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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1866
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0594
Silviu Pala, Thomas Schnell, Nicole Lynn Becklinger, Carolina Giannotti, Bo Sun, Hiroaki Tanaka, Ifushi Shimonomoto
DENSO International America, Inc. and the University of Iowa-Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL) have developed a series of new Multi-Modal Interface for Drivers (MMID) in order to improve driver safety, comfort, convenience and connectivity. Three MMID concepts were developed: GUI 1, GUI 2 and GUI 1-HUD. All three of the MMIDs used a new Reconfigurable Haptic Joystick (RHJ) on the steering wheel and new concept HMI Dual Touch Function Switches (DTFS) device. The DTFS use capacitive and mechanic sensing located on the back of the steering wheel as input operation devices. Inputs from the new controls were combined with a large TFT LCD display in the instrument cluster, a Head Up Display (HUD) and Sound as output devices. The new MMID system was installed in a Lexus LS-430. The climate control panel and radio panels of the LS-430 were used as a baseline condition to which the new designs were compared.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2487
Brian Peacock
This paper explores the semantics of system design terminology with the purpose of facilitating communication during the design process. Entities, agents and systems are described by nouns. Activities, functions and processes are described by verbs. A system (noun) can only be designed by specifying its characteristics - adjectives - in a quantitative way. Give the engineer a number! Systems by themselves are inert. It is only when they interact with other systems that a purposeful process occurs. Processes are described by verbs and quantified (qualified) by adverbs. These ideas are pursued with examples from automobile design and the development of space systems.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2486
Philippe A. Souvestre
Human performance deterioration in extreme conditions challenges the viability of critical scenarios during a space mission. Exposure to space flight environment, including microgravity appears to increase the stress on the sensory-motor controls regulatory system in the brain because it is calibrated to operate under gravity. Any pre-existing central dysfunction can allow an input overload which can cascade to and alter other related functions down the functional hierarchy, such as physical (fine postural control, coordination and dexterity, strength, reaction time, fatigue, space perception/orientation) cognitive(trajectory control, attention and vigilance, time awareness, decision making, concentration, and memory), and emotional (motivation, self-control, calmness/aggressiveness). This phenomenon has direct influence on an individual’s tendency for “error proneness”.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2372
D. Klaus, H. Chluda, T. Ellis, J. Fehring, H. Howard, J. Jairala, T. Lloyd, D. Matthews, K. Morris, K. Rowley, C. Sauers, T. Stephens
The overall system architecture of a habitat intended for human occupancy on the surface of Mars was analyzed as part of a graduate aerospace engineering design class at the University of Colorado during the 2003 fall semester. The process was initiated by summarizing and deriving the governing requirements and constraints based on NASA’s “Reference Mission for the Human Exploration of Mars” (Hoffman and Kaplan, 1997; Drake, 1998). With emphasis placed on requirement identification and documentation, a baseline design was established that incorporated functional subsystem definition and analysis of integration factors such as structural layout, mass flows, power distribution, data transmission, etc. In addition, a ‘human-in-the-loop’ focus was stressed by designating a subsystem termed Crew Accommodations.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5645
Alexander V. Firsov, Oleg A. Yakimenko
The present paper deals with a general ideology, hardware architecture, and some aspects of software filling of the mobile adaptive simulator aircraft of an aircraft. This simulator provides the pilotage and combat skills maintenance, pre-flight training and forthcoming, flight mission image formation on the board of his “native” aircraft with “native” habitual cockpit environment and controls. Proposed idea has been already realized and demonstrated during International Aviaspace saloon in Zhukovskiy, Russia in 1997 and 1999 on board of the modern combat aircraft. The paper describes also the results of preliminary testing of this analogue of embedded training system, contains the pilots’ and experts’ estimates. In conclusion authors discuss a helpfulness of such system and its economical efficiency.`
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5658
Paul Pencikowski
