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Viewing 1 to 30 of 5513
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2091
Michael J. Lance, C. Scott Sluder, Samuel Lewis, John Storey
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions standards. In order to better understand fouling mechanisms, eleven field-aged EGR coolers provided by seven different engine manufacturers were characterized using a suite of techniques. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy following mounting the samples in epoxy and polishing. Optical microscopy was able to discern the location of hydrocarbons in the polished cross-sections. Chemical compositions were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Mass per unit area along the length of the coolers was also measured.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2090
Michael Marr, James S. Wallace, Silvio Memme, Sanjeev Chandra, Larry Pershin, Javad Mostaghimi
Surface temperature and heat flux were measured in a single cylinder SI engine piston when uncoated and with two different surface coatings: a metal TBC and YSZ. Average heat flux into the piston substrate was 33 % higher with the metal TBC and unchanged with the YSZ relative to the uncoated surface. The increase with the metal TBC was attributed to its surface roughness. However, the metal TBC and YSZ reduced peak heat flux into the substrate surface by 69 % and 77 %, respectively.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0272
David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau, Roger Burnett
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0274
David C. Viano
Purpose: This study presents cases of fracture-dislocation of the thoracic spine in extension during severe rear impacts. The mechanism of injury was investigated. Methods: Four crashes were investigated where a lap-shoulder-belted, front-seat occupant experienced fracture-dislocation of the thoracic spine and paraplegia in a severe rear impact. Police, investigator and medical records were reviewed, the vehicle was inspected and the seat detrimmed. Vehicle dynamics, occupant kinematics and injury mechanisms were determined in this case study. Results: Each case involved a lap-shoulder-belted occupant in a high retention seat with ≻1,700 Nm moment or ≻5.5 kN strength for rearward loading. The crashes were offset rear impacts with 40-56 km/h delta V involving under-ride or override by the impacting vehicle and yaw of the struck vehicle. In each case, the occupant's pelvis was restrained on the seat by the open perimeter frame of the seatback and lap belt.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0714
John Washeleski, Todd Newman
An iQ Power™ reconfigurable touch screen system dramatically enhances instrument panel (IP) appearance and functionality at a reduced cost to the vehicle. Information displayed on the IP is completely reconfigurable at both the OEM and end-user levels thereby maximizing flexibility in IP design and appearance. Through simple end-user commands, or within OEM software upgrades, a completely new IP appearance can be achieved without purchasing a new vehicle. Reduced OEM manufacturing lead times are also realized as traditional tooling is eliminated. Design concepts in interior styling and function are captured in elegant sculpted surfaces contrasting ordinary flat panel faceplates. This is especially true for vehicle center stacks and instrument panels. Smooth and flowing touch panel surfaces are made possible by direct application of touch screen components to the back side of contoured touch panel surfaces.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0155
Vinod Shigarkanthi, Vijayakanthan Damodaran, Deepak Soundararaju, Kannan Kanniah
Aero shutter is device used for controlling air flow through front grille of the vehicle for optimal thermal and energy management. Conventionally shutters were controlled by reactive algorithm - that actuate based on reaction to powertrain cooling system response like engine coolant temperature. The predictive algorithm of aero shutter proactively actuates engine cooling fans and shutter to different positions to meet real time cooling requirement. This algorithm needs map of shutter position required for a given air flow requirement which is function of vehicle speed, fan speed, opening of another shutter (if dual shutters are used on two grilles). Deriving such map requires enormous number of simulations or wind tunnel tests at each of these parameter combinations. This paper presents Design of Experiments (DOE) studies using statistical approach to have minimal number of runs to develop such map.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0523
William Nicholas Dawes, William Kellar PhD, Simon Harvey PhD, Neil Eccles PhD
Successful product development, especially in motorsport, increasingly depends not just on the ability to simulate aero-thermal behavior of complex geometrical configurations, but also the ability to automate these simulations within a workflow and perform as many simulations as possible within constrained time frames. The core of these aero-thermal simulations - and usually the main bottleneck - is generating the computational mesh. This paper describes recent work aimed at developing a mesh generator which can reliably produce meshes for geometries of essentially arbitrary complexity in an automated manner and fast enough to keep up with the pace of an engineering development program. Our goal is to be able to script the mesh generation within an automated workflow - and forget it.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1232
Sreedhar Thanthry
All automotive ECUs are required to be designed for manufacturability. Sufficient support in the ECU product design needs to be incorporated early in the product life cycle for the product to be successfully and efficiently manufactured, necessitating serial communication capability in the design. However, in low-cost automotive Instrument Clusters the customer requirements for the product typically do not encapsulate serial communication, and the ECU is not required to support repair/rework out of field rejection. This paper delineates the said need, examines the challenges for manufacturability of low-cost Instrument Clusters and proposes a plausible design strategy to help the issue with a use-case instance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1481
John Z. Lin, Stephen M. Pitrof
