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Viewing 1 to 30 of 82
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1220
Marcello Canova, Fabio Chiara, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yue-Yun Wang
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1784
Ashley L. Dunn, Gary J. Heydinger, Giorgio Rizzoni, Dennis A. Guenther
This paper discusses the derivation and validation of planar models of articulated vehicles that were developed to analyze jackknife stability on low-μ surfaces. The equations of motion are rigorously derived using Lagrange's method, then linearized for use in state-space models. The models are verified using TruckSim™, a popular nonlinear solid body vehicle dynamics modeling package. The TruckSim™ models were previously verified using extensive on-vehicle experimental data [1, 2]. A three-axle articulated model is expanded to contain five axles to avoid lumping the parameters for the drive and semitrailer tandems. Compromises inherent in using the linearized models are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a nonlinear tire cornering force model is coupled with the 5-axle model, and its ability to simulate a jackknife event is demonstrated. The model is shown to be valid over a wide range of inputs, up to and including loss of control, on low-and-medium-μ surfaces.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1785
Ashley L. (Al) Dunn, Gary J. Heydinger, Giorgio Rizzoni, Dennis A. Guenther
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1003
Codrin-Gruie Cantemir, Chris Hubert, Giorgio Rizzoni, Bogdan Demetrescu
New vehicle technologies open up a vast number of new options for the designer, removing traditional constraints. Some recent conceptual designs, such as GM's Hy-wire, have recognized this and offered innovative new architectures. Unfortunately, many other new technology concept cars do not exploit the freedoms of the new technologies, hampering themselves with traditional design cues developed for conventional powertrains. This paper will present the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed fuel cell luxury sedan. One of the main motivations of this case study was to explore what could happen when a vehicle was designed from the ground up as a fuel cell vehicle, optimized at the overall system level as well as at the individual component level. The paper will discuss innovations in vehicle architecture and novel concepts for the electrical transmission, fuel cell system and electromagnetic suspension.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1338
Xi Wei, Giorgio Rizzoni
Fuel economy, performance and driveability are three important subjects for evaluating vehicle performance. Evaluations in both simulations and real vehicles prefer objective and quantitative measures. Subjective and descriptive metrics cannot be easily implemented in simulations, and these evaluations vary with changing time or evaluators. Fuel economy is usually estimated under various city, highway and some other user-defined driving cycles. Performance criteria consist of acceleration/deceleration performance, gradeability and towing capability. Driveability measures deal with pedal responsiveness, operating smoothness and driving comfort. This includes interior noise level, jerk and acceleration parameters. Numerical references and some interpretations of the above metrics are presented in this paper, as well as how these metrics can be used to evaluate vehicle powertrain design and control strategy development.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0074
Federica Lacandia, Laura Tribioli, Simona Onori, Giorgio Rizzoni
This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based study aimed at robustly calibrating the parameters of an adaptive energy management strategy designed for a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The supervisory control is developed from the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) approach and applied to a model of a GM Chevrolet Volt vehicle. The proposed controller aims at minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle over a given driving mission, by achieving a blended discharge strategy over the entire cycle. The calibration study is conducted over a wide set of driving conditions and it generates a look-up table and two constant values for the three controller parameters to be used in the in-vehicle implementation. Finally, the calibrated adaptive control strategy is validated against real driving cycles showing the effectiveness of the calibration approach.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0875
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ryan McGee, Hai Yu
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1297
Robert Cooley, Davide Vezza, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1043
Grant Malmedahl, Steve Guba, Don Butler, Giorgio Rizzoni, Jim Shively, Ahmed Soliman
This paper reviews existing approaches to the estimation of the state of wear of an automotive damper, with the aim of developing a methodology for a quick and effective diagnostic procedure that could be carried out in any repair facility. It has always been desirable to leave the shock absorber in place at the time of such testing, and there are three general procedures that claim to be effective at determining damper wear. This research investigates a method of controlling a short drop of each corner of the vehicle while measuring the acceleration. The acceleration data is then analyzed with the aim of estimating the decay rate of the resulting oscillation, which is known to be related to the damping ratio of the suspension system. The rate of decay is then used to infer the condition of the vehicles damper. The paper reviews the state of the art, describes the methodology and presents experimental validation of a new concept.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1169
Codrin-Gruie Cantemir, Gabriel Ursescu, Jingchuan Li, Chris Hubert, Giorgio Rizzoni, Osvaldo Barbarisi, Chris Wilson
