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Viewing 1 to 30 of 649
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0558
Renato Oliveira de Magalhaes, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
The supply of electrical power is one of the most important functions required by the diverse payloads of satellites. A fault in the corresponding subsystem might lead to mission or even vehicle loss. Among the causes of such faults, we highlight the phenomenon of thermal avalanche in batteries. It can be explained as an energetic unbalance where the rate of heat generated in the interior of the system exceeds its capacity to dissipate it. This occurred to the OAO1 of NASA just after its launch on April 8, 1966; and with the CBERS2 of CAST and INPE already in orbit in 2007 and 2009. This work presents a discussion on the causes and effects of thermal avalanches in artificial satellite battery charging and discharging systems.
2012-10-22
Journal Article
2012-01-2211
Terrill B. Atwater, Paula Tavares
The benefits of lithium battery systems lie within their high energy density (Wh/L) and high specific energy (Wh/kg). Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is an attractive active cathode material because of its high energy density and low material cost. Manganese dioxide is an intercalating compound for lithium that functions by solvating and desolvating lithium cations from the electrolyte in solid state. The lithium cations are deposited into the vacancies of the MnO2 cathode crystal structure. The objective of this effort focuses on the limited cycle life of rechargeable lithium manganese-based electrochemical systems, most importantly capacity fading of the cathode. These two characteristics are considered the major technology hurdles in rechargeable lithium battery technology.1, 2, 3, 4
2012-10-22
Journal Article
2012-01-2200
David A. Wetz, Biju Shrestha, Peter M. Novak
The desire of the US Department of Defense (DoD) to field new directed energy systems for a variety of applications increases daily. This desire stems from recent advances in energy storage and solid-state switch technologies, which enable researchers to make systems more compact and energy dense than ever before. While some systems can draw power from the mobile platform on which they are mounted, other systems need to operate independent of a platform and must be completely self-sufficient. The transient and repetitive operation of these directed energy systems requires that the prime energy source provide high power to intermediate energy storage devices. The ability of electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, to source high power quickly has previously been limited. However, battery manufacturers have recently produced cells that are more power dense then previously available.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0347
Seok-san Shin, Hyeongjin Ham, Hyeongcheol Lee
In electronic vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electronic vehicles (HEVs), an inverter system has a direct-current-link capacitor (DC-link capacitor) which provides reactive power, attenuates ripple current, reduces the emission of electromagnetic interference, and suppresses voltage spikes. A film capacitor has been used as the DC-link capacitor in high level power system, but the film capacitor's performance has deteriorated over operating time. The decreasing performance of the film capacitor may cause a problem when supplying and delivering energy from the battery to the vehicle's power system. Therefore, the lifetime prediction of the film capacitor could be one of critical factors in the EVs and HEVs. For this reason, the lifetime and reliability of the film capacitor are key factors to show the stability of the vehicle inverter system. There are a lot of methods to predict the lifetime of the film capacitor.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2201
M. Schuller, T. Lalk, L. Wiseman, F. Little, O. Godard, S. Abdel-Fattah, R. Askew, D. Klaus, R. Kobrick, G. Thomas, M. Rouen, B. Conger
Conceptual designs for a space suit Personal Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) were developed and assessed to determine if upgrading the system using new, emerging, or projected technologies to fulfill basic functions would result in mass, volume, or performance improvements. Technologies were identified to satisfy each of the functions of the PLSS in three environments (zero-g, Lunar, and Martian) and in three time frames (2006, 2010, and 2020). The viability of candidate technologies was evaluated using evaluation criteria such as safety, technology readiness, and reliability. System concepts (schematics) were developed for combinations of time frame and environment by assigning specific technologies to each of four key functions of the PLSS -- oxygen supply, waste removal, thermal control, and power.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3082
Marco Molina, Matteo Giacomazzo, Paolo Sabatini, Christian Vettore, Giovanni Annoni, Michela Angelucci
