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Viewing 1 to 30 of 639
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1735
Bernard Dion
In this paper, we will describe how synchronous methods form the scientific basis for the creation of a correct-by-construction methodology required for safety-critical embedded systems. We will show how they are applied to software design, validation, and implementation through a process of high-level rigorous specifications, from which we can create correct-by-construction embeddable implementation. The synchronous methods we know today have more than 20 years of scientific research plus ten years of successful industrial application. This paper will explore the basic conceptual model of embedded computation supported by three underlying prerequisites: high-level rigorous graphical and textual languages, compiling algorithms for correct-by-construction implementation, and formal testing and verification techniques.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2481
Heather L. Paul
The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) will design a ground-based test facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions in order to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper describes development plans for educational outreach activities related to technological and operational integration scenarios similar to the challenges that will be encountered through this project. The education outreach activities will provide hands-on, interactive exercises to allow students of all levels to experience design and operational challenges similar to what NASA deals with everyday in performing the integration of complex missions. These experiences will relate to and impact students' everyday lives by demonstrating how their interests in science and engineering can develop into future careers, and reinforcing the concepts of teamwork and conflict resolution.
2004-09-21
Technical Paper
2004-01-2808
Gunther Wellmann, Olaf Gedrat, Holger Mayländer
Abstract This technical paper addresses key advances in Flap (High Lift Device) manufacturing technology at the Airbus facility in Bremen, Germany from 1999 to 2004. Strategic manufacturing requirements leading to automated assembly procedures are described, establishing the core of High-Lift Device work flow.
2004-09-21
Technical Paper
2004-01-2817
Donald D. Palmer, Roger W. Engelbart, Christopher M. Vaccaro
One of the key elements of increasing the affordability of major weapons systems is reducing costs associated with manufacturing. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is a critical element of the manufacturing process and one that cannot be compromised. A key goal associated with NDE research and development is to help reduce the cost associated with quality assurance. In relation to composite structures, this is being approached from several directions, two of which will be discussed. The approach most frequently used for inspection of composite parts is to pull the parts out of the manufacturing cells and route them to a centralized quality assurance area for inspection. This approach leads to accumulation of non-recurring costs for tooling/fixturing to support the inspection and significant additions to production flow time. An alternative would be to develop nondestructive evaluation processes that can be performed in the manufacturing cells.
2004-09-21
Technical Paper
2004-01-2814
Richard Lindqvist, Henrik Kihlman
This paper deals with issues about Orbital drilling implementation and evaluation. The paper summarizes and includes the so far written papers about Orbital drilling. In a previous paper, a conclusion was made, orbital drilling is a suitable method for drilling high quality holes in the specific space application that was studied. The conclusion for further development was then to look more specifically into the process development, i.e. cutting parameters, new cutters, new coatings on cutters etc. Then the investigation and feasibility study started. The project went from early prestudy to fully implemented industrialized solution of the PODU at SAAB Ericsson Space (SES) in Linköping, Sweden. More detailed description on how the project did it is explained in the paper. The early conclusions made after pre- and final acceptance tests of the PODU at SES shows that Orbital drilling is a comprehensive method compared to conventionally drilling methods.
2004-09-21
Technical Paper
2004-01-2813
Sylvain Guérin, Raymond P. LeCann
Handheld Automation may appear to be a contradiction in terms. It is not. A wide range of assembly methodologies are currently employed in support of aircraft assembly, two very specific approaches predominate. 1 The most popular approach, which accounts for the majority of the fasteners installed in current production aircraft, consists of a manual process. This requires the operator to perform manual operations in each of the many, if not all, of the steps involved in installing fasteners. Steps include fastener selection, sealant application, fastener insertion, fastener deformation, pin extraction, collar application, or torqueing, as the fastener may require. 2 The other end of the spectrum involves total automation where all of the steps are performed by a machine, with little or no manual involvement by the operator, other than supervision. Handheld automation bridges the gap between these extremes.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2323
Marc M. Cohen
Radiation is the leading showstopper for long duration human exploration of the lunar surface. The need for an effective and safe radiation shielding material has become the “Holy Grail” of radiation protection research. This paper reports the results for one material in particular – carbon – in the “Bioshield” particle accelerator test of candidate radiation shielding at Brookhaven National Laboratory, sponsored jointly by NASA and the Italian Space Agency. Shielding samples were bombarded by both Iron and Titanium nuclei beams at1 GeV/n relativistic energy. This paper reports the results for Fe. The target behind the shielding was a lymphocyte culture; created using advanced cytogenetic techniques (premature chromosome condensation and fluorescence in situ hybridization). The shielding samples included aluminum, PMMA acrylic/Lucite, polyethylene, and lead.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2292
David L. Akin
Space suit design has been limited to evolutionary steps since the first pressure suit was developed in 1934. While this development process has improved the fit to the wearer, it is still common to measure the performance of a pressure suit by identifying what fraction of shirtsleeve capability it allows. Given sufficient government and commercial support, space could in the future be an expanding realm of commercial and exploration activities, including return to the moon and human Mars exploration, with requirements for extravehicular activity orders of magnitude beyond the maximum envisioned for the International Space Station era. In such an environment, the need for breakthrough technology is to make the space suit into an augmentation of the human wearer, rather than an impediment.