This paper reviews the state of the art on analytical design of cockpit modules in two most crucial performance categories: safety and comfort. On safety, applications of finite element analysis (FEA) for achieving robust designs that meet FMVSS 201, 208 and 214 requirements and score top frontal and side NCAP star-ratings are presented. On comfort, focus is placed on Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. Cutting-edge analytical tools for Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) avoidance and passenger compartment noise reduction are demonstrated. Most of the analytical results shown in this paper are based on the development work of a real-life application program. Correlations between the analytical results and physical test results are included. Examples of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis for climate control are also included. At the end, the road map toward 100 percent virtual prototyping and validation is presented.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2494
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, L. I. Gavrilov, N. S. Farafonov, N. V. Pavlova, T. N. Pavlova, V. Ju. Proshkin, S. Ju. Romanov, A. M. Rjabkin, A. S. Guzenberg, A. N. Slyshchenkov, O. V. Kirjushin
The Regenerative Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring system (ARMS), been part of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS), is intended for maintenance in the manned modules of a necessary chemical composition of an artificial gas atmosphere (AGA) on base of the crew metabolism product transform to environment initial components. Generally, the ARMS structure includes the individual systems and units intended for: → oxygen generation; → carbon dioxide removal and it concentration; → trace contaminants removal; → carbon dioxide reduction with the goal to produce an additional quantity of water necessary to increase the degree of the oxygen loop clousure. The ARMS structure of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment (RS) includes the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Vozdukh Carbon Dioxide Removal System (CDRS) and SBMP Trace Contaminants Removal Means (TCRM) installed in the Service Module.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2488
Cynthia Pederson, Richard M. Lueptow
A promising technology for recycling wastewater on long term space missions is rotating reverse osmosis (RO). Rotating RO utilizes Taylor vortices, a flow structure in the annulus of the device, that provide increased transport of the water through the RO membrane compared to conventional RO systems. A high pressure rotating RO filter and fluid circuit have been designed and fabricated for use in long term tests. Preliminary results indicate that an increase in the operating pressure by a factor of three can improve the flux by a factor of four while maintaining high rejection of the contaminants.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2489
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N., Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2483
Vishal Nangalia, James Habershon
Humans are able to acclimatize and later adapt to extreme altitudes, and this will be shown to be beneficial to the human with respect to microgravity and spacecraft environment. Treating the astronaut as a subsystem, which can be enhanced and modified to ultimately benefit the whole spacecraft is an approach that is necessary to forge the next generation of human spaceflight. A spacecraft environment that is maintained at a pressure of 16 kPa (primarily oxygen) would be both well within the realm of possibility of an astronaut’s physiology and would provide significant benefits for the all the subsystems of a spacecraft from the large intra-stellar spaceship to the EVA suit.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2478
Richard Boulanger, David Overland
Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. It has been estimated that 60–80% of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20–40% is control system development [1]. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50–65% [2,3]. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware [4]. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2474
Robert T. Bigelow, Richard R. Chu, Jay K. Ingham
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2469
MariaCristina Tosi, Luca Tentoni, Antoine Joulot, Jose' Antonio, Romera Perez
The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Thermal Control System (TCS) has the task to ensure the required internal environment at level of pressurized module and to thermally control the not pressurised modules and installed equipment, using passive and active control means, in response to the relevant applicable requirements. The ATV vehicle is assially subdivided into three main modules: the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC), the Equipped Avionics Bay (EAB) and the Equipped Propulsion Bay (EPB). Each of these modules present elaborated and specific thermal design solutions, to satisfy the different required operative tasks. The extensive thermal analysis campaign performed at ATV vehicle level and in progress for the next Qualification Review (QR) to justify and support the thermal control design solutions and verification status is described.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2468
W. Andrew Jackson, Audra Morse, Tania Ho, Greg Collins
Biological pre-treatment of liquid waste could potentially offer equivalent mass savings for long term space habitation. Previous work has demonstrated the technological feasibility. However, limited work has been conducted on optimizing the biological reactors or fully characterizing the biochemical transformations occurring within the reactors. The objective of these studies was to provide long-term operating data on a proposed and well studied reactor configuration, and explore the effects of RR on system performance. The water recovery system has been in successful operation for over 2 years. Data to be presented will include both typical removal efficiencies for nitrogen species, DOC as well as important water quality parameters. In addition the effect of recycle ratio (2X, 5X, 10X, and 20X) will be quantified.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2466
Arthur A. Teixeira, David P. Chynoweth, John M. Owens, Elana Rich, Amy L. Dedrick, Patrick J. Haley
