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Viewing 1 to 30 of 6129
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0163
Robert Lietz, Burkhard Hupertz, Neil Lewington, Rafael Silveira, Christian Taucher
A benchmark study was conducted to assess the capability of an open source CFD based process to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around various vehicle types. The ICON FOAMpro process was used to simulate the flow field of four baseline geometries of a Truck, CD-Car, B-Car and an SUV. Further studies were carried out to assess the effects of geometry variations on the predicted aerodynamic lift and drag. A Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) approach was chosen for the benchmarks. In addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values, the results for surface pressure data, surface and wake flow fields were calculated. These results were compared with values obtained using Ford's existing CFD processes.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0510
Megumu Oshima, Kanya Nara, Tatsuhiko Yoshimura
We have constructed a design review system in which Full Process and Quick Design Review processes are selectively used according to the degree of newness in a design change. The Full Process Design Review is conducted for a review of system or part designs having a high level of newness and the tools and process used in this review were standardized. The Quick Design Review is newly developed design review process that could be conducted in a quicker and simpler manner for designs involving a medium level of newness in order to effectively prevent design-related problems. The Quick Design Review uses a changes list and Design Review Based on Failure Mode (DRBFM) [1] worksheets to focus on the changed points. This method enables the engineers involved to identify problems and to devise solutions efficiently and effectively through discussions.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9095
Lindita Prendi, Allan King, Edwin Tam
Environmental concerns and rising fuel costs are driving Ontario's municipalities and fleet operators to consider alternative vehicle technologies. Elevated fuel consumption and air emissions are attributed to the unique operations of fleet vehicles and in particular, during idling. While drivers of passenger vehicles may have the option of simply not idling, fleet and emergency vehicle operators, may need to keep the vehicle operating to supply power to critical onboard equipment. These demands may be exacerbated during seasonal, temperature extremes. However, prolonged idling can impose significant environmental and economic burdens. Hybrid vehicles have yet to be utilized widely by Ontario's fleets, but there are other approaches to reduce emissions, including alternative “green” technologies to operate in-vehicle equipment and maintain fleet vehicle capabilities instead of idling.
2004-11-02
Technical Paper
2004-01-3092
Zenovy S. Wowczuk, Kenneth H. Means, Victor H. Mucino, Gregory J. Thompson, James Smith, Jeffery R.X Auld, James E. Smith, Adam Naternicola, Lawrence Anthony Feragotti, Bruce J. Corso
The development of a standardized roll-on, roll-off (RoRo) sensor pallet system for a C-130 aircraft was conceived by the National Guard and the Counter Narco-Terrorism Technology Development Office to assist in counterdrug reconnaissance activities within the United States and surveillance and reconnaissance missions worldwide. West Virginia University was contracted to perform the design and development of this system because of their innovative design ideas. Before development, the design parameters were established by these two DoD agencies, their mission requirements and by the limitations of the C-130 aircraft. These limitations include using Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) and Government off the Shelf (GOTS) items when developing the system that must be universal on all C-130 aircrafts variants B thru H. Further design criteria are by the limitations of the C-130 aircraft and its existing mission requirements.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3315
Alexandre de Almeida Guimarães
It is clearly perceived the exponential growth of on-board electronics on several technological segments. On aerospace segment that is not different. Besides those propulsion and navigation fundamentals systems, necessary on most part of the aircrafts, many complex electronic systems are required: for the treatment of information sent by either landed equipments or other aircrafts (often found on military applications), and for comfort and entertainment systems (most related to passenger transportation applications). In any case, the amount of available and exchangeable information between these systems is fairly huge. Such data exchange would be easier performed if were made through the application of a communication protocol. This paper lists and analyses the communication protocols used by most part of the current and future aircrafts. The intention of this document is to be a study guideline of avionics related protocols.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3415
Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza, Gilberto da Cunha Trivelato