The satellite AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero, “Light Gamma Ray Imaging Detector”) is a promising instrument for near-earth space research of the Italian Space(ASI) during the years 2007-2009: its scientific instrumentation has optimal imaging capabilities in both the gamma-ray energy range (30 MeV - 30 GeV) and hard X-ray range (15 - 45 keV). It will study the phenomena occurring in the high energy spectrum, such as: Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma Ray Bursts, Gamma-ray Galactic Diffuse Emission, and more. The satellite was designed and built in years 2004-2006; this paper describes the design of the thermal control system of the satellite, with a survey of the flight prediction. As an example of uncertainty reduction, MLI performance characterization by test was done in an early phase of the AIV phase (i.e. well before the system level test), to meet stringent payload requirements in terms of temperature gradients and temperature stability.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929081
James P. Noon, Bo H. Cho, Fred C. Lee
The multi-module, multi-phase (MMMP) charger is compared to a single-module (SM) charger to identify potential performance improvements. The advantages of the MMMP charger are documented. This paper then details the design of the MMMP battery charger. The battery charger was developed as part of the NASA EOS Space Platform Testbed Project.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929094
A. Subrahmanyam, M. S. Suresh, B. L. Agrawal
Abstract A real time life cycle test, simulating geosynchronous orbit operation, on two Ni-Cd cells and one Ni - H2 cell is in progress. Some significant observations on their cycle performance are reported and discussed in this paper.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929106
H. Vaidyanathan, W. H. Kelly, M. W. Earl
The heat dissipated during various rates of charge, overcharge, and discharge of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) cell was measured using a radiative-type calorimeter. A flight configuration-type Ni/H2 cell was prepared for this study by wrapping the 4-in.-wide cylindrical portion with heater tape and insulating the two dome ends with 10 layers of aluminized Mylar. The radiating surface was limited to the cylindrical portion of the cell. The calorimeter consisted of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled copper chamber arranged inside a vacuum jar. Since the experiments were not performed under isothermal conditions, the term was included in the equation used to calculate heat dissipation. Experimentally measured heat values were compared against those calculated using a thermoneutral potential of 1.51 V.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929110
Hong S. Lim
Abstract Open circuit storage tests of discharged Ni/H2 cells have been carried out at 20°C to understand effects of cell design parameters on capacity fading with storage and determine capacity fading mechanism. Cell design parameters studied include variations in the electrode substrate (dry powder or wet slurry sinter), active material impregnation technique (alcoholic or aqueous bath), cobalt additive concentrations (4 to 10%), KOH concentration (26 or 31%), and cell precharge (nickel or H2). Precharge had the most dominant effect of all parameters. When cells had nickel precharge, virtually no fading was observed with storage up to 188 days, while gradual fading was observed with all H2 precharged cells. Tendency of capacity fading of these cells depended on KOH concentration, impregnation technique, and cobalt concentration. Cell pressure changes with storage were consistent with build-up of electrochemically undischargeable active material with capacity fading.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929319
J. C. Garner
The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Johnson Controls Inc. (JCI) have joined together in a cooperative research and development effort to “space qualify” the JCI Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery. JCI is providing two (2) NiH2 batteries to NRL. One is for qualification tests and the second is for the flight experiment. NRL is responsible for the design, test and integration of the battery with an existing spacecraft electrical power system, launch of the battery with the host spacecraft, and providing data from the flight experiment. Since the intent of the experiment is to “space qualify” the JCI NiH2 CPV design, the battery will be “on-line” and fully charged during the launch of the host spacecraft. This paper will describe the NRL-JCI Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, the NiH2 CPV battery experiment design, and the qualification test program.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929325
Glenn C. Klein
Gates Aerospace Batteries has developed a dedicated reliability function in conjunction with an R & D effort for the NiMH couple. Thus, the preliminary reliability analyses and assessments are being performed in parallel to the NiMH cell design development. The NiMH cell development effort comes from two distinct directions within Gates Energy Products. First, the Gates Energy Products' Sub-C wound commercial NiCd cell is being used for extensive initial investigations. Second, the Gates Aerospace Batteries' mature NiCd Aerospace Product Line provides a close similarity to many of the design features to be used with the NiMH couple. Due to this close similarity, the baseline reliability assessment becomes the Design Trade-Off. The trade-off draws from these two distinct directions and develops an assessment of characteristic differences and from then on analyzes both the primary and secondary effects. The trade-off is categorized into four specific areas.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929326