This paper reports on fabrication, installation, start-up and shakedown of a full-scale prototype solid waste management system designed to be a principal component in a bio-regenerative solid waste management system to support a 6-person crew on long-term space missions. System design is based upon a patented process for odorless bioconversion of organic solid wastes to biogas and compost by anaerobic digestion. The system consists of five reactors and two gas-liquid separators designed for operation under conditions of micro-gravity. During any week of operation, one reactor is used for feed collection and compaction, three for stage-wise anaerobic composting, and one for post-treatment aerobic stabilization, while simultaneously serving as a bio-filter in the pretreatment of cabin air within the air revitalization subsystem. Each reactor carries its one-week charge of feedstock through all five stages of bioconversion in completing a five-week sequential batch cycle.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2467
Dawn R. Whitaker, John W. Lane, James E. Alleman, Rebecca Riaño
Solids thermophilic aerobic reactor (STAR) processing of biodegradable solid waste residuals uses high temperature conditions to reduce waste volume, inactivate pathogens, and render products that may enter the recycle system by providing plant substrate, fish food, and mushroom growth medium. The STAR process recovers and enables the reuse of nutrients, water, and carbon. During the time of this study, STAR was operated at a 3% solids loading rate, with an 11-day retention time at a temperature range of 50-55°C. This document presents the following details: a the evolution to date of the STAR reactor b review of reactor operation and analytical methods c a synopsis of the performance results and related discussion, and d a synopsis of future goals relative to this project's associated research roadmap.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2465
Richard F. Strayer, Kristina Reid, Tony J. Rector, Mary P. Hummerick, Jay L. Garland
The purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility of a unique denitrifying composter to stabilize trash from space-habitation (STS, ISS, ALS) life support activities. Design criteria were derived from variables to be manipulated and those to be held constant. A pre-existing aerobic composter was used and engineering tests run to ensure that requirements were met. Key experimental variables were identified: NO3- concentration and rate of addition, O2 concentration, mixing duration and frequency, and inoculum. Independent variables were pH, temperature, moisture, C:N ratio, feed material, size reduction, feed addition rate, and mode of operation. Important performance parameters included: maximization of desired outcomes – BOD5 removal, CO2 production, waste stabilization, and denitrification – and minimization of undesired products – N2O, NH3, and volatile organic compounds.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2464
Kimberly L. Jones, Joffrey Leevy, Samantha LaHee
This study evaluates the use of microfiltration (MF), low pressure RO (LPRO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes for use in a treatment train for recycled wastewater. Specifically, a MF membrane will act as pretreatment for RO/NF membranes. Contaminants of concern for the membrane system include biosolids and surfactant micelles for the MF membrane, and ammonium ions, urea, surfactant monomers, and salts for the RO/NF system. These contaminants will be reduced to meet existing EPA and NASA standards using these membrane systems. The goal is to achieve high removal rates (>95% for these contaminants) while maintaining high flux and low fouling of the membranes, as membrane treatment is the last treatment step before final disinfection of the recycled wastewater. This paper outlines the experimental plan for designing the integrated membrane system and explains the potential benefits of such a system.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2462
Audra Morse, W. Andrew Jackson, Srikara Kaparthi
Simulated wastewater, known as early surface mission wastewater, treated in previous experiments at JSC and TTU included urinal flush water, shower water, humidity condensate, oral hygiene water, and hand wash water. In reality, there is a difference between the early surface mission wastewater and the International Space Station wastewater. The ISS does not have a shower or hand wash, which contributes approximately 59 percent of the make-up water treated. The average influent ammonia concentration in the simulated wastewater treated by the TTU water reclamation system frequently exceeds 500 mg/L. Removal of the shower make-up water in simulated wastewater will result in a significant increase in the ammonia concentration, resulting in higher influent pH values and ammonia concentrations that may be inhibitory. Biological treatment technologies have suitably treated the diluted waste stream but a more concentrated waste stream may present a greater challenge.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2433
J. J. Maas, M. J. Mischnick
The CANDS (Circulating, Aeration, and Nutrient Delivery System) Phase II SBIR is currently developing and testing methods and procedures to control moisture, oxygen, and temperature in the root zone of a particulate based micro-gravity nutrient delivery system. The completion of the first year and a half of the CANDS Phase II SBIR has shown significant engineering developments towards environmental control of the root zone. These developments include the measurement of root zone oxygen content, characterization of forced and flood-ebb aeration rates, successful control of root zone moisture using miniature heat-pulse moisture sensors, and successful control of root zone temperature via an insulating/temperature controlling water jacket. At the conclusion of the CANDS Phase II SBIR an integrated root zone environmental control system will be constructed for integration into plant growth systems to eliminate the uncertainties that exist in current plant growth data.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2437
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Tomofumi Hirosaki, Yoshio Ishikawa
A Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) is a system that establishes self-sustained material recycling and circulation within a space base on the Moon or Mars. This is a large-scale and complicated system comprising a lot of components such as humans, plants and material circulation system. A RLSS contains many factors with uncertainty, such as dynamics of plants and humans, and failure and performance deterioration of devices. In addition, a RLSS is a large-scale and complicated system extending gradually. An environment with uncertainty or a large-scale and complicated system may not be properly addressed by a centralized system. In particular, such a system cannot always gather accurate information in one center in a frequently shifting environment, thus appropriate processing may be difficult. Therefore, we tried autonomous decentralization of information or decision-making using a Multi-Agent System (MAS).