In this work we discuss some types of simulation environments and laboratories, their characteristics and applications to the simulation and control of aerospace vehicles. This includes: the basic definitions, types and characteristics of simulators and simulations (physical, computational, hybrid, etc.; discrete events, discrete time, continuous time, etc; deterministic, stochastic, etc.) their basic compromise (simplicity × fidelity), their man-machine interfaces and interactions (virtual, constructive, live, etc.), their evolution law (time, events, mixed, etc.), their architectures (“stand-alone”, PIL, HIL, MIL, DIS, HLA, etc.), and especially, their environments (discrete, continuous, hybrid, etc.) and laboratories (physical, computational, hybrid, etc.), and their applications to the simulation and control of aerospace vehicles. This is illustrated by some examples driven from the aerospace industry.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2317
Valter Perotto, Vincenzo Mareschi
ALTAN (ALenia Thermal ANalyser) is a tool developed in Alenia Spazio, for the thermal simulation of satellites. Distinctive features of ALTAN are the description of the system in terms of thermal objects that can be considered as high level primitives, the accurate modelling of the energy sources (planets and sun) and of the optical properties, the integration in a single tool of the steps of radiative, conductive and thermal calculations and of the post-process of the results. An example of ALTAN application is given for Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury, in particular the modelling of the highly variable planet temperature and the directional optical properties of the planet surface.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2307
Pierre Jamotton, Antonio Cucchiaro, Isabelle Domken
Both Planck and Herschel satellite are cryogenic payloads, the first one having a cold point around 0.1 [K], the second one around 0.3 [K]. Not only the detectors are cooled, but also major subsystems and systems of the spacecraft’s. The Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL) is involved in the testing of several parts of the spacecraft’s, starting from optical tests on the mirrors or on the telescopes, going on with cryogenic vibration testing of scientific focal plane instruments, ending with the full Planck spacecraft testing. Each test requires temperature lower than 20 [K], in volumes ranging from 1 [m3] to 60 [m3], cooling down several kilograms to more than one ton, and withstanding heat load up to 150 [W] in stabilization. These tests are done is 4 different facilities of CSL, linked to a common cold Helium network. This latter allows full flexibility for operation of the different facilities quasi independently.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2320
Marco Molina, Paolo Vercesi
The paper presents the simulation and the performance evaluation for an innovative Temperature and Humidity Control in a manned orbiting module. Starting from the EcosimPro® modelling capabilities, a Space Station Module has been built and a standard Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) has been designed, based on a classical PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) controller, suitably developed. After that, a fuzzy logic controller has been dsigned and thanks to EcosimPro programmability a fuzzy logic controller block has been created. The controller have been sized and its performances suitably simulated. Performances of the innovative controller are checked against the standard control techniques.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2306
A. Robson, S. Dolce, P. Ayache
MetOp is a series of three meteorology and climate monitoring satellites, which will be launched using the Russian Soyuz-Fregat vehicle over a period of 14 years starting in 2005. MetOp will form part of the American ‘Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites’ (POES) programme, a further step in European/American collaboration in space. The MetOp satellites will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of between 800 and 850km, with a repeat cycle of 29 days. The satellite is based on the successful Spot platform, which has carried a number of European earth observation satellites over the last 15 years, and consists of two parts: 1. The Payload Module (or PLM) which carries twelve instruments, provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the French space agency, CNES. 2.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2305
Juergen Schilke, Silvio Dolce, Elena Checa, Gaetan Piret
The METOP satellite is Europe’s polar-orbiting meteorological satellite. It balances the US provided POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite) program. 3 flight models are built under EUMETSAT/ESA contract by an industrial consortium led by Astrium. Instruments are supplied by NOAA and EUMETSAT. This paper gives a summary on the thermal testing of METOP payload module. The testing started with TB test on EM, conducted in may 2001 at ESTEC Large Space Simulator. It was followed by a TV test on the same model in June 2001. The test was split into a TB part with solar simulation and a TV part without. Between both tests a test jig carrying a set of stimuli and test equipment was installed on the PLM. In November 2002 the PLM flight model 1 was subjected to a TV test at ESTEC with additional TB phases to improve the TMM. In February 2004 PLM flight model 2 has executed also TV testing at ESTEC.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0353
Luciano Magno Frágola Barbosa, José Eduardo Mautone de Barros
The aim of this work is to present the preliminary configuration design studies for an unmanned, lightweight (less than 15 kg), supersonic research aircraft. The studies comprise the aircraft typical mission, the aerodynamic and structural arrangement, preliminary performance, as well as mass distribution. The aircraft, an Unmanned Air Vehicle, or “UAV”, is named as Pohox (“arrow” in Maxakali indian language). It is intended to be the flying test bed for a multicycle engine capable to provide thrust in subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. In order to provide validation of the analysis tools, flight performance characteristics of a known, high speed aircraft - North American X-15 - have been also evaluated and compared with the available flight test data. The present analysis is an important step towards the aircraft detailed definition. And the features associated with the configuration obtained are good indications of the technical feasibility of this supersonic UAV.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0488
