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Viewing 1 to 30 of 936
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2488
Cynthia Pederson, Richard M. Lueptow
A promising technology for recycling wastewater on long term space missions is rotating reverse osmosis (RO). Rotating RO utilizes Taylor vortices, a flow structure in the annulus of the device, that provide increased transport of the water through the RO membrane compared to conventional RO systems. A high pressure rotating RO filter and fluid circuit have been designed and fabricated for use in long term tests. Preliminary results indicate that an increase in the operating pressure by a factor of three can improve the flux by a factor of four while maintaining high rejection of the contaminants.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2489
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N., Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2468
W. Andrew Jackson, Audra Morse, Tania Ho, Greg Collins
Biological pre-treatment of liquid waste could potentially offer equivalent mass savings for long term space habitation. Previous work has demonstrated the technological feasibility. However, limited work has been conducted on optimizing the biological reactors or fully characterizing the biochemical transformations occurring within the reactors. The objective of these studies was to provide long-term operating data on a proposed and well studied reactor configuration, and explore the effects of RR on system performance. The water recovery system has been in successful operation for over 2 years. Data to be presented will include both typical removal efficiencies for nitrogen species, DOC as well as important water quality parameters. In addition the effect of recycle ratio (2X, 5X, 10X, and 20X) will be quantified.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2464
Kimberly L. Jones, Joffrey Leevy, Samantha LaHee
This study evaluates the use of microfiltration (MF), low pressure RO (LPRO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes for use in a treatment train for recycled wastewater. Specifically, a MF membrane will act as pretreatment for RO/NF membranes. Contaminants of concern for the membrane system include biosolids and surfactant micelles for the MF membrane, and ammonium ions, urea, surfactant monomers, and salts for the RO/NF system. These contaminants will be reduced to meet existing EPA and NASA standards using these membrane systems. The goal is to achieve high removal rates (>95% for these contaminants) while maintaining high flux and low fouling of the membranes, as membrane treatment is the last treatment step before final disinfection of the recycled wastewater. This paper outlines the experimental plan for designing the integrated membrane system and explains the potential benefits of such a system.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2462
Audra Morse, W. Andrew Jackson, Srikara Kaparthi
Simulated wastewater, known as early surface mission wastewater, treated in previous experiments at JSC and TTU included urinal flush water, shower water, humidity condensate, oral hygiene water, and hand wash water. In reality, there is a difference between the early surface mission wastewater and the International Space Station wastewater. The ISS does not have a shower or hand wash, which contributes approximately 59 percent of the make-up water treated. The average influent ammonia concentration in the simulated wastewater treated by the TTU water reclamation system frequently exceeds 500 mg/L. Removal of the shower make-up water in simulated wastewater will result in a significant increase in the ammonia concentration, resulting in higher influent pH values and ammonia concentrations that may be inhibitory. Biological treatment technologies have suitably treated the diluted waste stream but a more concentrated waste stream may present a greater challenge.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2461
Eric McLamore, Audra Morse, Andrew Jackson, Ken Rainwater
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of membrane-aerated bioreactors as long term microgravity compatible nitrifying biological water processors (BWP). A small-scale (1/20th) replica of the water recovery system (WRS) at JSC has been operated and extensively analyzed at Texas Tech University (TTU) for the last 3 years. The current nitrifying tubular reactor at JSC and TTU has experienced difficulty in maintaining efficiency and low maintenance. In an attempt to increase the efficiency of the biological portion of the WRS, a membrane-aerated bioreactor (MABR) was constructed and operated using the same parameters as the TTU-WRS in August 2003. The MABR is downstream of an anaerobic packed bed and is designed to promote nitrification (NH4 → NOx). The MABR achieved a percent nitrification of 61% and 55% for recycle ratios of 10 and 20, respectively.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2455
Hans-Dieter Seelig, David M. Klaus, Louis S. Stodieck, Alexander Hoehn