Given the rapidly rising complexity of advanced-development aircraft and the diminishing experience pool of crewstation designers, a requirement exists for the implementation of crewstation development tools. These tools must support real-time simulation, advanced displays, and empirical data collection. Northrop’s Advanced Crewstation Integration Cockpit (ACIC) introduces full and rapid reconfigurability to a comprehensive aerodynamic, threat, sensor and weapons system simulation presented to the pilot on conventional or advanced-design displays. All controls and displays are reprogrammable, relocatable, and reconfigurable in their size, type of action and graphical attributes. Development capability for expert systems, sensor fusion, and data collection requirements are provided for. This standalone system, operating in real time, is unique in its ability to perform high-utility simulation at low cost.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5607
R Bruce Lumsden, Gareth D Padfield, Carole D Braby-Deighton
The paper takes a total systems approach to the human factors challenges at the helicopter-ship dynamic interface. It examines the problems of operating large helicopters from small ships in all weather conditions from the start of the mission to completion with due emphasis on the launch and recovery phases. Research taking place at DERA Bedford in support of current and future naval operations is outlined. Although the prime focus is Royal Navy Anti-submarine Warfare operations, the paper also considers present and future maritime and marinised helicopter types. The paper is written from the perspective of developing requirements and reducing risk by demonstrating technical solutions. The main focus of the paper is the recovery from completion of task to securing in the ship’s hangar. It addresses the aspects of automatic flight path management and flight control systems and the role of automation during the recovery process, particularly in the case of the single pilot aircraft.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5611
Oleg A. Yakimenko
The present paper considers the general aspects and mathematical foundation of the subsystem of on-board universal pilot’s support system, which provides pilot’s control actions support during more or less long-term maneuvers, such as take-off and climbing, flight on a route, surface-based target attack (in case of military aircraft), descent and landing via shortcut-time on-board optimization of spatial trajectories and their head-up display visualization in the view of “road-in-the-sky” image for further tracking in “director with sight” regime or (semi) automatic mode. There are mentioned briefly the main ideas of two specially designed for this purpose “fast” modifications of the direct method of calculus of variations. One (for short-term trajectories with strong restrictions on controls) based on 5th-7th order polynomial approximation; the second (for flight on a route) based on spline approximation.
1999-08-10
Technical Paper
1999-01-2981
John K. Schmidt, USN, Robert C. Figlock, USMC, Curtis D. Teeters, USN
To study maintainer error, the Naval Safety Center’s Human Factors Accident Classification System (HFACS) was adapted for Maintenance Related Mishaps (MRMs). The HFACS Maintenance Extension (ME) successfully profiled the errors present Naval Aviation Class A MRMs. In order to assess its suitability for studying major and minor airline accidents, a post hoc analysis was conducted on 124 Naval Fleet Logistics Support (VR) Wing maintenance related mishap, hazard, and injury reports. Two judges separately coded the 124 VR Wing incidents; a Cohen’s kappa of .78 was achieved, indicating an “excellent” level of agreement. Generally, HFACS-ME was able to profile maintainer errors found in more minor incidents and the factors that contribute to them. Common factors observed include errors attributed to third party maintenance, inadequate supervision, failed communications, skill-based errors, and procedural violations.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5586
Robert H. Vandel
What is the challenge? A series of products to eliminate both controlled flight into terrain and approach and landing accidents has been developed. Several different working groups, who were focused on elimination of the threat, developed these products. Now the challenge is how to get the information into the hands of all aviators and aviation organizations worldwide. Your first impulse might be to just send everyone a copy and be done with it. That although expensive sounds relatively simple. That is the challenge that faces the Flight Safety Foundation today and one that I will address in this paper. I will review the effort made to date, the problems encountered and where we are currently headed. CFIT and ALAR are global problems and we will need a lot of assistance if we are to eliminate these maladies. How significant is the problem? By reviewing Figure 2, one can easily determine where the effort needed to be focused.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5588
R. A. Faerber, T. G. Sharpe, T. J. Etherington, S. S. Chappell, T.R. Barnes, T. L. Vogl, S. M. Zellers, D. H. Hartley, J. A. Klein, R. D. Jinkins
Tomorrow’s flight deck will contain avionics similar in nature to today’s aircraft. However, tomorrow’s avionics display formats and the manner in which pilots will interact with and control those displays will be significantly different. These differences will be for the benefit of the pilot and allow him/her to intuitively interact with their equipment, increase their performance, and heighten the safety of all passengers aboard. This paper will highlight some of the advanced avionics display formats and control technologies that the Human Interface Technology Group of Rockwell Collins, Inc. Advanced Technology Center (ATC) have been investigating over the last year and provide recommendations for future research efforts.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5587