Peter Kempf
Abstract Discuss the basics of posturing and positioning of the full range of occupants necessary to cover the required anthropometric demographics in combat vehicles, both ground and air, since there are similarities to both and that they are both very different than the traditional automotive packaging scenarios. It is based on the Eye Reference Point and the Design Eye Point. Discuss the three Reach Zones: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Discuss Vision Zones and potentially ground intercepts. Discuss body clearances, both static and dynamic. Discuss the basic effects of packaging occupants with body armor with respect to SRP's and MSRP's.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0731
M. Shariyat, Mahboobeh Rajabi Ghahnavieh
Beam-type structural elements are generally utilized in construction of majority of the automotive structures, e.g. the buses, trailers, and solid axles. These components are usually subjected to spatially-random or uncertain load conditions during their service lives. Moreover, material properties of the beams-type structural elements may vary from a sample to another in a random manner. The situation will be more complex when both material properties and load conditions exhibit random natures in the spatial domain. In the present paper, an algorithm is presented to assess the probabilistic behavior of the beam-type vehicle's components in relation with the strength and deflection requirements. A consistent finite element reliability model that may be employed for beams with arbitrary inclinations under simultaneous spatially-random loading conditions and random material properties is introduced.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0728
Amandeep Singh, Zissimos Mourelatos, Efstratios Nikolaidis
Reliability is an important engineering requirement for consistently delivering acceptable product performance through time. As time progresses, the product may fail due to time-dependent operating conditions and material properties, component degradation, etc. The reliability degradation with time may increase the lifecycle cost due to potential warranty costs, repairs and loss of market share. Reliability is the probability that the system will perform its intended function successfully for a specified time interval. In this work, we consider the first-passage reliability which accounts for the first time failure of non-repairable systems. Methods are available in the literature, which provide an upper bound to the true reliability which may overestimate the true value considerably. Monte-Carlo simulations are accurate but computationally expensive.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0725
Zissimos Mourelatos, Jing Li, Vijitashwa Pandey, Amandeep Singh, Matthew Castanier, David A. Lamb
Understanding reliability is critical in design, maintenance and durability analysis of engineering systems. A reliability simulation methodology is presented in this paper for vehicle fleets using limited data. The method can be used to estimate the reliability of non-repairable as well as repairable systems. It can optimally allocate, based on a target system reliability, individual component reliabilities using a multi-objective optimization algorithm. The algorithm establishes a Pareto front that can be used for optimal tradeoff between reliability and the associated cost. The method uses Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the system failure rate and reliability as a function of time. The probability density functions (PDF) of the time between failures for all components of the system are estimated using either limited data or a user-supplied MTBF (mean time between failures) and its coefficient of variation.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0726
Dan Ghiocel, Dan Negrut, David A. Lamb, David Gorsich
This research paper addresses the ground vehicle reliability prediction process based on a new integrated reliability prediction framework. The integrated stochastic framework combines the computational physics-based predictions with experimental testing information for assessing vehicle reliability. The integrated reliability prediction approach incorporates the following computational steps: i) simulation of stochastic operational environment, ii) vehicle multi-body dynamics analysis, iii) stress prediction in subsystems and components, iv) stochastic progressive damage analysis, and v) component life prediction, including the effects of maintenance and, finally, iv) reliability prediction at component and system level. To solve efficiently and accurately the challenges coming from large-size computational mechanics models and high-dimensional stochastic spaces, a HPC simulation-based approach to the reliability problem was implemented.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1701
Tongan Wang, John Maxon