This study investigated the possibility of detecting water deficit stress in plants by using optical signals collected from leaves. Two theoretical approaches have been investigated. In principle, chlorophyll fluorescence can be used to measure generally stressful situations in plants. Our review, however, found that simple ratios of coarsely time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence, such as maximum fluorescence over fluorescence at steady state, appear to be incapable of adequately distinguishing water stress from other stress factors. A second principle being investigated involves correlation of light absorption within leaves to leaf-water-content using water absorbing and non-water absorbing wavelengths. Our investigation concentrated on defining and eliminating as many extraneous variables as possible.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2456
Jessica J. Prenger, Susan L. Steinberg, Daniel Haddock, Joey H. Norikane, Howard G. Levine
The WONDER space flight experiment will compare the operation of both substrate-based and porous tube nutrient delivery systems (NDS) under microgravity conditions. Each NDS will be evaluated with three moisture availability regimes, and moisture sensing will be critical for the operation and evaluation of the systems. Orbital Technologies (Madison, WI) has developed a space flight-rated temperature and moisture acquisition system (TMAS) for measuring water content of plant growth medium. The sensors were evaluated in 0.25-1 mm and 1-2 mm baked ceramic aggregate (Profile and Turface, respectively). The sensors' pooled standard deviations ranged from approximately 2% to 5% relative water content (RWC), and root mean square error between sensor RWC and measured RWC was greater than 3% using linear calibration.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2453
Laurie J. Peterson, Paul D. Bolton
The NASA Orbiter was designed with the ability to store a limited amount of wastewater on board. Due to several factors including the storage capacity of the waste tank, the number of crew members onboard, and the length of a mission, the Orbiter must vent wastewater overboard at regular intervals. During a typical Orbiter mission to the International Space Station (ISS), the Orbiter must vent a significant amount of wastewater at least once during the docked timeframe. A future ISS program requirement that affects the Orbiter while docked, is elimination of wastewater venting, specifically urine, once the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) is added to the orbiting facility. A working group was developed to address elimination of orbiter wastewater venting with members from both the Orbiter and ISS programs. Multiple options exist to meet this requirement.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2440
Todd M. Quasny, Larry D. Pyeatt
Abstract To make extended space missions, such as missions to Mars, a reality, an advanced life support system (ALS) must be developed that is able to utilize resources to their fullest capabilities [2]. In order to make such a system a reality, a robust control system must be developed that is able to cope with the complexity of an ALS. This work applies reinforcement learning (RL), a machine learning technique, to the task of controlling the water recovery system of a simulated ALS. The RL agent learns an effective control strategy that extends the mission length to the point that lack of water is no longer the cause of mission termination.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2365
John A. Hogan, Julie A. Levri, Rich Morrow, Jim Cavazzoni, Luis F. Rodriguez, Rebecca Riaño, Dawn R. Whitaker
An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL®) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPIS will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5556
George W. Thorpe
Aircraft potable (drinking) water systems haven’t changed significantly in the last half-century. These systems consist of cylindrical water tanks pressurized by bleed air from the jet engines, with insulated stainless steel distribution lines. What has changed recently is the increase in the possibility of aircraft picking up contaminated drinking water at foreign and domestic stops. Customer awareness of these problems has also changed - to the point where having reliable drinking water is now a competitive issue among airlines. Old style potable water systems that are used on modern aircraft are high maintenance and exacerbate the growth of microbes because the water is static much of the time. The integrity of some pressurized water tanks are also a concern after years of use. Cost-effective mechanical and biological solutions exist that can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals added and provide good potable water.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2406
David T. Wickham, Jeffrey Engel, Jianhan Yu, Tim Nalette, Catherine Thibaud-Erkey
As manned spacecraft travel farther from Earth, the cost of delivering the payloads to space increases dramatically. For example the cost of delivering a payload to low Earth orbit currently is about $10,000/lb. On the other hand the cost of delivering a payload to Mars may be up to 40 times greater and therefore missions to deep space place a strong emphasis on reducing launch weight and eliminating resupply requirements. The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system, which is being developed to purify water, is an example of this focus. In addition to having a lower launch weight than the Water Recycle System (WRS) currently used on the International Space Station, it also has no resupply requirements. A key step in the VPCAR system is the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons to benign compounds such as carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen. Currently platinum-based commercial oxidation catalysts are being used for these reactions.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2403
