to be integrated efficiently to meet the overall aircraft program goals of minimizing the penalties of weight, cost, dispatch reliability and maintenance. As the landing gear system business develops and large-scale teaming arrangements and acquisitions become increasingly common, it may be desirable in some instances to procure an Integrated Landing Gear System. This document provides guidelines and useful references for developing an integrated landing gear system for an aircraft. The document structure is divided into four sections: Landing Gear System Configuration Requirements (Section 3) Landing Gear System Functional Requirements (Section 4) Landing Gear System Integrity Requirements (Section 5) Landing Gear System Program Requirements (Section 6) The landing gear system encompasses all landing gear structural and subsystem elements.
HISTORICAL
1997-01-01
Standard
AIR1904A
This Aerospace Information Report relates considerations for design test procedures and test data evaluation for qualification of tire spray deflection devices.
CURRENT
2001-12-07
Standard
AIR1904B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) relates considerations for design test procedures and test data evaluation for qualification of tire spray deflection devices.
2013-10-21
WIP Standard
AIR6280
This Aerospace Information Report will summarize several existing aircraft landing gear shimmy analysis techniques and provide guidance on the synthesis and testing of tire properties, strut properties, and other landing gear mechanical properties that support the various shimmy analysis methods. This AIR is applicable to large and small fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft for military or civilian use.
2016-03-15
WIP Standard
AIR6411
Provide information and guidance for landing gear operation in cold temperature environment. Covers all operational aspects on ground and in flight. Includes effects on: tires, wheels, brakes, shock strut, seals, and actuation.
CURRENT
1991-02-27
Standard
AIR4358
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) considers the origin of cornering forces generated by tilted, free-swiveling nose gears; the effect of various landing gear parameters on the measured cornering forces; and a method of towing aircraft to measure the resulting steering forces.
HISTORICAL
2009-02-19
Standard
AIR5631
The purpose of this document is to provide a listing for current commercial and military aircraft landing gear systems and their types and manufacturers. Data has been provided for the following aircraft types: wide body jet airliners, narrow body jet airliners, turboprop/commuter aircraft, cargo/transport aircraft and fighter/attack aircraft. The aircraft that have been included in this document are in operational service either with airlines, business, cargo or military operators. No information is presented for aircraft that are currently being developed or that are not in extensive usage. This document will provide an informational reference for landing gear engineers to access when evaluating other gear and aircraft systems.
CURRENT
2015-12-27
Standard
AIR5631A
The purpose of this document is to provide a listing for current commercial and military aircraft landing gear systems and their types and manufacturers. Data has been provided for the following commercial aircraft types; wide body jet airliners, narrow body jet airliners, and turboprop/commuter aircraft and the following military aircraft types; fighter, bomber, cargo, attack, surveillance, tanker and helicopter categories. The aircraft that have been included in this document are in operational service either with airlines, business, cargo or military operators. No information is presented for aircraft that are currently being developed or that are not in extensive usage. This document will provide an informational reference for landing gear engineers to access when evaluating other gear and aircraft systems. Future revisions of this document will add aircraft as they enter into service.
CURRENT
2009-05-05
Standard
AIR5556
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report is to provide the industry with methodologies for measuring tire/wheel gear alignment and the range of acceptable alignment settings for various types of non-military landing gear. This AIR will focus on the general aviation, corporate, and regional aircraft landing gear but could have applicability to commercial aircraft.
HISTORICAL
1988-08-02
Standard
AIR4243
This document discusses the work done by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in support of SAE A-5 Committee activity on Aerospace Landing Gear Systems. It is an example of how seemingly unrelated disciplines can be combined effectively for the eventual benefit of the overall aircraft system, where that system includes the total airfield environment in which the aircraft must operate. In summary, this AIR documents the history of aircraft flotation analysis as it involves WES and the SAE.
CURRENT
2014-12-01
Standard
AIR4243A
This document discusses the work done by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in support of SAE A-5 Committee activity on Aerospace Landing Gear Systems. It is an example of how seemingly unrelated disciplines can be combined effectively for the eventual benefit of the overall aircraft system, where that system includes the total airfield environment in which the aircraft must operate. In summary, this AIR documents the history of aircraft flotation analysis as it involves WES and the SAE.
HISTORICAL
1997-01-01
Standard
AIR1380A
The static mechanical stiffness properties of aircraft tires are fundamental to any computation of wheel and landing gear shimmy characteristics, and are important guides in anti-skid system and aircraft wheel design. While the mechanical stiffness properties of aircraft tires are frequency sensitive, the static or low frequency values are important because they are the ones most easily obtained by laboratory testing and are most commonly found in literature. The following recommended methods for measurement of such properties are believed to represent practices which will give reliable and repeatable measurements, either at one facility or among different facilities, using equipment which is commonly available in most tire testing installations.
CURRENT
2002-02-28
Standard
AIR1380B
The static mechanical stiffness properties of aircraft tires are fundamental to any computation of wheel and landing gear shimmy characteristics, and are important guides in anti-skid system and aircraft wheel design. While the mechanical stiffness properties of aircraft tires are frequency sensitive, the static or low frequency values are important because they are the ones most easily obtained by laboratory testing and are most commonly found in literature. The following recommended methods for measurement of such properties are believed to represent practices which will give reliable and repeatable measurements, either at one facility or among different facilities, using equipment which is commonly available in most tire testing installations.
HISTORICAL
1997-01-01
Standard
AIR1489A
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline.
HISTORICAL
2001-06-01
Standard
AIR1489B
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline. Some terms are of course common to other disciplines as well. Others, however, are unique in form and/or meaning to the Landing Gear discipline. The need has been noted to set these terms down and provide a standard definition in order that communication within the discipline may be conducted with a common understanding. Full use has been made of available published information, and a list of references is provided. See also References (a) to (e). Terms listed are usually applicable to a general functional area of Landing Gear disciplines. These general functional areas include; landing impact, directional ground control, velocity control (acceleration, retardation, and arrestment), structural support, ground flotation, and ground maintenance.
CURRENT
2012-05-31
Standard
AIR1489C
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology Panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline. Some terms are of course common to other disciplines as well. Others, however, are unique in form and/or meaning to the landing gear discipline. The need has been noted to set these terms down and provide a standard definition in order that communication within the discipline may be conducted with a common understanding. Full use has been made of available published information, and a list of references is provided. See also References (a) to (e). Terms listed are usually applicable to a general functional area of landing gear disciplines. These general functional areas include; landing impact, directional ground control, velocity control (acceleration, retardation, and arrestment), structural support, ground flotation, and ground maintenance.
HISTORICAL
1977-04-01
Standard
AIR1489
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline. Some terms are of course common to other disciplines as well. Others, however, are unique in form and/or meaning to the Landing Gear discipline. The need has been noted to set these terms down and provide a standard definition in order that communication within the discipline may be conducted with a common understanding. Full use has been made of available published information, and a list of references is provided.
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