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has been used widely by industry and academia for more than 20 years to predict the mid-to-high frequency range behavior of complex acoustic systems. At Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC), SEA models have been developed to predict the interior cabin noise levels of completed Gulfstream aircraft. These models are also used for acoustic evaluations of design changes prior to implementation as well as a diagnostic tool for investigating noise and vibration issues. Throughout the development of the SEA models, extensive experimental testing in GAC's Acoustic Test Facility (ATF) was conducted on numerous aircraft components represented in the models. This paper demonstrates the importance of using experimental data to improve the accuracy of the SEA predictions by accurately adjusting the material properties and acoustic parameters of the SEA model to better match the ATF experimental data.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1704
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Geng Zhang, Ricardo Sbragio
Vehicle design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as fatigue, strength, noise, safety, etc. Simulation models are employed for assessing and potentially improving a vehicle's performance in individual technical areas. Challenges arise when designing a vehicle for improving mutually competing objectives, satisfying constraints from multiple engineering disciplines, and determining a single set of values for the vehicle's characteristics. It is of interest to engage simulation models from the various engineering disciplines in an organized and coordinated manner for determining a design configuration that provides the best possible performance in all disciplines. The multi-discipline design process becomes streamlined when the simulation methods integrate well with finite element or computer aided design models.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1733
Kurt Veggeberg, Michael James
Military jet aircraft expose both ground maintenance personnel and the community to high levels of noise. The U.S. Department of Defense is funding research to develop advanced modeling tools for noise reduction techniques and community noise exposure. A large-scale microphone array for portable near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and data acquisition system was created for this purpose. The system was designed for measuring high-amplitude jet noise from current and next-generation military aircraft to provide model refinement and benchmarking, evaluate performance of noise control devices, and predict ground maintenance personnel and community noise exposure. The acoustical instrumentation system was designed to be easy to use with scalable data processing as the primary focus. The data acquisition system allowed up to 152 channels simultaneously sampled at a rate of 96 kHz.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1647
Kristopher Lynch, John Maxon
Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) owns and operates an Acoustic Test Facility (ATF) in Savannah, GA. The ATF consists of a Reverberation Chamber, Hemi-Anechoic Chamber, and a Control Room. Types of testing conducted in the ATF include Transmission Loss, Sound Power, and Vibration testing. In addition to accommodating typical types of acoustic testing, the ATF has some unique capabilities. The ATF can be used to conduct testing at cold temperatures representative of up to 45,000 ft flight altitude, while simultaneously taking Transmission Loss measurements of the chilled test sample. Additionally, the ATF has the capability of conducting Transmission Loss testing of a full mockup of the aircraft sidewall, including a section of fuselage, all the thermal/acoustic materials up to and including the interior decorative panel. A sound source capable of very high amplitudes at high frequencies is required to obtain good measurements from testing multiple wall systems such as this.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1605
YongHwa Heo, Kwang-joon Kim, Shi-hwan Oh, Dae-kwan Kim, Ki-lyuk Yong, YoungMin Park
Reaction wheels are used to control the attitude of a satellite in space in an almost static manner. Excitation forces at high frequencies as well, however, due to unbalance or bearing faults, can be transmitted to the satellite structure and work badly against missions of the satellite. Hence, counteractions such as vibration isolators are often employed in practice. In this paper, procedures are presented to design and test rubber vibration isolators based on characteristics of the transmission forces without isolators obtained from a previous study. First, a system consisting of reaction wheel, bearing, rigid cover and isolators was modeled with 11 degrees of freedom. Second, stiffness and damping of the isolators were designed such that the forces transmitted onto the satellite structure might satisfy given criteria. Finally, an actual isolation system fabricated using a rubber was tested to check the transmission forces.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1617
T.S. Miller, S.W. Lee, G. Holup, J.M. Gallman, M.J. Moeller
The turbulent boundary layer (TBL) that forms on the outer skin of the aircraft in flight is a significant source of interior noise. However, the existing quiet test facilities capable of measuring the TBL wall pressure fluctuations tend to be at low Mach numbers. The objective of this study was to develop a new inlet for an existing six inch square (or 6×6) flow duct that would be adequately free from facility noise to study the TBL wall pressure fluctuations at higher, subsonic Mach numbers. First, the existing flow duct setup was used to measure the TBL wall pressure fluctuations. Then the modified inlet was successfully used to make similar measurements up to Mach number of 0.6. These measurements will be used in the future to validate wall pressure spectrum models for interior noise analysis programs such as statistical energy analysis (SEA) and dynamic energy analysis (DEA).
