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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1933
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3315
Alexandre de Almeida Guimarães
It is clearly perceived the exponential growth of on-board electronics on several technological segments. On aerospace segment that is not different. Besides those propulsion and navigation fundamentals systems, necessary on most part of the aircrafts, many complex electronic systems are required: for the treatment of information sent by either landed equipments or other aircrafts (often found on military applications), and for comfort and entertainment systems (most related to passenger transportation applications). In any case, the amount of available and exchangeable information between these systems is fairly huge. Such data exchange would be easier performed if were made through the application of a communication protocol. This paper lists and analyses the communication protocols used by most part of the current and future aircrafts. The intention of this document is to be a study guideline of avionics related protocols.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3474
Paulo Henriques Iscold Andrade de Oliveira, Rogério Pinto Ribeiro, Ricardo Luiz Utsch de Freitas Pinto, Luciano Saraiva Resende, Fabrizio Nicolosi, Domenico Pietro Coiro, Nicola Genito
This paper present the instrumentation procedure used in order to determine the performance, stability and control characteristics of the light aircraft CEA-205 CB-9 Curumim. The instrumentation used is: i) autonomous acquisition system using micro controllers; ii) solid state inertial platform; iii) pitot probe; iv) attack and sideslip angle indicators; v) potentiometer on control system; vi) load cell on control system; vii) propeller tachometer; viii) barometer; ix) thermometer and x) GPS. Assembly and calibration detail procedures are presented with some results obtained on typical maneuvers. This work, in development on the Center for Aeronautical Studies of Federal University of Minas Gerais (CEA/UFMG) and on the Department of Aeronautical Engineering of Naples University (DPA), intend to assembly a system in order to perform low cost flight tests on light aircrafts.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5657
Ian A. Maddock
Flying wing aircraft predate the First World War. The flying wing theoretically offers both aerodynamic efficiency and structural simplicity. Early efforts to develop the flying wing concept led to an increased interest in tailless and semi-tailless aircraft that eventually led to delta wings and swept wing planforms. Early flying wings were plagued by stability and control problems that have not been fully addressed until recently. The flying wing approach, however, still appears to be suitable only for aircraft that do not need to have high maneuverability and agility capabilities, such as long-range bombers or perhaps large transports. This paper surveys the long history of attempts to create flying wing aircraft.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5605
Jean H. Slane, Robert C. Winn
If an airplane crashes, the recorded radar data can be used to reconstruct a time history of the airplane’s calibrated airspeed, load factor, excess thrust, bank angle, etc. Previous work on this problem has used a rectilinear approach to the calculations involved in the flight parameter reconstruction. The rectilinear approach gives excellent results for relatively straight flight; however, it routinely underestimates the airspeed and the bank angle when the airplane is maneuvering. In the present study, the authors present a curvilinear approach to flight parameter reconstruction that addresses this shortcoming. The analysis presented shows that the curvilinear approach is a far superior tool than the rectilinear approach for the reconstruction of maneuvering flight including steep turns and high-speed spirals.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5611
Oleg A. Yakimenko
The present paper considers the general aspects and mathematical foundation of the subsystem of on-board universal pilot’s support system, which provides pilot’s control actions support during more or less long-term maneuvers, such as take-off and climbing, flight on a route, surface-based target attack (in case of military aircraft), descent and landing via shortcut-time on-board optimization of spatial trajectories and their head-up display visualization in the view of “road-in-the-sky” image for further tracking in “director with sight” regime or (semi) automatic mode. There are mentioned briefly the main ideas of two specially designed for this purpose “fast” modifications of the direct method of calculus of variations. One (for short-term trajectories with strong restrictions on controls) based on 5th-7th order polynomial approximation; the second (for flight on a route) based on spline approximation.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5588
R. A. Faerber, T. G. Sharpe, T. J. Etherington, S. S. Chappell, T.R. Barnes, T. L. Vogl, S. M. Zellers, D. H. Hartley, J. A. Klein, R. D. Jinkins