Michelle A. Manzo
A cooperative agreement has been established between NASA and Gates Aerospace Batteries (GAB) to investigate modifications to the NASA Standard nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cell designs. These modifications are aimed at identifying the parameters required to maximize the life of Ni-Cd cells made with plates produced by the chemical impregnation process routinely used at Gates Aerospace Batteries. Modifications to positive plates, negative plates, separators, inter-electrode spacing, and electrolyte fill levels are being investigated. The initial evaluation involves variation of positive plate production parameters including nickel attack level as controlled by passivation and impregnation, loading level and impregnation technique; negative plate loading levels, negative to positive ratios and inter-electrode spacing.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921366
W. H. Kelly, H. Vaidyanathan
The thermal dissipation of a 48-Ah nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cell has been derived by testing it in a controlled radiative environment. Temperature profiles and corresponding cell thermal dissipations are presented for different battery discharge/charge cycles. A comparison between test results and theoretical predictions for battery dissipation is presented. The thermal capacitance of a Ni/H2 cell is computed from both test data and tabulation of individual cell component weight and specific heat.
1991-09-01
Technical Paper
912172
Richard Michael Haas
Batteries which are used in airborne electrical systems must provide a very high discharge current for APU starting and offer virtually maintenance free service. To achieve this kind of performance for hundreds of operational cycles, it is important to consider the behavior of a battery under actual operating conditions. Several functional parameters such as terminal voltage, state of charge, internal impedance and temperature are continuously changing depending on past and present operating conditions. In order to evaluate the available energy which a battery can deliver at any given time, it is necessary to maintain a log of the State Of Charge Index (SOCI). This numerical indicator is based on a functional relationship between terminal voltage, current flow, elapsed time and internal temperature. These parameters are continuously monitored and periodic measurements are converted into a standard index factor.
1991-04-01
Technical Paper
911160
Jeffrey P. Zagrodnik, Kenneth R. Jones
Abstract Johnson Controls, Inc. has developed a multiple cell CPV Nickel Hydrogen battery that offers significant weight, volume and cost advantages for aerospace applications. The baseline design was successfully demonstrated through the testing of a 26-cell prototype, which completed over 7,000 44% depth-of-discharge LEO cycles at COMSAT Laboratories. Prototype designs using both nominal 5″ and 10″ diameter vessels are currently being developed for a variety of space and aircraft applications. Nickel Hydrogen batteries are well established as an energy storage subsystem for commercial communication satellites. The standard design has been the Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), which provides an independent vessel for each cell of the battery. The comparative advantages of a Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design configuration, in which many series connected cells are contained in a single vessel, are widely recognized.
1991-07-01
Technical Paper
911409
Alain Lanteri, C.W.B. Potts, Peter Moeller, J. Held, H. Kreeb
Abstract The BSTCA (Battery Section Thermal Control Assembly) is a module of the Columbus MTFF (Man Tended Free Flyer). Electrical power required during eclipse periods, is made available from six nickel hydrogen batteries. A sophisticated multi-radiator configuration, with a hybrid heat pipe network, has evolved. Autonomous control of the assembly heat rejection capability has been achieved by a integrated network of LTHP's (Liquid Trap Heat Pipes) and CCHP's (Constant Conductance Heat Pipes) under the control of a conventional HCU (Heater Control Unit). The process of design selection and verification is discussed, for the BSTCA, with a detailed LTHP component presentation.
1991-07-01
Technical Paper
911447
Jost Munder, Manfred Bader, Peter Moeller
The thermal control subsystem of the Columbus Resource Module has to cope with an unusual variety of orbit attitudes, mission modes and configurations. A short overview over the past RM thermal concepts is given and the present thermal design is described in detail. A passive concept with extensive use of heatpipes configured as network is baselined. The low available heater power in conjunction with the significant dissipation variations of th NiH2 batteries require there a very effective heat rejection control concept. A new regulation concept has been selected which allows to switch off up to 75% of the battery radiator area by use of Liquid Trap Heatpipes. The verification concept which does not use system level testing is briefly described.