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5639
Mark A. Hale, Dimitri N. Mavris, Dennis L. Carter
The Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit (CASDAT) provides a baseline assessment capability for the Air Force Research Laboratory. The historical development of CASDAT is of benefit to the design research community because considerable effort was expended in the classification of the analysis tools. Its implementation proves to also be of importance because of the definition of assessment use cases. As a result, CASDAT is compatible with accepted analysis tools and can be used with state-of-the-art assessment methods, including technology forecasting and probabilistic design.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5659
R. Kruk, N. Link, L. Reid, S. Jennings
The Enhanced/Synthetic Vision System (E/SVS) is a Technology Demonstrator (TD) project supported by the Chief, Research and Development of the Canadian Department of National Defence. E/SVS displays an augmented visual scene to the pilot that includes three separate image sources: a synthetic computer - generated terrain image; an enhanced visual image from an electro-optical sensor (fused as an inset); and aircraft instrument symbology, all displayed to the pilot on a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD). The synthetic component of the system provides a 40 degree vertical by 80 degree horizontal image of terrain and local features. The enhanced component digitizes imagery from electro-optic sensors and fuses the sensor image as an inset (20 degrees by 25 degrees) within the synthetic image. Symbology can be overlaid in any location within the synthetic field-of-view and may be head, aircraft, target or terrain referenced.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5654
Barth W. Shenk
An empirically based, analytical tool for calculating lift, drag and pitching moment of tilting wing configurations is presented, and used to develop the general characteristics of the Compound Tilting Wing (CTW), a variation on the conventional tilting wing configuration. The CTW utilizes an inboard leading edge extension, which acts as a canard when the wing tilts to augment pitch control during low speed operations and conforms to the wing at zero tilt. This scheme allows the designer more degrees of freedom for overall configuration layout and propulsion system integration for STOL design.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5607
R Bruce Lumsden, Gareth D Padfield, Carole D Braby-Deighton
The paper takes a total systems approach to the human factors challenges at the helicopter-ship dynamic interface. It examines the problems of operating large helicopters from small ships in all weather conditions from the start of the mission to completion with due emphasis on the launch and recovery phases. Research taking place at DERA Bedford in support of current and future naval operations is outlined. Although the prime focus is Royal Navy Anti-submarine Warfare operations, the paper also considers present and future maritime and marinised helicopter types. The paper is written from the perspective of developing requirements and reducing risk by demonstrating technical solutions. The main focus of the paper is the recovery from completion of task to securing in the ship’s hangar. It addresses the aspects of automatic flight path management and flight control systems and the role of automation during the recovery process, particularly in the case of the single pilot aircraft.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5606
A. Leger, C. Gardelle, G. Bruniaux
Abstract Advanced binocular Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD) capable of bisensor operation (I2 tubes and video images) with overlaid symbology have been developed for military use in various helicopters. Extensive flight testing of such helmets, as the French TOPOWL®, have provided so far a considerable amount of data relatively to Night Vision System design and use. Design options allowing improved mass and Center of Gravity in regard of classical NVG, as folded optics and visor projection, have been shown to give very effective results. Performance in various flight conditions, including fog, snow and obstacles, has been quite thoroughly investigated. Training issues with I2 and head-steered thermal imagery have also been addressed during test flight. Lessons learned from test flight open interesting possibilities for further use of such systems in civilian rotorcraft operation, provided acceptably low cost solutions could be achieved.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5608
E. Theunissen, G. Sachs
The selection of the design parameters of a perspective flightpath display must take into account the operational capabilities of the vehicle to be controlled. As a result, designs of perspective flightpath displays that have been optimized for fixed-wing aircraft may need to be modified in order to be useful for advanced approach procedures with tiltrotors. This paper discusses potential changes that are required as a result of the different range of flightpath angles used in approach trajectories and the different range of velocities.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5619
Richard M. Wood, Steven X. S. Bauer
A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (> 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.
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