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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1142
2004-11-02
Technical Paper
2004-01-3092
Zenovy S. Wowczuk, Kenneth H. Means, Victor H. Mucino, Gregory J. Thompson, James Smith, Jeffery R.X Auld, James E. Smith, Adam Naternicola, Lawrence Anthony Feragotti, Bruce J. Corso
The development of a standardized roll-on, roll-off (RoRo) sensor pallet system for a C-130 aircraft was conceived by the National Guard and the Counter Narco-Terrorism Technology Development Office to assist in counterdrug reconnaissance activities within the United States and surveillance and reconnaissance missions worldwide. West Virginia University was contracted to perform the design and development of this system because of their innovative design ideas. Before development, the design parameters were established by these two DoD agencies, their mission requirements and by the limitations of the C-130 aircraft. These limitations include using Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) and Government off the Shelf (GOTS) items when developing the system that must be universal on all C-130 aircrafts variants B thru H. Further design criteria are by the limitations of the C-130 aircraft and its existing mission requirements.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3315
Alexandre de Almeida Guimarães
It is clearly perceived the exponential growth of on-board electronics on several technological segments. On aerospace segment that is not different. Besides those propulsion and navigation fundamentals systems, necessary on most part of the aircrafts, many complex electronic systems are required: for the treatment of information sent by either landed equipments or other aircrafts (often found on military applications), and for comfort and entertainment systems (most related to passenger transportation applications). In any case, the amount of available and exchangeable information between these systems is fairly huge. Such data exchange would be easier performed if were made through the application of a communication protocol. This paper lists and analyses the communication protocols used by most part of the current and future aircrafts. The intention of this document is to be a study guideline of avionics related protocols.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3415
Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza, Gilberto da Cunha Trivelato
In this work we discuss some types of simulation environments and laboratories, their characteristics and applications to the simulation and control of aerospace vehicles. This includes: the basic definitions, types and characteristics of simulators and simulations (physical, computational, hybrid, etc.; discrete events, discrete time, continuous time, etc; deterministic, stochastic, etc.) their basic compromise (simplicity × fidelity), their man-machine interfaces and interactions (virtual, constructive, live, etc.), their evolution law (time, events, mixed, etc.), their architectures (“stand-alone”, PIL, HIL, MIL, DIS, HLA, etc.), and especially, their environments (discrete, continuous, hybrid, etc.) and laboratories (physical, computational, hybrid, etc.), and their applications to the simulation and control of aerospace vehicles. This is illustrated by some examples driven from the aerospace industry.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0488
Peter Kempf
Abstract Discuss the basics of posturing and positioning of the full range of occupants necessary to cover the required anthropometric demographics in combat vehicles, both ground and air, since there are similarities to both and that they are both very different than the traditional automotive packaging scenarios. It is based on the Eye Reference Point and the Design Eye Point. Discuss the three Reach Zones: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Discuss Vision Zones and potentially ground intercepts. Discuss body clearances, both static and dynamic. Discuss the basic effects of packaging occupants with body armor with respect to SRP's and MSRP's.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1733
Kurt Veggeberg, Michael James
Military jet aircraft expose both ground maintenance personnel and the community to high levels of noise. The U.S. Department of Defense is funding research to develop advanced modeling tools for noise reduction techniques and community noise exposure. A large-scale microphone array for portable near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and data acquisition system was created for this purpose. The system was designed for measuring high-amplitude jet noise from current and next-generation military aircraft to provide model refinement and benchmarking, evaluate performance of noise control devices, and predict ground maintenance personnel and community noise exposure. The acoustical instrumentation system was designed to be easy to use with scalable data processing as the primary focus. The data acquisition system allowed up to 152 channels simultaneously sampled at a rate of 96 kHz.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5639
Mark A. Hale, Dimitri N. Mavris, Dennis L. Carter