Tomorrow’s flight deck will contain avionics similar in nature to today’s aircraft. However, tomorrow’s avionics display formats and the manner in which pilots will interact with and control those displays will be significantly different. These differences will be for the benefit of the pilot and allow him/her to intuitively interact with their equipment, increase their performance, and heighten the safety of all passengers aboard. This paper will highlight some of the advanced avionics display formats and control technologies that the Human Interface Technology Group of Rockwell Collins, Inc. Advanced Technology Center (ATC) have been investigating over the last year and provide recommendations for future research efforts.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2770
Lejun Chen PhD, Ronald Patton
This work is motivated through a research study ADDSAFE funded by the European Commission, following an interest in implementing mixed linear parameter varying (LPV) H_/H✓ model-based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methodology for detecting nonlinear actuator faults for flight control system. The main design goal is to maximize the robustness of the residual signal to uncertainty and disturbances whilst also achieving the specific minimum sensitivity of the residual signal to faults. The specific minimum sensitivity index used is based on the H_ index concept and is extended to the LPV FDD system problem. This allows the fault signature for multiple sensor and actuator faults to be reconstructed simultaneously, facilitating the robust isolation of faults rather than just their detection.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2769
Georges Hardier, Cédric seren, Pierre Ezerzere
The introduction of Fly-By-Wire (FBW) and the increasing level of automation contribute to improve the safety of civil aircraft significantly. These technological steps permit the development of advanced capabilities for detecting, protecting and optimizing A/C guidance and control. Accordingly, this higher complexity requires extending the availability of aircraft states, some flight parameters becoming key parameters to ensure a good behaviour of the flight control systems. Consequently, the monitoring and consolidation of these signals appear as major issues to achieve the expected autonomy. Two different alternatives occur to get this result. The usual solution consists in introducing many functionally redundant elements (sensors) to enlarge the way the key parameters are measured. This solution corresponds to the classical hardware redundancy, but penalizes the overall system performance in terms of weight, power consumption, space requirements, and extra maintenance needs.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2805
Maxime Lastera, Eric Alata, Jean Arlat, Yves Deswarte, David Powell, Bertrand Leconte, Cristina Simache
Traditionally, software in avionics has been totally separated from open-world software, in order to avoid any interaction that could corrupt critical on-board systems. However, new aircraft generations need more interaction with off-board systems to offer extended services, which makes these information flows potentially dangerous. In a previous work, we have proposed the use of virtualization to ensure dependability of critical applications despite bidirectional communication between critical on-board systems and untrusted off-board systems. We have developed a test bed to assess the performance impact induced by the use of virtualization. In this work, various configurations have been experimented that range from a basic machine without an OS up to the complete architecture featuring a hypervisor and an OS running in a virtual machine. Several tests (computation, memory, network) are carried out, and timing measures are collected on different hypervisors.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2711
Marc Boyer, Jorn Migge, Marc Fumey
Avionics systems distributed on AFDX networks are subject to stringent real-time constraints that require the system designer to have techniques and tools to guarantee the worst case traversal time of the network (WCTT) and thus ensure a correct global real-time behavior of the distributed applications/functions. The network calculus is an active research area based on the (min,+) algebra, that has been developed to compute such guaranteed bounds. There already exists several academics implementations but no up to date industrial implementation. To address this need, the PEGASE project gathers academics and industrial partners to provide a high quality, efficient and safe tool for the design of avionic networks using worst case performance guarantees. The PEGASE software is an up-to-date software in the sense that it integrates the latest results of the theories, in tight cooperation with academics researchers.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0256
Sérgio Roberto Ferreira Machado, Marcelo de Oliveira e Souza
Avionics Systems are increasingly used to perform safety-critical functions at high altitudes. But their increasing capacity and concentration of memory and logics leads to more frequent occurrences of single event upsets, especially in high altitudes. In this work we discuss the effects and mitigation of single event upsets on avionics systems to help in developing future requirements. To do that we initially present the concepts of radiation environment of the atmosphere, radiation induced errors, single event upsets, etc. Then, we discuss some of their effects on avionic systems and ways of mitigation. Finally, we discuss provisions to demand the adoption of such mitigation measures, and their sufficiency. This will help in developing future requirements to accomplish the objectives of a safe operation of civil transportation aircraft.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0182
