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Viewing 1 to 30 of 66
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0053
Olawole Abiola Kuti, Wu Zhang, Keiya Nishida, Xiangang Wang, Zuohua Huang
The effect of injection pressure ranging from 100 to 300MPa on the ignition, flame development and soot formation characteristics of biodiesel fuel spray using a common rail injection system for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a constant volume vessel under conditions similar to the real engine condition using a single hole nozzle. Biodiesel fuels from two sources namely; palm oil (BDFp) and cooked oil (BDFc) with the commercial JIS#2diesel fuel were utilized in this research. The OH chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the ignition and the lift-off length of the combusting flame. The natural luminosity technique was applied to study the flame development and the two color pyrometry was applied for the soot formation processes. Ignition delay decreased as the injection pressure progressed from 100 to 300MPa. This was as a result of the enhanced mixing achieved at higher injection pressures.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1949
Tie Li, Keiya Nishida, Yuyin Zhang, Masahisa Yamakawa, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
In the previous study of the authors, it was found that some benefits for the mixture preparation of DI gasoline engines can be offered by splitting the fuel injection, such as the phenomenon of high density liquid phase fuel piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented. In a further analysis, the vapor quantity in the “stable operating” range (equivalence ratio of vapor ϕv in a range of 0.7≤ϕv≤1.3) was significantly increased by the split injection compared to the single injection. In this work, the mechanism of the effect of the split injection on the mixture formation process was studied by combining the laser-sheet imaging, LIF-PIV and the LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique. As a result, it is found that the spray-induced ambient air motion can help the formation of the more combustible mixture of the split injection whereas it played a minus role of diluting the spray by the single injection.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1819
Jingyu Zhu, Olawole Abiola Kuti, Keiya Nishida
The fuel-ambient gas interaction process of the free diesel spray injected from the micro-hole nozzle (0.08 mm) into the quiescent and engine-like ambient gas condition was investigated by means of the laser-induced fluorescence - particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) technique in non-evaporating condition. Direct photography with high speed video camera and two color pyrometry were applied to analyze the evaporation spray and flame characteristics. Three injection pressures from 100, 200 to 300 MPa and two ambient gas densities of 11 and 15 kg/m₃ were selected as testing conditions. The entrained mass flow rate of the ambient gas through the whole spray boundary, the ratio of the total ambient gas entrainment rate to the fuel injection rate, etc., were calculated by using the ambient gas velocity data obtained by the LIF-PIV technique and used to correlate the combustion behavior.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1813
Wu Zhang, Jiang-Ping Tian, Keiya Nishida
Previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter and elevated injection pressure are effective for preparing a uniform fuel-air mixture in a direct injection (D.I.) Diesel engine. A micro-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.08 mm and an ultra-high injection pressure of 300 MPa have been employed to investigate the mixture formation process under various conditions. The aim of the current work is to clarify the effect of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on flame lift-off and soot formation processes. The free sprays from the micro-hole and conventional nozzles were investigated at a high-temperature, high-pressure constant volume vessel. A high-speed video camera system was employed to record the non-vaporizing sprays and combustion. The direct photography of OH chemiluminescence was used to provide information about the high temperature combustion process and to measure the flame lift-off length.
