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HISTORICAL
1999-11-01
Standard
AIR1168/13
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: Establishment of design requirements. Evaluation of properties of materials. Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
HISTORICAL
1994-01-01
Standard
AIR1168/14
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management. The major subsystems required to accomplish the general functions mentioned above are: Breathing and pressurization gas storage system. Temperature and humidity control system.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/13A
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: Establishment of design requirements. Evaluation of properties of materials. Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
CURRENT
2012-10-15
Standard
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management. The major subsystems required to accomplish the general functions mentioned above are: Breathing and pressurization gas storage system. Temperature and humidity control system.
HISTORICAL
2001-08-01
Standard
AIR1168/2
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/2A
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/5A
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/6A
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/7A
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
HISTORICAL
2011-09-06
Standard
AIR5687
This document reviews the state of the art for data scaling issues associated with air induction system development for turbine-engine-powered aircraft. In particular, the document addresses issues with obtaining high quality aerodynamic data when testing inlets. These data are used in performance and inlet-engine compatibility analyses. Examples of such data are: inlet recovery, inlet turbulence, and steady-state and dynamic total-pressure inlet distortion indices. Achieving full-scale inlet/engine compatibility requires a deep understanding of three areas: 1) geometric scaling fidelity (referred to here as just “scaling”), 2) impact of Reynolds number, and 3) ground and flight-test techniques (including relevant environment simulation, data acquisition, and data reduction practices).
CURRENT
2016-02-16
Standard
AIR5687A
This document reviews the state of the art for data scaling issues associated with air induction system development for turbine-engine-powered aircraft. In particular, the document addresses issues with obtaining high quality aerodynamic data when testing inlets. These data are used in performance and inlet-engine compatibility analyses. Examples of such data are: inlet recovery, inlet turbulence, and steady-state and dynamic total-pressure inlet distortion indices. Achieving full-scale inlet/engine compatibility requires a deep understanding of three areas: 1) geometric scaling fidelity (referred to here as just “scaling”), 2) impact of Reynolds number, and 3) ground and flight-test techniques (including relevant environment simulation, data acquisition, and data reduction practices).
CURRENT
2012-10-03
Standard
AIR5666
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
2017-11-09
WIP Standard
AIR5771A

This report covers engine tests performed in Altitude Test Facilities (ATFs) with the primary purpose of determining steady state thrust at simulated altitude flight conditions as part of the in-flight thrust determination process. As such it is complementary to AIR1703 and AIR5450, published by the SAE E-33 Technical Committee. The gross thrust determined using such tests may be used to generate other thrust-related parameters that are frequently applied in the assessment of propulsion system performance. For example: net thrust, specific thrust, and exhaust nozzle coefficients.

The report provides a general description of ATFs including all the major features. These are:

  • Test cell air supply system. This controls the inlet pressure and includes flow straightening, humidity and temperature conditioning.
  • Air inlet duct and slip joint. Note that the report only covers the case where the inlet duct is connected to the engine, not free jet testing.
CURRENT
2015-09-14
Standard
AIR5771
This report covers engine tests performed in Altitude Test Facilities (ATFs) with the primary purpose of determining steady state thrust at simulated altitude flight conditions as part of the in-flight thrust determination process. As such it is complementary to AIR1703 and AIR5450, published by the SAE E-33 Technical Committee. The gross thrust determined using such tests may be used to generate other thrust-related parameters that are frequently applied in the assessment of propulsion system performance. For example: net thrust, specific thrust, and exhaust nozzle coefficients. The report provides a general description of ATFs including all the major features. These are: Test cell air supply system. This controls the inlet pressure and includes flow straightening, humidity and temperature conditioning. Air inlet duct and slip joint. Note that the report only covers the case where the inlet duct is connected to the engine, not free jet testing.
2016-04-14
WIP Standard
AIR5925B
The report shows how the methodology of measurement uncertainty can usefully be applied to test programs in order to optimize resources and save money. In doing so, it stresses the importance of integrating the generation of the Defined Measurement Process into more conventional project management techniques to create a Test Plan that allows accurate estimation of resources and trouble-free execution of the actual test. Finally, the report describes the need for post-test review and the importance of recycling lessons learned for the next project.
CURRENT
2013-01-16
Standard
AIR5924A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides methodologies and approaches that have been used to install and integrate full-authority-digital-engine-control (FADEC) systems on transport category aircraft. Although most of the information provided is based on turbofan engines installed on large commercial transports, many of the issues raised are equally applicable to corporate, general aviation, regional and commuter aircraft, and to military installations, particularly when commercial aircraft are employed by military users. The word “engine” is used to designate the aircraft propulsion system. The engine station designations used in this report are shown in Figure 1. Most of the material concerns an Electronic Engine Control (EEC) with its associated software, and its functional integration with the aircraft. However, the report also addresses the physical environment associated with the EEC and its associated wiring and sensors.
HISTORICAL
2002-09-16
Standard
AIR1957
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by hydrodynamic or thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
HISTORICAL
2005-09-29
Standard
AIR4013B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will examine network aspects of open and shorted stubs, line reflections and bus loading due to network changes. Single network level is assumed, that is, no carriage store hierarchical levels. However, two passive network coupling variants called "branched bus" and "branched stub" will be introduced that possibly could be used in a stores management network. This report assumes familiarity with MIL-STD-1553B.
HISTORICAL
1996-08-01
Standard
AIR4013A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will examine network aspects of open and shorted stubs, line reflections and bus loading due to network changes. Single network level is assumed, that is, no carriage store hierarchical levels. However, two passive network coupling variants called "branched bus" and "branched stub" will be introduced that possibly could be used in a stores management network. This report assumes familiarity with MIL-STD-1553B.
CURRENT
2012-08-22
Standard
AIR4013C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will examine network aspects of open and shorted stubs, line reflections and bus loading due to network changes. Single network level is assumed, that is, no carriage store hierarchical levels. However, two passive network coupling variants called "branched bus" and "branched stub" will be introduced that possibly could be used in a stores management network. This report assumes familiarity with MIL-STD-1553B.
CURRENT
2012-07-19
Standard
AIR4012C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) documents general technical data associated with many of the wheels used in the Air Force.
HISTORICAL
1991-08-01
Standard
AIR4013
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will examine network aspects of open and shorted stubs, line reflections and bus loading due to network changes. Single network level is assumed, that is, no carriage store hierarchical levels. However, two passive network coupling variants called "branched bus" and "branched stub" will be introduced that possibly could be used in a stores management network. This report assumes familiarity with MIL STD 1553B.
HISTORICAL
2006-02-09
Standard
AIR4012B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) documents general technical data associated with many of the wheels used in the Air Force.
CURRENT
2000-09-30
Standard
AIR4064
HISTORICAL
1993-06-01
Standard
AIR4065
p t
CURRENT
2012-12-03
Standard
AIR1703A
In-Flight Thrust Determination, SAE AIR1703 reviews the major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust (IFT). It includes discussions of basic definitions, analytical and ground test methods to predict installed thrust of a given propulsion system, and methods to gather data and calculate thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Much of the treatment is necessarily brief due to space limitations. This document and the British Ministry/Industry Drag Analysis Panel (MIDAP) Guide (Reference 1.11), which SAE Committee E-33 used as a starting point, can be used to understand the processes and limitations involved in the determination of in-flight thrust. Application to a specific in-flight thrust determination program will require the use of many important assumptions not fully developed in this document, and these assumptions must be evaluated during the conduct of the program.
HISTORICAL
2004-06-09
Standard
AIR5826
This document provides a review of published methods that have been used to provide estimates of the levels of distortion and/or the concomitant loss of stability pressure ratio that can occur when the recommended full complement of aerodynamic interface plane high-response instrumentation is not used when obtaining inlet data. The methods have been categorized based on the underlying mathematical representation of the aerophysics. Further, the use of maximum value statistics, which has been used to further improve the results where short-duration time records have been employed, is discussed.
CURRENT
2017-03-21
Standard
AIR5826B
This document provides a review of published methods that have been used to provide estimates of the levels of distortion and/or the concomitant loss of stability pressure ratio that can occur when the recommended full complement of aerodynamic interface plane high-response instrumentation is not used when obtaining inlet data. The methods have been categorized based on the underlying mathematical representation of the aerophysics. Further, the use of maximum value statistics, which has been used to further improve the results where short-duration time records have been employed, is discussed.
CURRENT
2008-02-14
Standard
AIR5866
“An Assessment of Planar Waves” provides background on some of the history of planar waves, which are time-dependent variations of inlet recovery, as well as establishing a hierarchy for categorizing various types of planar waves. It further identifies approaches for establishing compression-component and engine sensitivities to planar waves, and methods for accounting for the destabilizing effects of planar waves. This document contains an extensive list and categorization (see Appendix A) of references to aid both the newcomer and the practitioner on this subject. The committee acknowledges that this document addresses only the impact of planar waves on compression-component stability and does not address the impact of planar waves on augmenter rumble, engine structural issues, and/or pilot discomfort.
HISTORICAL
2016-10-13
Standard
AIR5826A
This document provides a review of published methods that have been used to provide estimates of the levels of distortion and/or the concomitant loss of stability pressure ratio that can occur when the recommended full complement of aerodynamic interface plane high-response instrumentation is not used when obtaining inlet data. The methods have been categorized based on the underlying mathematical representation of the aerophysics. Further, the use of maximum value statistics, which has been used to further improve the results where short-duration time records have been employed, is discussed.
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