The Conceptual Aerospace Systems Design and Analysis Toolkit (CASDAT) provides a baseline assessment capability for the Air Force Research Laboratory. The historical development of CASDAT is of benefit to the design research community because considerable effort was expended in the classification of the analysis tools. Its implementation proves to also be of importance because of the definition of assessment use cases. As a result, CASDAT is compatible with accepted analysis tools and can be used with state-of-the-art assessment methods, including technology forecasting and probabilistic design.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5659
R. Kruk, N. Link, L. Reid, S. Jennings
The Enhanced/Synthetic Vision System (E/SVS) is a Technology Demonstrator (TD) project supported by the Chief, Research and Development of the Canadian Department of National Defence. E/SVS displays an augmented visual scene to the pilot that includes three separate image sources: a synthetic computer - generated terrain image; an enhanced visual image from an electro-optical sensor (fused as an inset); and aircraft instrument symbology, all displayed to the pilot on a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD). The synthetic component of the system provides a 40 degree vertical by 80 degree horizontal image of terrain and local features. The enhanced component digitizes imagery from electro-optic sensors and fuses the sensor image as an inset (20 degrees by 25 degrees) within the synthetic image. Symbology can be overlaid in any location within the synthetic field-of-view and may be head, aircraft, target or terrain referenced.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5619
Richard M. Wood, Steven X. S. Bauer
A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (> 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5531
Christopher McFarland, Jason McClurg, William McClelland, Steven A. Brandt
The General Atomics RQ-1A Predator has become an essential tool for battlefield commanders. However, its low maximum speed and poor performance in rain and icing conditions limit its usefulness. In the Spring of 1999, two 10-student sections of the aircraft design class at the United States Air Force Academy studied ways to improve Predator’s usefulness. They determined that small turbine engines, electro-expulsive de-icing systems, and several simple aerodynamic refinements would significantly improve Predator’s capabilities. These results and the methods used to generate them are described.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5530
Ray Whitford
Different feasibility studies have been carried out over several years at the Royal Military College of Science (RMCS) into medium military airlifters aimed, in essence at replacing the C-130. The studies, each occupying a nominal 1,500 manhours (but probably 50% more) formed part of the final year of the AeroMechanical B.Eng degree at RMCS. The intention of this paper is to draw together their major findings and deals predominantly with the topics of: cargo hold sizing and body aerodynamics, powerplant selection, weight and performance.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5503
John Paterson
Survivability of combat aircraft has significantly increased with the use of low observable (LO) technology. This technology has dramatically reduced the ability of an air defense to detect, track, intercept and destroy a penetrating stealth aircraft. The Iraqi Desert Storm conflict demonstrated to the world that LO aircraft are a significant threat and they are developing counters to that threat. Many countries are rapidly improving their air defenses by purchasing more advanced radars, surface-to-air missiles (SAM) and integrated air defense systems (IADS). Another defense technique is to concentrate defense elements so there is significant overlap, making it difficult for even stealth aircraft to penetrate. A counter to these defense improvements and highly defended areas is already being used by non-stealth aircraft: standoff weapons. Stealth aircraft can penetrate a hostile airspace and use standoff weapons to attack heavily defended areas with little survivability risk.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5506
Thomas R. Yechout, Jonathan C. Dowty
Approximately 120 hours of wind tunnel testing were accomplished to determine the drag contributions of various external protuberances on the AC-130H Gunship and to recommend modifications to achieve optimal drag reduction potential. Also, the operational impact of the recommended configuration was quantified using a performance modeling code. The overall objective of this effort was to establish a solid foundation via experimental and computational ground efforts to support flight test of drag reduction modifications to an aircraft. Thirteen basic AC-130H protuberances were evaluated to determine their incremental drag. A recommended reduced-drag configuration was developed which provided a drag reduction potential of 58.2 counts.
2004-11-02
Technical Paper
2004-01-3117
Steve Rogers
This paper presents an implementation of Hopfield and a modified Hopfields Neural Network that solves a binary (0-1) decision making problem. It discusses techniques for formulating this problem as a discrete neural network and then describes it as an nxn matrix of 1's and 0's. The two methods are compared for different sizes of matrices.