2011-11-08
Journal Article
2011-32-0523
Jiangping Tian, Hajime Kataoka, Keiya Nishida
The purpose of this study is to investigate the spray characteristics and ignition stability of gasoline sprays injected from a hole-type nozzle. Using a single-hole VCO (Valve-Covered-Orifice) nozzle, the spray characteristics were studied with LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique, and then flame propagation and ignition stability were investigated inside a high temperature high pressure constant volume vessel using a high speed video camera. The spatial ignition stability of the spray at different locations was tested by adjusting the position of the electrodes. By adjusting the ignition timings, the stable ignition windows for 3 determined locations where the ignition stability was high at a fixed ignition timing were studied. The flame propagation process was examined using high speed shadowgraph method. Experimental results show that when the ignition points are located on the spray axis, the ignition probability is low.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0825
Yusuke Nishioka, Heizo Tomoda, Keiya Nishida, Youichi Ogata, Gnanasekaran Kishorkumar, Baolu Shi
The effect of temporally-splitting high pressure injection on Diesel spray combustion and soot formation processes was studied by using the high-speed video camera. The spray was injected by the single-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.11mm into the high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The free spray and the spray impingement on the two dimensional (2D) piston cavity wall were examined. Injection pressures of 100 and 160 MPa for the single injection and 160 MPa for the split injection were selected. The flame structure and soot formation process were examined by using the two-color pyrometry. The soot generated in the flame under the split injection under 160 MPa becomes higher than that of the single injection under 160 MPa.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1950
Run Chen, Ryoma Okazumi, Keiya Nishida, Yoichi Ogata
Different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, namely the E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle in a condition simulating the near top dead center (TDC). Two typical injection pressures of 10 and 20MPa were adopted to clarify the spray and flame behaviors. The correlation of the upstream unburned fuel and the flame propagation was analyzed by the high-speed imaging of shadowgraph. Moreover, the effects of ignition timing and location on the flame propagation were discussed based on the imaging of OH* chemiluminescence.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0774
Run Chen, Ryoma Okazumi, Keiya Nishida, Youichi Ogata
Abstract To reduce carbon dioxide emission and to relieve the demand of fossil fuels, ethanol is regarded as one of the most promising alternative fuels for gasoline. Recently, using ethanol in the state-of-the-art gasoline engine, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine, has become more attention by researchers due to less knowledge of the ignition and combustion processes in that engine. In this study, different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle. The experimental environment was set to the condition similar with the near top dead center (TDC) in DISI engine. The high-speed imaging of shadowgraph, OH* chemiluminescence and flame natural luminosity were used to clarify the characteristics of the ignition process, flame development and propagation.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4050
Jian Gao, Yuhei Matsumoto, Makoto Namba, Keiya Nishida
The group-hole (GH) nozzle concept that uses two closely spaced micro-orifices to substitute the conventional single orifice has the potential to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation, consequently attenuate the soot emission formed in direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engines. Studies of quantitative mixture properties of the transient fuel spray injected by the group-hole nozzles were conducted in a constant volume chamber via the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique, in comparison with conventional single-hole nozzles. Specific areas investigated involved: the non-evaporating and the evaporating ambient conditions, the free spray and the spray impinging on a flat wall conditions. The particular emphasis was on the effect of one of key parameters, the interval between orifices, of the group-hole (SH) nozzle structure.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4049
Yuhei Matsumoto, Jian Gao, Makoto Namba, Keiya Nishida
In order to investigate effects of the multi-hole nozzle with micro orifices on mixture formation processes in Direct-Injection Diesel engines, mixture characteristics were examined via an ultraviolet-visible laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique under various injectors. The injection quantity per orifice per cycle was reduced by nozzle hole sizes. The LAS technique can provide the quantitative and simultaneous measurements of liquid and vapor phases concentration distributions inside of the fuel spray. Mass of ambient gas entrained into the spray, liquid/ vapor mass and mean equivalence ratio of total fuel were obtained based on Lambert Beer's law. As a result, the leaner and more homogeneous fuel-gas mixture can be achieved by reducing the nozzle hole diameter, in the meanwhile more ambient gas were entrained into the spray. Moreover, relationships between mixture formation and D.I.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0854
Jian Gao, Keiya Nishida, Seoksu Moon, Yuhei Matsumoto
The objective of the paper is to characterize the diesel spray under the ambient conditions relevant for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engines. The particular emphasis is on the comparisons between laser measurements and predictions by empirical correlations and theoretical analyses. The ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique is employed to quantitively determine the spray/mixture properties of the diesel spray injected by a hole-type injector, in terms of spray tip penetration and spatial concentration distributions of liquid and vapor phase. The structure of evaporating spray is obtained and analyzed. Based on the penetration correlations in the literature, a non-dimensional analysis of the spray tip penetration data is carried out. The results indicate that a self-similar state of the evaporating fuel spray is achieved.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0849