Ratan Khatwa, Robert L. Helmreich
Executive Summary This document is the final report of the Data Acquisition and Analysis Working Group (DAAWG) of the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force (Appendix D contains the complete listing of participants). The DAAWG was established in August 1997 to independently analyze data that may lead to the identification and/or resolution of approach-and-landing safety issues. Activities pursued by the DAAWG included: high-level analyses of 287 fatal accidents; detailed case studies of 76 accidents and serious incidents; and the assessment of key crew behavioral markers isolated in the occurrences and in the line audits of about 3,300 flights. The DAAWG is also conducting an economic analysis of the cost of approach-andlanding accidents (ALAs) to the industry (in progress).
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5590
Laurent Moussault
This paper presents an approach to pilots’ situation awareness (SA) that focuses on temporal issues. This approach must be complemented by other factors such as spatial awareness. The temporal aspects of SA are important for the flying task, for computer interaction, and for human communication. The presence of these three domains together inside the cockpit leads to difficulties with time management. Temporal aspects in human-computer interaction (HCI) are investigated in the context of aviation SA. Useful tools for their evaluation and anticipation are proposed. Finally, psychological, cognitive and philosophical studies on time consciousness that enable the investigation of relevant attributes of complex dynamic systems such as aircrafts are presented.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5591
Christopher D. Wickens, John Helleberg, Xidong Xu
In two experiments, strategic conflict avoidance maneuvers of 32 licensed pilots were analyzed when they flew a series of missions in a low fidelity (Experiment 1) and a high fidelity (Experiment 2) flight simulator, rendering an outside view and a cockpit display of traffic information. On various legs of the mission, aircraft generating traffic conflicts intruded from above, below and at the same altitude as ownship at various azimuth orientations. Pilot maneuvers were categorized in terms of the dimension of maneuver (vertical, lateral, airspeed), and the direction of change within that maneuver. Decision analysis revealed a strong tendency of pilots to use simple one dimensional maneuvers, and of these, to prefer vertical over lateral and airspeed maneuvers. Airspeed maneuvers in particular were avoided.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5564
R.C.J. Ruigrok, R.N.H.W. van Gent, J.M. Hoekstra
This paper describes the initial results of a simulation experiment in which the human factors implications of three Mixed Equipage, Integrated Air-Ground, Free Flight Air Traffic Management (ATM) scenarios were investigated. The experiment primarily addressed how to accommodate a fleet of mixed equipped aircraft, with and without Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS), in a transitional free flight era in which both air and ground players have defined responsibilities. All three transitional ATM operational concepts evaluated, were designed with the idea that equipping aircraft should be immediately beneficial to the airlines.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5563
Brian Hilburn, Wouter D. Pekela
This paper presents selected results of four experiments into air traffic control (ATC) aspects of free flight (FF). The first two examined basic human performance implications of FF, in terms of workload and ability to monitor traffic. The third explored the potential for improved ATC displays to benefit controllers under FF traffic patterns. The fourth experiment examined methods for accommodating mixed equipage, such as during a transitional FF era in which both FF capable and FF incapable aircraft would be expected to share the same airspace. The first three experiments involved controllers operating in “open-loop” simulations, with computer-generated traffic and simulated pilot responses. In the final experiment, pilots and controllers were linked in real-time sessions.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5566
Eric Hoffman, Karim Zeghal, Gildas Courtet
The Evolutionary Air-ground Co-operative ATM Concepts (EACAC) study of the Freer-Flight project investigates the delegation by the controller to the pilot, of some tasks related to separation assurance. Starting from the analogy of visual clearances, EACAC investigates the possibility of giving electronic clearances. One of the issues of the study deals with the appropriate assistance scheme to be provided to the pilot, considering the proposed concept of limited delegation. The “scales of separations” is one of the levels of assistance envisaged. Two models of turns and their appropriateness for lateral scales of effects are investigated. The scales of separations implementing these models will be evaluated by pilots, first through a cockpit environment in a stand-alone mode (end 1999), and then using a cockpit simulator in a real-time simulation with controllers (mid 2000).