1990-08-01
Technical Paper
901511
Russell Read, Doug Raponi, Brian Kemp, Eric Thatcher, Pat Rutkauskas, Tom Sherwin
Clarkson University is one of 32 teams competing in the GM SunRayce USA during July 1990. This paper describes design strategy and results for the electrical systems of the Kalahkwaneha. In particular, the solar array, power trackers, drive train, instrumentation, telemetry and safety features are examined.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929259
Edmond K. Tajirian
Mathematical modeling of the Ni-H2 cell based on the fundamental electrochemical processes is necessary for accurately simulating the battery behavior on Space Station Freedom. Accurate predictions are incorporated as part of the development of the Space Station Electric Power System simulation. This simulation will be used to develop and test control algorithms which will maximize the available power in the most efficient way. This is a deviation from the approach used on smaller satellite power systems which are designed with substantial margin. Hence, the use of an empirical battery model is not feasible due to its low fidelity. This paper covers the electrochemical theory related to the Ni-H2 cells, and the analysis of experimental data used to develop relations between the cell state of charge and certain cell properties. Theoretical results are compared against well-documented experimental data.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929221
Larry Trase, Don Fong, Vicki Adkins, Arthur Birchenough
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is responsible for the development, fabrication, and assembly of the electric power system (EPS) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Systems Testbed was assembled to support the design and early evaluation of SSF EPS operating concepts. The PMAD Systems Testbed represents a portion of the SSF EPS, containing intelligent switchgear, power conditioning devices, and the EPS Controllers. The PMAD Systems Testbed facility is discussed, including the power sources and loads available. A description of the PMAD Data System (PDS) is presented. The PDS controls the testbed facility hardware, monitors and records the EPS control data bus and external data. The external data includes testbed voltages and currents along with facility temperatures, pressures, and flow rates. Transient data is collected utilizing digital oscilloscopes.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929459
K. Murugesan, S. Arvamudhan, N. R. Pillai, M. J. Nair, P. Satyanarayana, Sadananda Kini, A. Subrahmanyam, B. L. Agrawal
Abstract Space quality 12Ah hermetically sealed, dry powder sintered plaque, electrochemically impregnated prismatic nickel cadmium cells with special negative treatment have been designed and developed by Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), a unit of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for use on LEO Satellites. Five cells have undergone detailed qualification tests and are undergoing real time life cycling at ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC). This paper gives details of the cell development and testing and discusses certain aspects like negative treatment, cell storage and cycling test results of 6000 cycles which have been completed so far.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929458
Kensuke Nakatani, Yoshiaki Yano, Hideki Fukuda, Saburo Kuwajima
Abstract Three separator materials; nylon (NY), polypropylene (PP) and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS), were evaluated by accelerated cycle test of 35AH aerospace NiCd cells. The failure mode of cells with the NY separator is different from the other. The result of these test suggest that the NY separator will satisfy with required mission life of 1000 cycles in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) and 20000 cycles in low earth orbit (LEO) under the condition of controlled cell temperature at 20°C. Also, the washed NY separator was compared with the unwashed NY separator by semi-real GEO cycle. During early cycles, the washed separator cells showed a slight degradation of cell capacity as compared with the unwashed separator cells. After 1000 cycles, the washed separator cells show greater capacity degradation than the washed cells.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929460
Dwaine Coates, Chris Fox, Lee Miller
Nickel and silver-metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications by Eagle-Picher. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems. Nickel-metal hydride batteries have twice the gravimetric energy density of nickel-cadmium and twice the volumetric energy density of nickel-hydrogen. Silver-metal hydride batteries have the potential of three times the energy density of nickel-metal hydride and exhibit superior charge retention characteristics. Aerospace metal hydride batteries are hermetically sealed, operate at low pressure and are prismatic in geometry. They exhibit excellent overcharge and overdischarge capability. Preliminary calorimetry data indicates superior thermal performance as compared to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries. Some initial AC impedance spectroscopy work has been completed on both metal-hydrogen and metal-hydride battery systems.