New vehicle technologies open up a vast number of new options for the designer, removing traditional constraints. Though hybrid powertrains have thus far been implemented chiefly to improve the fuel economy of already economical passenger cars, hybrid technology may have even more to offer in a performance vehicle. In the year when the C6 Corvette and two large GM hybrid projects have been unveiled, a new case study looks to combine these ideas and explore the performance limits for the next generation high performance sports car. Through an innovative transmission concept and thoughtful packaging, the next generation Corvette could enhance a 600 HP spark-ignited V-8 (supercharged LS2) with 1200 HP from electric machines, and still meet current emission standards. Such immense tractive power, however, would be useless without an intelligent means of delivering this power to the wheels.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0071
Byungho Lee, Yann Guezennec, Giorgio Rizzoni
In this paper, the detection and isolation of actuator faults (both measured and commanded) occurring in the engine breathing and the fueling systems of a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine are described. The breathing system in an SIDI engine usually consists of a fresh air induction path via an electronically controlled throttle (ECT) and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path via an EGR valve. They are dynamically coupled through the intake manifold to form a gas mixture, which eventually enters the engine cylinders for a subsequent combustion process. Meanwhile, the fueling system is equipped with a high-pressure common-rail injection for a precise control of the fuel quantity directly injected into the engine cylinders. Since the coupled system is highly nonlinear in nature, the fault diagnosis will be performed by generating residuals based on multiple nonlinear observers.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0079
T. Gabriel Choi, Vincenzo Marano, Yann Guezennec, Giorgio Rizzoni, Carlo Panzeri, Woongchul Choi
Strong dependency on crude oil in most areas of modern transportation needs lead into a significant consumption of petroleum resources over many decades. In order to maximize the effective use of remaining resources, various types of powertrain topologies, such as hybrid configurations among fuel cell, electric battery as well as conventional IC engine, have been proposed and tested out for number of vehicle classes including a personal commuting vehicle. In this paper the vehicle parameters are based on a typical commercial sub-compact vehicle (FIAT Panda) and energy needs are estimated on the sized powertrain. The main control approach is divided in two categories: off-line global optimization with dynamic programming (DP, not implementable in real time), and on-line Proportional and Feed-Forward with PI controllers. The proposed control approaches are developed both for charge-sustaining and charge-depleting mode and sample results are shown and compared.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0085
Marcello Canova, Fabio Chiara, Joel Cowgill, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Yann Guezennec, Giorgio Rizzoni
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is considered a very promising concept to achieve low NOx and Particulate Matter emissions in traditional spark ignition and Diesel engines. However, controlling the complex mechanisms which govern the combustion process and finding a proper method for the fuel introduction for Diesel HCCI engines have proven to still be a challenge. In addition, the well known IMEP limitations of HCCI combustion restrict the benefits on emissions to low engine load conditions. The current work attempts to extend the benefits of HCCI combustion to a broader range of engine operating conditions by blending the conventional Direct Injection (DI) with the external fuel atomization. A dual combustion system could potentially overcome the limits of low-load operations and allow for a gradual transition between the conventional DI mode at high load and the HCCI external mixture formation at idle and low load.
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0122
Marcello Canova, Fabio Chiara, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yue-Yun Wang
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance. The large flexibility of these systems, able to operate in different modes, can determine a reduction of the turbo-lag phenomenon and improve the engine tuning. However, the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization to maximize the benefits of this technology. In addition, the design and calibration of the control system is particularly complex. The transitioning between single stage and two-stage operations poses further control issues. In this scenario a model-based approach could be a convenient and effective solution to investigate optimization, calibration and control issues, provided the developed models retain high accuracy, limited calibration effort and the ability to run in real time.
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0062
Stephanie Stockar, Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
The objective draw by this project is to develop tools for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) design, energy analysis and energy management, with the aim of analyzing the effect of design, driving cycles, charging frequency and energy management on performance, fuel economy, range and battery life. A Chevrolet Equinox fueled by bio diesel B20 has been hybridized at the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), at The Ohio State University. The vehicle model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, and validated based on laboratory and test. The PHEV battery pack has been modeled starting from Li-Ion batteries experimental data and then implemented into the simulator. In order to simulate “real world” scenarios, custom driving cycles/typical days were identified starting from average driving statistics and well-known cycles.