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5565
Karim Zeghal, Eric Hoffman, Jean-Pierre Nicolaon, Anne Cloerec, Isabelle Grimaud
This paper presents the initial evaluation of the EACAC study, which is investigating delegation by the controller to the pilot of some tasks related to separation assurance. The concept is applied in managed airspace for two classes of application: crossing and passing in enroute, and sequencing in Terminal Manoeuvring Area. The concept relies on two key points discussed in the paper: “limited delegation” and “flexible use of delegation”. The initial evaluation using a simplified ATC environment has been set up to get “feedback” from both controllers and pilots, and to assess the operational feasibility and potential interest of the concept. The overall feeling about the method is “promising” with a “great potential”, and could reduce workload. The notion of “flexible use of delegation” would enable the gradual growth of confidence and would also provide flexibility to use the method under different conditions (traffic, airspace, practice level).
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5567
Walter W. Johnson, Vernol Battiste, Sheila Holland Bochow
Cockpit displays need to be substantially improved to serve the goals of situational awareness, conflict detection, and path replanning, in Free Flight. This paper describes the design of such an advanced cockpit display, along with an initial simulation based usability evaluation. Flight crews were particularly enthusiastic about color coding for relative altitude, dynamically pulsing predictors, and the use of 3-D flight plans for alerting and situational awareness.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5544
Thomas M. Leard
A multifunction display provides the flight crew with access to a mix of information. The challenge for the crew, the designer, and the certification agencies, is to determine if the human interface to this mix can be understood under normal and abnormal conditions. The technical capabilities of signal processing and displays permit endless information combinations to exist. However, human performance and mental processing capabilities impose significant challenges in designing the display and controller interface. For the crews to be successful, they ultimately need to obtain an increase in their level of situational knowledge from the flow of information that a multifunction display provides.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5540
Lynne Martin, Jeannie Davison, Judith Orasanu, Chesley Sullenberger
Despite efforts to design systems and procedures to support “correct” and safe operations in aviation, accidents still occur and errors in human judgment are found to be contributing factors. In this paper we examine how the wider aviation system may play a role in decision processes. Our strategy was to examine a collection of identified decision errors (National Transportation Safety Board [NTSB], 1994) through the lens of an aviation decision process model and to search for common patterns. The second and more difficult task was to determine what might account for those patterns. The decision process model suggests that decisions with undesirable outcomes can arise in two major ways: either through misassessment of the situation - a problem with situation awareness, or through judgment of the best course of action.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5541
Jacqueline A. Duley, Scott M. Galster, Raja Parasuraman, Anthony J. Smoker
Increases in technological capability permit us to obtain more information with improved accuracy from the systems and actors in the NAS. Collaborative Decision Making is a philosophy of redistributing information such that airspace users and service providers can act cooperatively to solve problems in areas such as flow control, and ground or weather delays. Designers are creating new tools to access this information and provide it to the users and ATC. We are concerned with the controller interface to this information and its incorporation of these new tools. We recommend a human-centered approach to the development of an effective interface.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5537
Reiner Onken
This paper presents a concept which is needed to warrant a highest possible degree of situation awareness of the flight crew as well as a workload level which is as close as possible to the satisfactory one. This concept offers the solution to counteract susceptibiliy to pilot errors, typical for lack of attention or knowledge limitations in certain flight situations. This concept is founded on cognitive system engineering in order to really accomplish allocation of automation as a complement to the human pilot crew when needed in favor of flight safety and mission effectiveness. This technology enables a cockpit design in order to systematically comply with the requirements of ’ Human-Centered Automation (HCA)’ . It even allows to quantify at which degree these requirements are met. The underlying approach behind the concept has become real by the development of the cockpit assistant system prototype family CASSY/CAMA as described in this paper.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5539