1999-06-22
Technical Paper
1999-01-2351
Frank Drumm
The flashover voltage characteristics of different types of segmented diverter strips were determined. Especially the resistive layer on the rear side of the strip, which protect the strip from electrostatic discharges, has a major influence on the flashover characteristics. The voltage waveform A defined in many aircraft standards with a voltage steepness of 1000 kV/μs ± 50% does not lead to the highest flashover voltages. With a lower voltage steepness, typically between 1 and 10 kV/μs, the flash-over voltages can increase by a factor of four. Analytical investigations can give explanations for this behaviour. The voltage distribution along the segmented diverter strips changes from a capacitive controlled voltage distribution to a resistive controlled voltage distribution when reducing the voltage steepness.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2307
C. Damasio, B. Miedza, J.P. Guerin, P. Oger, J.A. Romera Perez
The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a European Space Agency (ESA) servicing and logistics transportation system for the periodic re-supply of the International Space Station (ISS). The ATV will be launched by Ariane 5 and will provide the following services to the ISS: refuelling of the ISS (transfer of fuel from ATV to the station), reboost of the ISS (increasing the station’s orbit altitude, using the ATV’s propulsion system), delivery of cargo such as compressed air, water and pressurised payloads to the station, destruction of waste from the station. The ATV is composed of the so-called Spacecraft (SC) and an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC). The Spacecraft includes the propulsion, reboost and attitude control systems, the avionics and the solar generator system.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2456
K. A. Goncharov, O. A. Golovin, V. A. Kolesnikov, Shen Cong, Zhao Xiaoxiang
In 1995 TAIS Ltd developed and manufactured a Thermal Control System (TCS) for Nickel-Cadmium Batteries (NCB) based on Loop Heat Pipes (LHP). This TCS was ordered for the Chinese meteorological satellite FY-1C by Shanghai Institute of Spacecraft Engineering. The paper presents results of comparative analysis for some design features of the TCS, thermal vacuum test results, description of TCS layout for the NCB on board the FY-1 C satellite, test results for TSC after its integration into the satellite and flight telemetry data.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2433
Florian Gulden, Metin Seyrek
1 ABSTRACT Sandstalker is a manned, unpressurized vehicle that is designed for first exploration of Mars. It is a design study to outline another point of view considering mars exploration vehicles. It is designed to transport two astronauts and special scientific equipment to destinations up to a radius of 25 miles. It is a foldable and lightweight construction, so the transport in an average NASA transportation box is possible. The ability to move easily and safely across the martian surface results from the new construction of the wheels, the wheel arrangement and the wheel suspension. The spider-like structure of the vehicle offers an extreme maneuverability and supports the concept of an all-terrain vehicle able to surcome many different surface obstacles. The reduction of weight, improvement of the wheels and the seats in particular represents the main tasks of M.A.T.V.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2544
M. Molina, C. Pini, F. Schiavi, F. Bernelli Zazzera, F. Pamio
An experimental campaign is presented aiming at the characterization of thermal dissipation of batteries to be used on board of small satellites. A suitably designed device allows to manage automatically the orbital cycling simulation between battery cell charge and discharge. The cell thermal performance is characterized in various combinations of temperature, discharge current and Depth of Discharge. The gathered data are used for providing guidelines in the design of a family of Italian Small Satellites.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2275
Eric Sunada, Michael Pauken, Keith Novak, Charles Phillips, Gajanana Birur, Kurt Lankford
The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) flight system uses mechanical, paraffin-actuated heat switches as part of its secondary battery thermal control system. This paper describes the design, flight qualification, and performance of the heat switch. Although based on previous designs by Starsys Research Corporation1,2, the MER mission requirements have necessitated new design features and an extensive qualification program. The design utilizes the work created by the expansion of a paraffin wax by bringing into contact two aluminum surfaces, thereby forming a heat conduction path. As the paraffin freezes and contracts, compression springs separate the surfaces to remove the conduction path. The flight qualification program involved extensive thermal performance, structural, and life testing.
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