2004-11-02
Technical Paper
2004-01-3129
Zenovy S. Wowczuk, Kenneth H. Means, Victor H. Mucino, Gregory J. Thompson, Lawrence Feragotti, James E. Smith, Adam Naternicola, Bruce J. Corso
Abstract During structural engineering design two of the most overlooked design facets of a finished product is understanding the behavior characteristics of how the product will react when resonated at its natural frequencies and actually defining and understanding the overall vibration profile responsible for the excitation of the structure. A C-130 mechanical arm/pod system has been developed to accommodate 1,000-pounds of sensor payload deployable in flight from a C-130 Hercules military aircraft (variants B thru J). The mechanical arm/pod system will be subjected to a profile of vibration from numerous sources during deployment and while in the final operating position. A general vibration profile for the mechanical arm/pod will be compiled from the plane’s four T-56-A-15 turboprop engines, the atmospheric turbulence and random gust loads.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2230
Yeong-Ren Lin, Yang Hu, Lei Zhou, David Woodburn, Thomas Wu, Louis C. Chow, Quinn Leland
In the aviation community, there is a high priority to develop all-electric aircraft. Electro-mechanical actuation systems would replace traditional, large, heavy and difficult-to-maintain hydraulic actuation systems. This movement from hydraulic actuation to electrical actuation enhances the flexibility to integrate redundancy and emergency system in future military aircraft. Elimination of the hydraulic fluid removes the possibility of leakage of corrosive hydraulic fluid and the associated fire hazard, as well as environmental concerns. The switch from hydraulic to electrical actuation provides additional benefits in reduced aircraft weight, improved survivability and improved maintainability. The heat load in an electro-mechanical actuation (EMA) is highly transient and localized in nature; therefore a phase change material could be embedded in the heat generating components to store peak heat load.
1958-01-01
Technical Paper
580155
W. M. STOUT, R. E. SLINEY
1955-01-01
Technical Paper
550082
W. R. RHOADS
1957-01-01
Technical Paper
570322
K. H. GIBSON
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3846
Joseph J. Kehoe, Rick Lind
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) stand to play a significant role in future sensing and information gathering missions. The scope of these mission scenarios is expanding to include those missions for which the sensor and carrier vehicle will be in close proximity to the surrounding environment, such as in urban operations. Several unique problems related to guidance, navigation and control are introduced that separate these tasks from the existing paradigm for information gathering missions at standoff range. This paper examines the challenges related to autonomous sensor planning missions in these close proximity environments and discusses solution strategies to achieve maximal sensing effectiveness. Specifically, results from vision-based navigation research are discussed and the concept of a geometric sensing effectiveness criterion is introduced and subsequently utilized for motion planning.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3929
Ilhan Tuzcu
This paper concerns with control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), which are expected to carry out very critical maneuvers, well in excess of what pilots are able to tolerate. Safety factors for these aircraft are not as high as those for manned aircraft and they are lighter than the manned aircraft. These imply that UAVs are considerably more flexible than the manned aircraft. A newly developed theory for the dynamics and control of maneuvering flexible aircraft is ideally suited for the analysis and design of such aircraft. The control input can be conceived as having two parts, one part designed to steer the aircraft to permit the realization of a desired flight trajectory and another part designed to reduce any deviations from the desired trajectory. Control design for steering the aircraft can be achieved by using the inverse dynamics of quasi-rigid aircraft (aircraft treated as rigid). On the other hand, control design for the deviations requires output feedback control.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3099
Robert M. Boman
The Aircraft System & System Integration Systems Committee (AS-1) Committee from the Society of Automotive Engineer Avionics System Division (SAE-ASD) Council has recently developed two new interface standards for the next generation of small smart, precision guided munitions (also known as stores) consisting of two different classes: miniature munitions and micro munitions. The following paper begins with a background on the weaponisiation of be Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), sometimes referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), and then is followed by a review of two new interface standards consisting of the Miniature Munition Store Interface (MMSI) and Interface for Micro Munitions (IMM) standards that have been developed under the jurisdiction of the SAE-ASD AS-1 Committee.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2384
Adolfo Gomes Marto, Antônio Carlos Ponce Alonso
The installation of a new store in an aircraft introduces changes to its structural dynamics characteristics. Such new configuration can present undesirable instabilities in flight. One of the most dangerous instabilities that the aircraft may experience is flutter. It is a disastrous interaction among inertial, elastic and aerodynamic forces present in the modified aircraft configuration. Therefore, this phenomenon must be prevented. In the study of flutter, the knowledge of parameters such as natural frequencies, damping and shapes of some vibration modes of the aircraft-store/suspension assembly is of crucial importance. These parameters can be obtained from ground vibration tests. This work presents a set of ground vibration test results of a new store intended to be installed in a fighter aircraft. The results are the natural frequencies, damping and mode shapes and are used to evaluate a three-degree-of-freedom model that will represent the mechanical system.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3394