Gitsuzo B. S. Tagawa, Marcelo L. O. Souza
The use of control architectures with the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept (“IMA architectures”) in aerospace and the Integrated Modular Electronics (IME) concept (“IME architectures”) in automotive applications is growing due to its reduced number of hardware such as processors, Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) and Electronic Control Units (ECUs), thereby reducing weight and costs. Furthermore, IMA architectures can perform complex reconfigurations in the case of failures and adapt themselves to changes in network functioning or operating modes, which make a control system very robust. The objective of this work is to discuss the use of an IMA architecture to simulate an aerospace control system responsible for maintaining a vehicle in a predetermined trajectory. To do that, we review the current literature related to IMA architectures and give an overview of their characteristics. Then, we choose an aerospace control system and discuss its simulation using an IMA platform.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0330
Humberto Manelli Neto, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
On several engineering applications high Reliability is one of the most wanted features. The aspects of Reliability play a key role in design projects of aircraft, spacecraft, automotive, medical, bank systems, and so, avoiding loss of life, property, or costly recalls. The highly reliable systems are designed to work continuously, even upon external threats and internal Failures. Very convenient is the fact that the term 'Failure' may have its meaning tailored to the context of interesting, as its general definition refers to it as "any deviation from the specified behavior of a system". The above-mentioned 'deviation' may refer to: performance degradation, operational misbehavior, deviation of environmental qualification levels, Safety hazards, etc. Nevertheless, Reliability is not the only requirement for a modern system. Other features as Availability, Integrity, Security and Safety are always part of the same technical specification, in a same level of importance.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2569
Atindra K. Mitra, Keith W. Jones
An architecture for thermal management of avionics and electronics systems based on integrated electronics and thermal design at the PCB board level is introduced. Advantages of this approach include the reduction of the number of external components that are required in relation to existing approaches to advanced liquid-based thermal management techniques along with other gains in efficiency due to the PCB board-level adaptivity that is embedded in this design solution. In addition, this type of system can potentially be implemented as a sealed self-contained solution that will allow maintenance personnel to avoid dealing to hazardous cooling compounds as part of the system maintenance procedures.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0519
Sergio Roberto Ferreira Machado, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Avionics Systems are increasingly used to perform safety-critical functions at high altitudes. But their increasing capacity and concentration of memory and logics leads to more frequent occurrences of single event upsets, especially in high altitudes. In this work we discuss the process of eliciting and validating requirements to handle single events upsets in avionic systems. To do that we initially summarize and update the concepts of radiation environment of the atmosphere, radiation induced errors, single event upsets, etc. presented in a previous paper. Then, we discuss some of their effects on avionic systems and ways of mitigation, reported in the literature. Finally, we discuss provisions to demand the adoption of such mitigation measures, and their sufficiency by transforming them into requirements, according to recommendations of compliance described in standards as SAE ARP 4754A and RTCA DO-254.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2111
Tim King
Developers of certified, safety-critical avionics software face many challenges. A key challenge arises when software developed for one system is reused in another system. Given the features and capabilities of most Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) safety-critical Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOSs), reusing software in a different target environment means modifying that software and re-incurring costly certification activities (e.g., DO-178B [1]). This paper discusses some of the unique features of DDC-I's Deos: a time and space partitioned, safety-critical RTOS. Using these features, safety-critical software developers can reconfigure and adapt their software for reuse in new systems without the need to modify that software and incur costly re-certification activities.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2119
Vincent Rossignol, Christophe Bey