2009-09-13
Technical Paper
2009-24-0071
Vincenzo Marano, Pinak Tulpule, Stephanie Stockar, Simona Onori, Giorgio Rizzoni
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0143
Kerem Koprubasi, Andrea Pezzini, Beth Bezaire, Robert Cooley, Pinak Tulpule, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yann Guezennec, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0775
Wenguang Yan, Annalisa Scacchioli, Giorgio Rizzoni
An appropriate fault diagnosis and Isolation (FDI) strategy is very useful to prevent system failure. In this paper, a model-based fault diagnosis strategy is developed for an internal combustion engine (ICE) under speed control. Engine throttle fault and the manifold pressure sensor fault are detected and isolated. A nonlinear observer based residual generation approach is proposed. Manifold pressure and throttle are observed. Fault codes are designed with redundancy to prevent bit error. Performance of fault diagnosis strategy has been evaluated with simulations.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0563
Steven Guba, Youngwook Ko, Giorgio Rizzoni, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, Ted Wittman
The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3260
Codrin-Gruie Cantemir, Gabriel Ursescu, Lorenzo Serrao, Giorgio Rizzoni, James Bechtel, Thomas Udvare, Michael Letherwood
This paper presents an all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off-road applications. The paper focuses on the powertrain design, modeling, simulation, and performance analysis. Since this project focuses on a military-type application, the powertrain is designed to enhance crew survivability and provide several different modes of limp-home operation by utilizing a new vehicle topology -herein referred to as the island topology. This topology consists of designing the vehicle such that the powertrain and other equipment and subsystems surround the crew compartment to provide a high level of protection against munitions and other harmful ordnance. Thus, in the event of an external shield penetration, the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment - which serves as a secondary shield.
2006-09-14
Technical Paper
2006-01-3001
Yann G. Guezennec, Ta-young Gabriel Choi, Giorgio Rizzoni, Jeffery Marusiak, Benjamin Yurkovich, Woongchul Choi
There is increasing interest in the use of alternative fuels for transportation, due to the increasing cost of petroleum based fuels. One possible alternative to the use of petroleum for transportation is to use electric grid power. This paper explores a possible design solution based on a plug-in fuel cell hybrid. A scaled down version of FC-HEV that is applicable to this concept, has been implemented as a proof of concept with fast prototyping toolkits, including a 32 bit micro processor, Matlab/Simulink software and an embedded system development kit. The resulting prototype vehicle demonstrated a high gasoline equivalent MPG as well as a successful functionality of micro grid power generation.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0868
Mike Arnett, Kerem Bayar, Courtney Coburn, Yann Guezennec, Kerem Koprubasi, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Kris Sevel, Mohammad Shakiba-Herfeh, Giorgio Rizzoni
Traditionally in the United States, Diesel engines have negative connotations, primarily due to their association with heavy duty trucks, which are wrongly characterized as “dirty.” Diesel engines are more energy efficient and produce less carbon dioxide than gasoline engines, but their particulate and NOx emissions are more difficult to reduce than spark ignition engines. To tackle this problem, a number of after-treatment technologies are available, such as Diesel Lean NOx Traps (LNTs)), which reduces oxides of nitrogen, and the Diesel particulate filter (DPF), which reduces particulate matter. Sophisticated control techniques are at the heart of these technologies, thus making Diesel engines run cleaner. Another potentially unattractive aspect of Diesel engines is noise.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950842
Kenneth C. Leisenring, Giorgio Rizzoni, Bahman Samimy
Legislation pertaining to automobile emissions has caused an increased focus on the cold-start performance of internal combustion engines. Of particular concern is the period of time before all available sensors become active. Present engine control strategies must rely on methods other than feedback control while these sensors are not active. Without feedback control during this critical period, engine emissions performance is not optimized. These conditions cause difficulty in performing comprehensive cold-start experiments. For these reasons, we have developed several methods for feedback control during cold-start to aid in laboratory investigations of engine emissions phenomena.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950480
Ahmed Soliman, Giorgio Rizzoni, Vasanth Krishnaswami