Jay P. Wilhelm, Andrew D. Lowery, Franz A. Pertl, Roy S. Nutter, James E. Smith
Project Oculus, an experimental configurable sensor platform for deploying airborne sensors on a C-130 aircraft, is currently in its pre-flight testing phase. The electronics driving the platform are available commercially off the shelf (COTS) and as such are not automatically rated to comply with stringent military electromagnetic standards as defined in MIL-STD-461. These COTS electronics include efficient switching power converters, variable frequency motor drives (VFD), and microprocessor based equipment, all of which can present electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. Even in a design where EMI issues were not considered up front, it is often possible to bring the overall configuration into compliance. Switching and digital clock signals produce both conducted and radiated noise emissions. Long cable runs and enclosure apertures become noise transmitting antennas. Large switching currents place noise on the power lines causing interference with other equipment.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3395
Jeffery R. X. Auld, Emily D. Pertl, James E. Smith
Enhancing the capabilities of established airframes to meet expanded mission requirements is preferential to the design of specialized aircraft. The high cost associated with the research and development of a specialized aircraft platform has shifted the concentration towards the modification of existing aircraft to support multiple C4ISR missions. The recently developed Oculus sensor deployment system is one such example of this trend, providing a fully integrated aerial visual enhancement platform with multi-mission capabilities. This paper provides a short survey of the Oculus sensor pallet system and overviews some of the multiple guidelines used which ensure that various remote sensing technologies may be securely and simultaneously deployed.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3268
Barry Hendrix, Michael F. Siok
The purpose of this technical paper and associated SAE panel discussion is to present an overview of software safety and technical integrity needs for “new” aircraft and software intensive systems development. Most of the software safety and integrity concepts presented are already proven and accepted in the commercial aircraft domain and are becoming more widely accepted for military tactical and strategic airlift aircraft. Even newer fighter/attack systems now accept the need for safety-critical functions list and more software safety focus. The focus is on effective, efficient, and essential software safety processes and modern methodologies to ensure safety-critical functions, either commanded, controlled or monitored by software, are prevented from contributing to Catastrophic and Hazardous failure conditions and resultant hazards.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3256
Tom Garcia
In 1996 a series of costly and preventable mishaps in Naval Aviation were determined to be the cause of dysfunctional cultures that existed within the mishap squadrons. Soon after, the Navy implemented a two-part process to root out dysfunctional cultures before they could cause further mishaps. The first step is for the squadron to complete a Climate Survey. The Climate Survey is an indicator of potential problems. The next step is for a trained Senior Naval Aviator to conduct a Culture Assessment of the squadron to accurately define the current culture of safety as well as any dysfunctional subcultures. Over the last five years, the Navy has saved $1.1 billion from the implementation of this program.1
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1410
John F. Lockett, Richard Kozycki, Claire C. Gordon, Edward Bellandi
A prime concern for the U.S. Army's Future Combat System (FCS) is ensuring that human system integration requirements are met. To that end, an integrated human figure modeling approach has been developed to help meet those goals. The accuracy of any analysis that uses human figure modeling tools depends not only on the data and method used to construct the figures but also on the clothing and equipment items worn or transported by the operator or vehicle occupant. Some of the keys to this approach incorporate methods for estimating the physical size of the user population as well as defining the Soldier clothing and equipment for the 2015 time frame when the FCS is scheduled to be fielded. The four primary areas of focus for analyses include the common crewstation, squad area, egress/ingress, and maintenance. The cooperative approach has been devised by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, the U.S.
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921184
William J. Godecker, John C. Lentz, Charles B. Parme, David B. Wigmore, Kevin B. Winans
The process of designing a Vapor Cycle System (VCS) for a fighter aircraft is a difficult and continuous challenge. Besides the constant efforts to optimize size, weight and package is the need to provide a highly reliable, producible and easily maintained system. In particular is the need to make the vapor compression system highly hermetic and intensely rugged. This paper updates the 1982 SAE paper entitled “Environmental Control of an Aircraft Pod Mounted Electronics System” (820869). Specifically it details the design, production and field results of the LANTIRN Environmental Control Unit (ECU). Since 1986 over 1000 of these systems have been fielded. The ECU has proven to be reliable in spite of the difficult environment, which has included combat duty. This paper will give insight into the LANTIRN pod thermal management system, the design of the ECU subsystem, and packaging.
1992-04-01
Technical Paper
920989
Frank Hurley, Anthony M. Corgiat
A September 1991 industry-government workshop was held under the auspices of the United States Army Research Office. This meeting, together with some subsequent discussions, examined impediments and opportunities relating to new, versatile, high-performance vertical aircraft for Army or other users. It was concluded that the technology elements that could enable free-wheeling yet economical flight proofing of risky design concepts, without jeopardizing human life, are generally available.
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