Cockpit Display System (CDS) suppliers need to now prepare for the cockpits of the future. The architecture, design and ergonomics of the cockpits have to be re-assessed in order to place the pilot at the center of the system, while taking into account the increasing complexity of the systems. Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) have to be simplified and made more intuitive. Thus, there is a need for dedicated HMI design tools and human-factor-oriented processes that are able to support both the required flexibility in the display creation for various types of interactive displays and the increasing demand for safety in avionics displays. This paper presents a COTS approach to these needs, which combines the SCADE Display model-based HMI software design solution, designed from the ground up for displays with safety objectives, with an associated prototyping and development process largely based upon human factors assessment.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2121
Jean-Marie Begis
Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) Systems have gradually entered the Flight Deck environments of Air Transport and General Aviation aircraft to support ‘paperless cockpit’ needs. The EFB delivers information management capabilities as an open computing and touch screen-based display in the cockpit. As reflected by the Air Transport Association (ATA) Spec 2200, which defines Information Standards for Aviation Maintenance, there is a generic need for Aircraft Systems that support methods of storing, updating and retrieving digital information traditionally provided on paper: Chapter 46 of this document classifies such needs in terms of Flight Deck Information Systems, Maintenance Information Systems and Passenger Cabin Information Systems. This article outlines how the EFB system capabilities may evolve along with aircraft maintenance information systems to deliver further levels of information management capabilities to pilots as well as flight operations data integration benefits.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2113
Carlos Lopes Nunes, Samoel Mirachi, Alexander Bento Melo, John Macauley
Embraer began development of an ARINC 661-compliant cockpit display system with Esterel Technologies SCADE Solutions for ARINC 661 Applications. Over the past two years, Embraer has been able to build a fully-functional ARINC 661 demonstrator that includes all components necessary for CDS deployment under the ARINC 661 standard. The ARINC 661 demonstrator includes a fully-compliant ARINC 661 server based originally on Esterel Technologies SCADE 661 Server Creator using an automatic server generator. Embraer had successfully integrated a custom ARINC 661-4, widgets library, with Esterel Technologies widget library, designed with SCADE as the base. Embraer has also developed and integrated User Applications running on a IMA hardware system and communicating with the server using UDP over AFDX within a flight simulator system. This paper discuss the process followed by Embraer for development of the ARINC 661 demonstrator.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2124
Troy P. Troshynski
Deterministic Ethernet technologies are becoming the primary backbone communications network for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) system architectures. ARINC-664 Part 7 and AS6802 (TTEthernet) are two examples of deterministic Ethernet implementations. In order to ensure optimal performance, and predictable deterministic operations, all components of ARINC-664 and AS6802 networks must have all communications parameters statically pre-configured unlike their dynamically configured and adaptive counterparts used commonly in data communications networks. Additionally, these deterministic Ethernet technologies require unique test, integration, and simulation solutions. Standard Ethernet testing tools typically do not provide the special set of features needed to support effective and efficient verification and validation of IMA systems based on deterministic Ethernet.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2238
Donald J. Kessler
This paper presents an investigation into the feasibility of utilizing commercial off the shelf (COTS) components to implement an optically linked embedded electromechanical actuator (EMA) for aircraft flight control. A joint 1990s USAF, USN, NASA Electrically Powered Actuator Design (EPAD) program sought to replace hydraulically powered aircraft actuators with those powered electrically, either Electrohydrostatic (EHA) or Electromechanical (EMA). A follow-on NASA research effort in 1992 sought to then replace the electrical control links associated with the EHA/EMA with fiber-optic technology [1][2]. Attempts at implementing an optically-linked EMA while successful, experienced technical challenges and exposed fundamental limitations and shortfalls in some of the COTS technologies available at that time.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2149
James Harrington
Many avionics and aircraft equipment manufacturers use DO-160 [Ref. 1] Section 22 to test their equipment for indirect effects of lightning without understanding why they are testing to specific values. Many aircraft manufacturers struggle with determining the level of indirect lightning that will be acceptable for their vehicle and what level of requirements they need to pass down to the avionics and aircraft equipment manufacturers. Organizations like SAE and RTCA, Inc. work to collect data on lightning and spend countless hours assimilating the information and developing documents to help engineers use the information. They struggle with knowing what data is pertinent and how it will be received and used by the engineering community.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2203