1999-10-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-3447
Ali Salour, James Cunov
This paper covers issues related to the installation, testing, and production implementation of a large-scale automated wing drilling/fastener installation system. Emphasis is placed on describing the production process, foundation requirements, axes alignment, calibration, testing and implementation. Description will include key hardware features such as the multi-function end effector and spindle end effector. The objective is to convey the complexity of implementing this system as well as reviewing the lessons learned from this experience.
1999-10-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-3444
Daniel S. Alcombright, Wm. Todd Bedwell
The Fastener Delivery System (FDS) provides a new and unique method to automatically feed fasteners. The FDS is a compact automated system that conveys fasteners on demand to a user-supplied end effecter. The system may consist of up to six basic elements: a drum, a drum positioning system, a fastener lifting assembly, an escapement head, a jib crane, and a computer control system. Systems are currently in use at Boeing’s Advanced Manufacturing Center in St. Louis, Missouri for the automated assembly of the F/A-18E Super Hornet. Each system can store over 8000 fasteners of 400 different varieties. Rivets, slave bolts, and threaded fasteners are conveyed on demand in non-sequential order with no changeover. Fastener dimensions range from head diameters of 4mm to 22mm and lengths from 6mm to 58mm. The fasteners are stored in tubes, which are arranged in a high-density, radial pattern in precision machined covered drums. The drums act as “mini-warehouses”.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5539
Sylvain Hourlier, Jean-Yves Grau, René Amalberti
The paper leverages the lessons drawn from the French military Electronic Copilot (EC) Program for future civil applications. The “Electronic Copilot” (EC) program involved applying unique human factors concepts to the area of knowledge based systems (KBS). A first section of the paper reviews these concepts and their integration into preliminary design. The EC explanatory program is now in its final stage. Project pros and cons are reviewed with regards to human factors and technical concepts, industry maturity, portability to civil aviation and certification issues.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2535
Dirk Eickhorst
For the past ten years, international Aerospace production is asking for flexible and production optimized machinery including IT-Integration packages for streamlining machine tool efforts into aircraft production. As one answer of these questions, a new innovative robot cell has been developed for drilling and fastener insertion in the inner structure of aircraft parts consisting of composite, titanium and aluminum. The new robot cell is based on a scalable 840D system configuration. The required absolute path planning and positioning accuracy force us to integrate our developed compensation methods in the 840D control system. This solution demonstrates how standard robots equipped with a matured control, compensation and off-line programming strategy by an innovative Aerospace solution supplier resulted in a highly flexible and cost-efficient light weight automation response.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2801
Florian Cazes, Corinne Mailhes, Marie Chabert, Philippe Goupil, Rémy Dayre, Hervé Le Berre
In the framework of the aircraft global optimization, for future and upcoming programs, current research interests include more Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) autonomy for a more easy-to-handle aircraft. A possible solution is to increase the number of redundant flight parameter sensors but to the detriment of the aircraft weight and so to the cost and performances. This paper proposes an algorithm using PLS (Partial Least Squares) to estimate a flight parameter from independent sensor measurements. The estimates are then used as so-called “software” or “virtual” sensors, allowing aircraft weight saving. This algorithm is based on an iterative processing and thus can be used in real time in the embedded flight control computer. Furthermore, the resulting flight parameter estimates can be used to detect failures. Different detection strategies are proposed and results show that this method can lead to robust detections.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1830
Naweed A. Khan
Protruding objects from the surface of space orbiters induce aerodynamic heating at transonic to hypersonic speeds. The gap-filler material which came loose from between the insulation tiles on the surface of the space orbiter Discovery during its reentry is a case in point. The interaction between the protruding gap filler and the boundary layer may drastically alter the flow field at high speeds, resulting in formation of shock waves and aerodynamic heating of the walls. A CFD was carried out on a two-dimensional model of the flow over a gap-filler like protrusion attached to a flat wall representing the obiter surface. The flow was at speeds corresponding to three different orbiter Mach numbers of 2.54, 1.5 and 0.64 depending on the altitude. The flow and temperature fields were solved numerically. The computations indicated the formation of shock waves upstream and downstream of the gap filler and higher wall temperatures were noticed due to viscous dissipation effects.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1842
Jarrod A. Wallace
The use of two-piece temporary fasteners is not an option on some build methodologies, processes, or techniques because of limited accessibility. To solve this problem the use of Single Side Slave fasteners (SSSF) were used. With the development of the SSSF, new process tools also needed to be developed to automatically feed and install these fasteners. This paper will cover the development of the process tools used to feed and install SSSF. The tools were designed to automatically insert and torque 1/4\mi - 5/8\mi SSSFs. This paper will cover both the development of the Bolt injector and Bolt inserter.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1872