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2435
Geoffrey Waters, Youbin Zheng, Danuta Gidzinski, Michael Dixon
Due to its large proportion of edible biomass, beet (Beta vulgaris) has high potential as a candidate crop for bioregenerative life support systems. This paper summarizes data collected for beet under batch and staged stand culture in closed environment chambers. Full stand trials were conducted under the following conditions: 1000 μL L−1 atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, light intensities ranging from 400–600 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR with a 14 hour photoperiod, 73% ± 5% relative humidity, a 26/20 °C day/night temperature regime and a fixed planting density of 17.6 plants m−2. For batch planted stands, total edible yield was determined to be 28.3 g dry weight basis (dwb) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of [24.7, 31.8] g plant−1 with a harvest index of 94%. Under similar conditions, yield for staged beet stands was 31.4 g dwb with a 95% CI of [24.54, 38.31] g plant−1. Water use efficiency under these same conditions was found to be 0.003 mol C mol−1 H2O.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2439
Theresa Klein, Devika Subramanian, David Kortenkamp, Scott Bell
Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges that are addressed in this paper. We have developed a controller using reinforcement learning [Barto&Sutton], which actively explores the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated this controller using Biosim, our discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation supports all life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. Our algorithm for reinforcement learning discovered unobvious strategies for maximizing mission length. By exploiting nonlinearities in the simulation dynamics, the learned controller outperforms a controller designed by an expert.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2438
H. Y. (Jannivine) Yeh, Cheryl B. Brown, Frank F. Jeng, Chin H. Lin, Michael K. Ewert
The development of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) using Microsoft® Excel was initiated by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 1997 to support the ALS and Exploration Offices in Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and studies. It aids the user in performing detailed sizing of the ECLSS for different combinations of the ALS regenerative system technologies (1, 2). This analysis tool will assist the user in performing ECLSS preliminary design and trade studies as well as system optimization efficiently and economically.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2441
Sherif Abdelwahed, Jian Wu, Gautam Biswas, John W. Ramirez, Eric J.-Manders
This paper discusses a hierarchical online fault-adaptive control approach for Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems. ALS systems contain a number of complex interacting subsystems. To avoid complexity in the models and online analysis, diagnosis and fault-adaptive control is achieved by local units. To maintain overall performance, the problem of resource management for contending concurrent subsystems has to be addressed. We implement a control structure, where predefined set-point specifications for system operation are used to derive optimizing utility functions for the subsystem controllers. We apply this approach in situations where a fault occurs in a system, and once the fault is isolated and identified, the controllers use the updated system model to derive new set point specifications and utility functions for the faulty system.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2440
Todd M. Quasny, Larry D. Pyeatt
Abstract To make extended space missions, such as missions to Mars, a reality, an advanced life support system (ALS) must be developed that is able to utilize resources to their fullest capabilities [2]. In order to make such a system a reality, a robust control system must be developed that is able to cope with the complexity of an ALS. This work applies reinforcement learning (RL), a machine learning technique, to the task of controlling the water recovery system of a simulated ALS. The RL agent learns an effective control strategy that extends the mission length to the point that lack of water is no longer the cause of mission termination.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2425
Gaetana Bufano, Elena Brach Prever, Valter Perotto, Paolo Vaccaneo, Zoltan Szigetvari, Jan Persson, Johannes Witt
The Columbus ECS PFM Test was intended as the final verification of the Module Thermal Design after a series of successful tests at subsystems level (e.g. the Active Thermal Control Subsystem and the Environmental Control and Life Support System) The test campaign has been articulated as a sequence of several test cases to investigate the main thermal aspects, to prove the Module thermal design in the extreme operative conditions and to correlate the thermal mathematical model (TMM). The interpretation of test results and the correlation confirmed that the thermal design of the module is adequate, but some areas of concern remain, mainly for the difficulty to translate to 0-g the results of a complex test in 1-g environment, and for some aspects of the air and cabin loops.
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