Street A. Barnett, Zachary Lammers, Benjamin Razidlo, Quinn Leland, Justin DelMar
An Electromechanical Actuation System (EMAS) are an important component for an all electric Aircraft. EMAS would be lighter and require less system maintenance and operational costs than hydraulic actuators, typically used in aircraft systems. Also, hydraulic actuation systems require a constant power load to maintain hydraulic pressure, whereas EMAS only use power when actuation is needed. The technical challenges facing EMAS for aircraft primary flight control includes jam tolerance, thermal management, wide temperature range, high peak electric power draw, regenerative power, installation volume limit for thin wings, etc. This paper focuses on a laboratory test setup to simulate EMAS flight control environment to test and evaluate three important performance parameters of EMAS; thermal management, transient peak power draw, and regenerative power.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2136
Charles F. Huber, Bradley B. Hammel
Raytheon Missile Systems (RMS) is performing an integration of Universal Armament Interface (UAI) Mission Store, with a UAI compatible Carriage System and UAI Platform. The program design requirements for the Threshold Platforms, Carriage Systems and Mission Stores required the implementation of the Universal Armament Interface (UAI). To allow the RMS team to successfully integrate the RMS Mission Store with the Aircraft Platforms, and to support the verification of all interface requirements, RMS designed and built a highly representative UAI Mission Store simulator. In addition, significant effort was required to design and implement the supporting hardware and software required for control and analysis of the UAI devices (Carriage System and Mission Stores). The hardware platform (Mission Store Simulator) and software analysis systems were developed to implement the first “Advanced” Universal Armament Interface (UAI) integration.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2132
Devesh Bhatt, Gabor Madl, David Oglesby
An approach is described for the static analysis of component models in an integrated context driven by system and software architecture configuration. This satisfies an important verification objective for the certification of avionics systems and can significantly reduce certification costs by identifying design problems early in the development cycle. The methodology is implemented in a toolset that performs the model-based integrated analysis of computing signal range, error bounds, and identifying design defects. Classes of design defects are described that are detected using this toolset and usage examples are presented.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0306
Rafael Navarenho de Souza, Leonardo Navarenho de Souza Fino
Abstract This paper describes how new transistors layouts can mitigate failures Induced by atmospheric radiation, focusing on the total ionizing dose (TID) effects. By conducting an experimental comparative study of the TID effects between the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) manufactured with new layouts proposals and the standard layout (Conventional), for devices exposed to 10 keV X-ray irradiation using a Shimadzu XRD-7000 equipment, this paper suggests a new approach of layouts to have a better performance in radiation environment with low cost impact, lower power consumption, more speed and they could keep robustness and reliability.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0377
Alain Giacobini Souza, Luiz Carlos Gadelha Souza
Abstract In designing of the Attitude Control System (ACS) is important take into account the influence of the structure’s flexibility, since they can interact with the satellite rigid motion, mainly, during translational and/or rotational maneuver, damaging the ACS pointing accuracy. In the linearization and reduction of the rigid-flexible satellite mathematic model, usually one loses some important information associated with the satellite true dynamical behavior. One way to recovery this information is include to the ACS design parametric and not parametric uncertainties of the system. The H infinity control method is able to take into account the parametric uncertainty in the control law design, so the controller becomes more robust. This paper presents the design of a robust controller using the H infinity control technique to control the attitude of a rigid-flexible satellite.
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320042
Harold Gatty
HEREIN the author describes methods and shows instruments, tables, scales and curves used for air navigation. The ground-speed-and-drift meter devised by him and used with such remarkable success in the round-the-world flight with Wiley Post in less than nine days, on which the author was navigator, is illustrated and described. Much has been accomplished in the last few years in providing methods and equipment for quickly and accurately determining the position and laying the correct course of aircraft, but considerable improvement remains to be made in instruments, particularly sextants. No one method of navigation can be used under all conditions; a combination of four is necessary to achieve the best results.
1957-01-01
Technical Paper
570144
EDWARD L. BRAUN, GEOFFREY POST
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