One of the gray areas in the implementation of regulations limiting the generation of pollutants from mobile sources is the actual effectiveness of the exhaust gas emissions control strategy in vehicles that have been in use for some time. While it is possible today to conduct limited diagnostics with the on-board engine computer by performing periodic checks to verify the validity of the signals measured by the on-board sensors, and to measure tailpipe emissions during routine inspection and maintenance, the task of correlating these measurements with each other to provide an on-line, accurate diagnosis of critical malfunctions has thus far proven to be a very challenging task, especially in the case of misfire.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950478
Abdul-Majeed Azad, Lora B. Younkman, Sheikh A. Akbar, Ahmed Soliman, Giorgio Rizzoni
Abstract A prototype CO sensor based on anatase TiO2 was fabricated and tested in a Ford V6 engine. Fuel combustion was programmed to be near stoichiometric conditions, and emissions were monitored with an FT-IR analytical instrument. The sensor, positioned near the oxygen sensor in the exhaust manifold, was successfully tested for 50 cycles of revving and idling, and was observed to respond quickly and reproducibly. The sensor response was correlated to the CO concentration at specific engine temperatures and was found to vary systematically with increasing concentrations. This sensor has promising potentials to monitor the efficiency of the catalytic converter.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940448
Ahmed Soliman, Giorgio Rizzoni
Ensuring the reliable operation of the emissions control system is a critical factor in complying with increasingly stringent exhaust emissions standards. In spite of significant advances, the performance of available diagnostic and test equipment is still amenable to further improvement, especially as it pertains to the diagnosis of incipient and intermittent faults. This paper presents experimental results pertaining to the diagnosis of complete, partial and intermittent faults in various components of the engine emissions control system. The instrumentation used in the study permitted simultaneous and essentially continuous analysis of the exhaust gases and of engine variables. Tests were conducted using a section of the EPA urban driving cycle (I/M 240), simulated by means of a throttle/dynamometer controller.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901768
William B. Ribbens, Giorgio Rizzoni
Abstract The integrity of the exhaust emission system in a passenger vehicle can best be maintained by monitoring its performance continuously on board the vehicle. It is with the intent of monitoring emission system performance that the California Air Resources Board has proposed regulations which will require vehicles to be equipped with on-board monitoring systems. These proposed regulations are known as OBDII and will probably be followed by similar Federal EPA regulations.This paper discusses a method of monitoring engine misfire as part of the OBDII requirements for passenger vehicle on-board diagnostics. The method is relatively inexpensive in that it uses an existing sensor for measuring instantaneous crankshaft angular position, and utilizes electronic signal processing which can be implemented in relatively inexpensive custom integrated circuits.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960357
Enrico Ciulli, Giorgio Rizzoni, Jonathan Dawson
Three engine friction models of increasing complexity were developed in order to determine which type of model most effectively captured transient engine operation. Empirical constants for these models were determined through an optimization procedure using experimental data. These constants were then used with a simple dynamic model to produce overall simulations of the engine reciprocating and rotating dynamics. All three friction models appeared to provide useful results, however the two simpler models were much easier to implement. The most complex model presented some implementation problems, but promises to provide a more detailed picture of engine friction. The models were tested on a single cylinder research engine.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960621
Ahmed Soliman, Giorgio Rizzoni, Vasanth Krishnaswami
A number of automotive diagnostic equipment and procedures have evolved over the last two decades, leading to two generations of on-board diagnostic requirements (OBDI and OBDII), increasing the number of components and systems to be monitored by the diagnostic tools. The goal of On-Board Diagnostic is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system, and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the development of an Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System (EPDS) that can combine the information supplied by conventional tailpipe inspection programs with onboard diagnostics to provide fast and reliable diagnosis of malfunctions.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
961022
Kenneth Leisenring, Bahman Samimy, Giorgio Rizzoni
This paper presents a method for air/fuel ratio control using combustion pressure feedback during cold start to be used as an aid in laboratory experiments. The effects of varying air/fuel ratio during cold start are so profound that small differences in air/fuel ratio can create effects that will mask the effects of significant changes in other variables. The ability to control air/fuel ratio is an important aid in comprehensive emission studies during cold start. This work will facilitate future studies of cold start emissions.
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