Frederick R. Holmes, Paul A. Chadik, David W. Mazyck, Chang-Yu Wu, M. Joanne Garton, Kevin W. Powers, Danielle J. Londeree
A prototype reactor was designed and tested to oxidize synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) without the use of expendable chemicals and without the need to separate the catalyst from the water after treatment. An annular continuous flow reactor with a nominal volume of 400 mL was packed with silica gel pellets that were doped with titania (TiO2) (12 wt%). The reactor was configured in a test stand with UV lamps in the center of the reactor. SOC oxidation experiments were performed in a recycle mode and in a single-pass mode. Five target analytes (acetone, chlorobenzene, ethyl acetate, toluene, and methylmethacrylate) were spiked (100 to 300 μg/L) into nano-pure water and recycled through the reactor until adsorption equilibrium was attained. UV lamps, which were shielded, were then uncovered, and effluent concentrations were monitored as a function of time. All of the compounds were degraded to below detection limit (5 μg/L) after an extended reaction period of 23 hours.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2540
Zoran Minevski, Alan Cisar, James Magnuson, Surya Shandy, Duncan Hitchens
Minimizing or eliminating the requirement for launching, storing and using hazardous solutions to carry out certain analytical procedures (i.e., water quality monitoring) would have a positive impact on in-flight operational efficiency and safety. We have developed a compact reagentless ion analyzer that features: (i) on-demand generation of acid and base from a benign salt solution; (ii) demonstrated the use of an electrochemical cell that operates as a high pressure pump with no moving parts; (iii) combined microengineered fluid management and sample handling through the use of a stackable components fabricated from light weight polymeric materials, and (iv) developed a compact system design that permits parallel processing and analysis of cations and anions. Through use of an electrochemical cell, salts from the waste stream can be efficiently recovered and reused in a cyclic fashion that significantly minimizes resource consumption.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2538
Zorana Naunovic, Dennis A. Lyn, Ernest R. Blatchley
The effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is governed by the UV dose to which microorganisms are exposed. In treatment operations, all UV disinfection systems deliver a distribution of UV doses. The ability to accurately estimate the dose distribution delivered by an operating UV system is a critical aspect of its design. Moreover, the availability of tools to accurately predict the dose distribution for an existing UV system makes it possible to develop reliable, quantitative predictions of process performance in these systems. The dose distribution can be estimated by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and UV radiation intensity field modeling. UV dose-distribution data is then coupled with UV dose-response behavior for target microorganisms to yield an estimate of process performance.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2516
Kelly L. Pennell, Ernest R. Blatchley
As part of the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training for Advanced Life Support (NSCORT-ALS) at Purdue University, a complementary disinfection process, which uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the primary disinfectant and iodine as the secondary, residual disinfectant, is being developed. UV radiation was selected as the primary disinfectant because it is effective at inactivating a broad spectrum of microorganisms and has minimal potential for the formation of disinfection byproducts. Iodine, which is effective at inactivating many microorganisms and is less likely to react and form disinfection byproducts than other halogens, was selected as the residual disinfectant because it has the potential for dual use as an on-line UV monitor, as well as a disinfectant.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2513
Sybil Sharvelle, M. Katherine Banks, Erin Maloney
Complete reuse of graywater will be essential during long duration human space missions. The highest loaded and most important component to remove from graywater is surfactant, the active ingredient in soaps and detergents. When considering a biological treatment system for processing of graywater, surfactant biodegradability becomes a very important consideration. Surfactants should be chosen that are degraded at a fast rate and yield inconsequential degradation byproducts. Experiments conducted for this research examined the biodegradation of the surfactants in Pert Plus for Kids, disodium cocoamphodiacetate (DSCADA) and sodium laureth-3 sulfate (SLES), using respirometry. Rates of CO2 production, or ultimate degradation, are reported. DSCADA was found to be toxic to bacteria when present at 270 ppm whereas no toxicity was observed during experiments with SLES.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2511
Shu Xia, Alison Carey, Theodore F. Wiesner, Audra Morse, Andrew Jackson