Marie Jonsson, Tom Murray, Anders Robertsson, Andreas Stolt, Gilbert Ossbahr PhD, Klas Nilsson
Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be programmed to achieve a certain force. This paper presents an experimental case where a compliant rib is aligned to multiple surfaces using force feedback and an industrial robot system from ABB. Two types of ribs where used, one full size carbon fiber rib, and one smaller metal replica for evaluation purposes. The alignment sequence consisted of several iterative steps and a search procedure was implemented within the robot control system.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1871
Henrik Kihlman, Magnus Engstrom
Building prototype aircrafts is costly in tooling especially since only one aircraft is being built. Today's most common tooling strategy is to weld together a beam framework. Welded framework solutions have long lead times both in design and manufacturing and once the aircraft is assembled the tool becomes obsolete. Flexible tooling strategy uses non-welded tooling thus it can be changed and re-used for future products. Early version of a new aircraft model is always hampered by frequent changes in its design, which is cumbersome to handle in a welded framework solution. This paper presents a flexible assembly tooling solutions based on Flexapods and BoxJoint. The Flexapods are commercialized reconfigurable tooling units that are manually adjusted injunction with a laser tracker to a final positional accuracy of +/? 0,05 mm absolute accuracy.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1870
Ryan Haldimann
Accurately measuring the length of a pintail type fastener is limited by the process of forming the fastener. When the pintail is formed its overall length is not dimensionally controlled. To accurately measure the grip of the bolt a vision system is utilized that finds the notch between the tail and bolt shank. The grip, diameter, and angle of the bolt prior to insertion are then measured. This method proves to be more accurate than measuring the bolt mechanically and provides a number of other advantages including; decreased measurement time, improved accuracy, FOD detection, and angle of the bolt in the fingers prior to insertion.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1844
Dave Eckstein, Peter B. Zieve, Richard Wilkes
Boeing has relied upon the 767 ASAT (ASAT1) since 1983 to fasten the chords, stiffeners and rib posts to the web of the four 767 wing spars. The machine was originally commissioned with a Terra five axis CNC control. The Terra company went out of business and the controls were replaced with a custom DOS application in 1990. These are now hard to support so Boeing solicited proposals. Electroimpact proposed to retrofit with a Fanuc 31I CNC, and in addition, to replace all associated sensors, cables and feedback systems. This work is now complete on two of the four machines. Both left front and right front are in production with the new CNC control.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1847
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Richard Kingston, Jim Heley, Paul Stanyon
This paper is a neutral standard for testing robotics for usage in large volume applications. This will be followed by an oral presentation on real test results achieved to-date, given via a PowerPoint presentation at SAE Wichita 2010. The "state-of-the-art" in robot testing includes ISO:9283 "Manipulating industrial robots - Performance criteria and related test method." Previous practical work from M ₃ at Airbus UK is also used. These protocols focus on the performance of a robot fixed to the floor. The objective of this paper is to expand upon that work for robots on external axis to provide much larger working volumes as often required in the aerospace industry. This paper focuses on quasi-static applications only (i.e., drilling) covering the following topics: - Test criteria for the robot, - Localization methods to improve performance, - Process time implications from different localization methods.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1845
Edgar Frias, Al Yamamoto, Curtis Lea, Luke Haylock
A new method of removing Ergo-Tech® blind bolts, which utilizes a handheld electrical discharge process, is evaluated. Currently, the most common method of removing blind fasteners involves drilling the head of the fasteners to a point where the shank can be punched out. In some situations, when the back side of the blind fastener is accessible, this portion can be ground or machined off. Both approaches are time consuming, messy, and unsafe for technicians. There is also a high probability of damage to the surrounding structure associated with the current processes. Additionally, machining chips which are difficult to contain can create foreign object damage (FOD). A new fastener removal system which utilizes the principle of electrical discharge machining is evaluated. The system is portable, and includes a handheld gun which is approximately the size of a typical fastener installation tool.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1858
Roger Holden, Jim Heley, Kevin Mee, Ben Morgan, Paul Lightowler, Richard Kingston
Composite parts are difficult to produce, especially the control of the part thickness. This paper/presentation is in two parts, and describes an innovative process using integrated metrology for composite part manufacturing of a generic wing flap. The first paper describes the composite assembly process from a metrology focus and how an integrated Laser Radar system is used to measure actual thickness build-up compared to theoretical CAD/CAM nominal. This second paper is on the automation capability of making the part. A robot is used to apply the composite ply's/tows. To analyze the machines capability and tune performance a high speed photogrammetry system is used. It is also used for automated placement of honeycombed structures within the part build, where guided assembly can be automated in future.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1859