Sylvain Hourlier, Jean-Yves Grau, René Amalberti
The paper leverages the lessons drawn from the French military Electronic Copilot (EC) Program for future civil applications. The “Electronic Copilot” (EC) program involved applying unique human factors concepts to the area of knowledge based systems (KBS). A first section of the paper reviews these concepts and their integration into preliminary design. The EC explanatory program is now in its final stage. Project pros and cons are reviewed with regards to human factors and technical concepts, industry maturity, portability to civil aviation and certification issues.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5546
Archie E. Dillard
The rapid implementation of multifunction display (MFD) designs in new aircraft has increased the need for aerospace recommended practices (ARP) for use by manufacturers and users. The large amount of information available for display creates a number of human factors problems that must be addressed in the design phase in order to produce a safe and usable display system. Color, clutter, prioritization, switching, symbology, and compatibility are only a few of the areas that require guidance. This presentation will review the work to date by the SAE G-10 Multifunction Display Subcommittee on an ARP that will address these issues and others.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5512
Leger, Aymeric, H. Audrezet, P. Alba
HUD-based hybrid landing systems developed by SEXTANT Avionics have been successfully certified for AEROPOSTALE and ALITALIA. The philosophy of such system is to offer minima reductions (down to DH 35 ft and RVR 125 m) with automatic Cat 3A operations. From a human factors stand point, the basis of such an approach is that improved situational awareness provided by the HUD allows to maintain an acceptable safety level for operations despite lower DH and visibility. Though, it is well known that switching from a supervisory control mode to a manual control mode under time pressure is a very serious challenge for the human operator. In this regard, numerous human factors issues were addressed during the concept validation phase and results applied to certification.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5507
Margaret-Anne Mackintosh, Sandra Lozito, Alison McGann, Elizabeth Logsdon
This research focused on identifying communication strategies and procedures related to efficient and error-resistant data link communication. A coding scheme was developed that identified five steps in the data link communication cycle in which information may need to be transmitted between operators. This methodology was applied to a data link full mission study with 10 flight crews as participants. Initial results indicated that the amount of information transferred may impact communication timing and efficiency. The impact of data link upon the roles and procedures of the crewmembers is discussed.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5508
V. Sundareswaran, R. Behringer, S. Chen, K. Wang
Human Computer Interface (HCI) in applications for the maintenance of complex machinery such as an aircraft can be enhanced by exploiting new developments in HCI. We have developed a multimodal HCI demonstration system for maintenance applications, incorporating Augmented Reality (AR), Speech Recognition, and 3- dimensional audio technologies. The Augmented Reality interface is based on an original dynamic tracking approach to provide rapid update of the scene with graphical overlays. We enhance the use of this interface with speech recognition to control the system and to add annotations using dictation-based text information. A combination of 3-D audio, graphic animations, and text displays is used to communicate information to the user.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5510
Michael T. Chan
To make speech recognition a viable input modality in the cockpit, we propose to include visual speech input to improve robustness of the approach in the presence of noise. The visual speech interface includes a headmounted lip imaging apparatus and algorithms to recognize spoken words visually. Our algorithms are based on a few components which address all issues related to lip localization, lip shape model extraction, tracking, feature extraction and recognition. We demonstrate the practicability of the concept with a visual speech recognizer for a discrete-word recognition task that is relatively simple but achievable in real time.
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