For prolonged manned spaceflight, recycling of wastewater is critical to minimize payload costs. We have constructed a pilot-scale, closed-loop water recycling system (CLWRS). Due to slow process dynamics, evaluation of multiple experimental scenarios is very time-consuming. To accelerate evaluation, we have developed mathematical models of the individual reactors, as well as a process model of the pilot plant, which combines nitrification, denitrification, recycle, and degassing steps. The simulation accurately reproduces the 35% total nitrogen (TN) reduction observed experimentally at a 20/1 recycle ratio. Both experiments and simulations indicate that biological CLWRS have significant potential for long-duration manned space flight.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2515
Leticia M. Vega, Lee Kerkhof, Lora McGuinness, Karen D. Pickering
A series of studies examined bacterial diversity and consortial stability in an anoxic bioreactor and correlated diversity and stability with functional performance, mechanical reliability, and stability. The evaluation was divided into four studies. During Study 1, replicate biological water processor (BWP) systems were operated to evaluate variability in the microbial diversity over time as a function of the initial consortia used for inoculation of the BWP reactors. Study 2 was designed to investigate the impact of an inoculum source on BWP performance. Study 3 was a modification of Study 2 where the primary focus was BWP performance and consortia change from inoculation until steady state operations. In Study 4, the reactors were divided into three different operational periods, based on the operational periods of the integrated water recovery test at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 2001.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240058
HUMPHREY F PARKER
Describing how the total weight of an airship becomes less as its flight continues and how its elevators can be used to keep the airship's nose pointed downward, thus balancing the excess lift by “dynamic lift,” the author says that 5 hr. is about the limit of flight for which the too great lightness can be overcome in this fashion safely, explains how different the conditions become on long flights and gives details of the means used to counteract this rising tendency. Valving of gas to overcome airship lightness is wasteful and costly, especially when the craft is inflated with helium gas but, if this is not done, some substance must be collected and stored at the same rate as that at which fuel is consumed in the engines and the most practicable method seems to be to recover water from the exhaust gases.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3175
Yonghui Ma, Chris Thomas, Ross Remiker, Sorin Manolache
A modular and scalable Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor was developed, which uses atmospheric-pressure electrical discharges under water to generate highly reactive species to break down organic contaminants and microorganisms. Key benefits of this novel technology include: (i) extremely high efficiency in both decontamination and disinfection; (ii) operating continuously at ambient temperature and pressure; (iii) reducing demands on the containment vessel; and (iv) requiring no consumables. This plasma based technology was developed to replace the catalytic reactor being used in the planned International Space Station Water Processor Assembly.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3142
Michael S. Roberts, Mary E. Hummerick, Sharon L. Edney, Patricia A. Bisbee, Michael R. Callahan, Sandy Loucks,, Karen D. Pickering, John C. Sager
This work describes the microbiological assessment and materials compatibility of a silver-based biocide as an alternative to iodine for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and future spacecraft potable water systems. In addition to physical and operational anti-microbial counter-measures, the prevention of microbial growth, biofilm formation, and microbiologically induced corrosion in water distribution and storage systems requires maintenance of a biologically-effective, residual biocide concentration in solution and on the wetted surfaces of the system. Because of the potential for biocide depletion in water distribution systems and the development of acquired biocide resistance within microbial populations, even sterile water with residual biocide may, over time, support the growth and/or proliferation of bacteria that pose a risk to crew health and environmental systems.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2342
John W. Fisher, John A. Hogan, Lance Delzeit, Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, Ric Alba, Gregory Pace, Thomas G Fox
Water is of critical importance to space missions due to crew needs and the cost of supply. To control mission costs, it is essential to recycle water from all available wastes - both solids and liquids. Water recovery from liquid water wastes has already been accomplished on space missions. For instance, a Water Recycling System (WRS) is currently operational on the International Space Station (ISS). It recovers water from urine and humidity condensate and processes it to potable water specifications. However, there is more recoverable water in solid wastes such as uneaten food, wet trash, feces, paper and packaging material, and brine. Previous studies have established the feasibility of obtaining a considerable amount of water and oxygen from these wastes (Pisharody et al, 2002; Fisher et al, 2008; Wignarajah et al, 2008).