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Neil Brady
Complex aircraft components such as blades have a number of production variables that need to be controlled to maximise the production throughput in a factory. These start with variances in forging process and some hidden features needing ultrasonics. This means there is a level of bespoke machining on every part. Traditionally this has been achieved with high level of manual finishing. This paper/presentation is a case study on how metrology has been integrated with robotics to give complex dimension control and maximise automated machining.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1864
Fadel Megahed, Lee Wells, Jaime Camelio
The emphasis placed on statistical process control over the past few decades has significantly aided manufacturers in measuring and monitoring dimensional parameters of production parts, and inferring process behavior from control charting. However, current manufacturing quality control methods fail to incorporate technologically innovative measurement solutions and rely on traditional coordinate measuring machines and laser point measurements. Based on the current trend, three-dimensional laser scanning seems to be the future of manufacturing measurement systems, and has already achieved considerable success in providing one-to-one comparisons between as-built products and original computer aided design (CAD) models via point cloud measurements. However, these methods only provide product-by-product information, and fail to provide any information on the state of the manufacturing process.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-01-1860
Roger Holden, Neil Brady, Paul Lightowler, Jim Heley, Ben Morgan, Kevin Mee
Composite parts are difficult to produce, especially the control of the part thickness. This paper/presentation is in two parts, and describes an innovative process using integrated metrology for composite part manufacturing of a generic wing flap. This first paper describes the composite assembly process from a metrology focus and how an integrated Laser Radar system is used to measure actual thickness build-up compared to theoretical CAD/CAM nominal. The second paper is on the automation capability of making the part. A robot is used to apply the composite ply's/tows. To analyze the machines capability and tune performance a high speed photogrammetry system is used. It is also used for automated placement of honeycombed structures within the part build, where guided assembly can be automated in future.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2098
Viacheslav Pshikhopov, Nikolay Sergeev, Mikhail Medvedev, Artem Kulchenko
In this paper, we study a problem of control system design for small-scale helicopter that has been applied to a robotic helicopter project. The structure of the mathematical models of single-rotor helicopter and the description of its constituent elements are presented. The general mathematical model of a helicopter is a complex multivariable system. This model consists of nonlinear differential equations of the helicopter dynamics, the kinematics and auxiliary equations. The control forces and moments, and also the external disturbances, that affecting on helicopter flight, are in the right side of the dynamic equations. It is necessary to have experimental data for helicopter flight parameters to get adequate auxiliary equations. Those equations have been applied to associate the control forces and moments, to control positions of actuators. In this paper we present the experimental results, estimation algorithms and data-processing.
1957-01-01
Technical Paper
570140
ARTHUR J. MORROW
1949-01-01
Technical Paper
490163
RICHARD A. BROWN
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3171
Shane E. Jacobs, Elizabeth A. Benson, David L. Akin
The next generation of pressure suits must enable large-scale planetary Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Astronauts exploring the moon and Mars will be required to walk many kilometers, carry large loads, perform intricate experiments, and extract geological samples. Advanced pressure suit architectures must be developed to allow astronauts to perform these and other tasks simply and effectively. The research developed here demonstrates integration of robotics technology into pressure suit design. The concept of a robotically augmented pressure suit for planetary exploration has been developed through the use of analytical and experimental investigations. Two unique torso configurations are examined, including a Soft/Hard Upper Torso with individually adjustable bearings, as well as advances in Morphing Upper Torso research, in which an all-soft torso is analyzed as a system of interconnected parallel manipulators.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3820
Jose Luis Olazagoitia, Scott Wyatt
Tricept machines are already being successfully utilized by the Aerospace Industry. While the well known versions T605 and T805 are still adequate for known applications, the new Tricept T9000 developed by PKMTricept SL has been designed focusing in hard materials machining and a broader range of applications in mind. The recently released Tricept T9000 is presented here. One installation where the T9000 has been working for over one year is also introduced. A new and totally automated riveting head with seven different end-effectors has been specifically designed by LOXIN to be used with Tricept robots. The capabilities of this new head are reviewed here.
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