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2384
Michael A. Serio, Marek A. Wójtowicz
Pyrolysis is a very versatile waste processing technology which can be tailored to produce a variety of solid, liquid and/or gaseous products. The pyrolysis processing of pure and mixed solid waste streams has been under investigation for several decades for terrestrial use and a few commercial units have been built for niche applications. The use of pyrolysis as a key step in solid waste processing in space has been under consideration by NASA for several years. A large component of the solid waste is from biomass sources (e.g., paper, food waste, human waste). A methodology has been developed to characterize a large number of biomass materials using a standard pyrolysis experiment in combination with a neural network model in order to classify the data. Such a methodology can be helpful in the design and operation of pyrolysis reactors for spacecraft applications.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2401
M. R. Callahan, A. Lubman, K. D. Pickering
Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential to the success of long-duration human missions to the moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, which is referred to as the cascade distillation subsystem (CDS), uses an efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. A CDS unit employing a five-stage distiller engine was designed, built, and delivered to the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing; an initial round of testing was completed in fiscal year 2008 (FY08). Based, in part, on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support Project distillation comparison test that is expected to begin in 2009.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2360
Robert Heinse, Scott B. Jones, Markus Tuller, Gail E. Bingham, Igor Podolskiy, Dani Or
Management of water, air and nutrients in coarse-textured porous plant-growth substrates relies not only on the relative amounts of fluids but also on their distribution within porous media. Integration of plants in future life support systems for space exploration raises the question of how fluid distributions in porous plant-growth substrates are altered under reduced gravitational conditions. Central to addressing this issue is the behavior of the water retention characteristic (WRC). WRC encapsulates fluid-porous medium interactions and is key for control of water supply to plants. The hysteretic nature of WRC implies non-homogenous water distributions between its primary draining and wetting curves. During dynamic drainage and wetting cycles, considerable water content gradients develop at separations of only a few pore lengths.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2352
D. Layne Carter
NASA has completed the delivery of the regenerative Water Recovery System (WRS) for the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the final effort to deliver the hardware to the Kennedy Space Center for launch on STS-126, the on-orbit status as of April 2009, and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2459
Niklas M. Adam
The stability of silver biocide, used to keep drinking water on the CEV potable water disinfected, is unknown as the system design is still in progress. Silver biocide in water can deplete rapidly when exposed to various metal surfaces. Additionally, silver depletion rates may be affected by the surface-area-to-volume (SA/V) ratios in the water system. Therefore, to facilitate the CEV water system design, it would be advantageous to know the biocide depletion rates in water exposed to the surfaces of these candidate metals at various SA/V ratios. Certain surface treatments can be employed to reduce the depletion rates of silver compared to the base metal.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2457
John F. Lewis, Richard A. Barido, Robyn Carrasquillo, Cynthia D. Cross, Ed Rains, George C. Tuan
The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the International Space Station and then later, from the Earth to the Moon . This year, the vehicle continued to go through design refinements to reduce weight, meet requirements, and operate reliably while preparing for Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2009. The design of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2008 to April 2009.
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