Seoksu Moon, Yuhei Matsumoto, Keiya Nishida
In this study, air entrainment, fuel evaporation and mixing process of diesel sprays injected by micro-orifices for direct-injection diesel engines were investigated at the end of injection transient and after the end of injection. The mixture formation process was analyzed using a laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique, providing the information of quantified liquid and vapor mass concentration, entrained air concentration and equivalence ratio. The data was obtained at the timings of quasi-steady state, sudden velocity decrease, the end of injection and after the end of injection. Two micro-orifices, which have different orifice diameters, were selected as test nozzles to investigate the end-of-injection characteristics at different nozzle geometries. In case of smaller orifice diameter, the liquid phase regression was observed around the end of injection, while it was not observed at larger orifice diameter due to denser liquid concentration near the nozzle tip.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1500
Kiyotaka Sato, Tadashi Tadokoro, Masahisa Yamakawa, Hideaki Yokohata, Keiya Nishida, Yasuki Sumoto, Jiangping Tian
Experimental and computational studies were carried out to characterize the spray development and evaporation processes of multi-hole injector for direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. The main injector parameter to be investigated in this study is a diverging angle between neighboring two holes. In the experimental study, the influence of the diverging angle on evaporation process of fuel spray from two-hole injector was investigated using Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) measurement. Smaller diverging angle causes larger spray tip penetration because the momentum of the spray from one hole emphasizes another, when two spray merge to one. Moreover, spray tip penetration decreases at certain diverging angle due to the negative pressure region between two sprays. Mechanisms behind the above spray behaviors were discussed using the detailed information on the spray and ambient gas flow fields obtained by the three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1601
Wu Zhang, Keiya Nishida, Jian Gao
Increasing injection pressure and decreasing nozzle hole diameter have been proved to be two effective approaches to reduce the exhaust emissions and to improve the fuel economy. Recently, the micro-hole nozzles and ultra-high injection pressures are applicable in commercial Diesel engines. But the mechanism of these two latest technologies is still unclear. The current research aims at providing information on the spray and mixture formation processes of the micro-hole nozzle (d=0.08mm) under the ultra-high injection pressure (Pinj=300MPa). The flat wall impinging sprays were focused on and the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was employed to obtain the qualitative and quantitative information at both atmospheric and elevated conditions. The spray parameters were collected, the mixing rate was discussed, and the effects of various parameters on mixture formation were clarified.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2469
Seoksu Moon, Jian Gao, Keiya Nishida, Yuhei Matsumoto, Yuyin Zhang
The concept of two closely spaced micro-orifices (group hole nozzle) has been studied as a promising technology for the reduction of soot emission from direct injection (DI) diesel engines by improving the fuel atomization and evaporation. One of the main issues on group hole nozzle is the arrangement of orifices with various distances and angles. In this study, the ignition and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel sprays from group-hole nozzles were investigated with various angles between two micro-orifices (included angles). A laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique for non-axisymmetric sprays, developed based on a LAS technique for axisymmetric spray, was applied to investigate the liquid/vapor mass distribution of wall-impinging sprays. The direct flame images and OH radical images inside a high pressure constant volume vessel were captured to analyze the effect of included angle on spray ignition and combustion characteristics.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1850
Kiyotaka Sato, Keiya Nishida, Tadashi Tadokoro, Masahisa Yamakawa, Hideaki Yokohata
An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the spray and mixture properties of a hole-type injector for direct injection (D. I.) gasoline engines. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to simultaneously measure the spatial concentration distributions and the mass of the liquid and vapor phases in the fuel spray injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The experimental results were compared to the numerical calculation results using three-dimensional CFD and the multi-objective optimization. In the numerical simulation, the design variable of the spray model was optimized by choosing spray tip penetration, and mass of liquid and vapor phases as objective functions.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1890
Keiya NISHIDA, Wu ZHANG, Tetsuya MANABE
Experimental study has been carried out on the effects of the micro-hole nozzle injector and ultra-high injection pressure on the mixture properties of D.I. Diesel engine. A manually operated piston screw pump, High Pressure Generator, was used to obtain ultra-high injection pressures. Three kinds of injection pressures, 100MPa, 200MPa, and 300MPa, were applied to a specially designed injector. Four kinds of nozzle hole diameters, 0.16mm, 0.14mm, 0.10mm, and 0.08mm, were adopted in this study. The laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was used to analyze the equivalence ratio distributions, Sauter mean diameter, spray tip penetration length, and other spray characteristics. The analyses of the experimental results show that the micro-hole nozzle and ultra-high injection pressure are effective to increase the turbulent mixing rate and to form the uniform and lean fuel-air mixture.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1889
Jian GAO, Yuhei MATSUMOTO, Keiya NISHIDA
The group-hole nozzle concept is regarded as a promising approach to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation for direct injection diesel engine applications. In the present work, the spray and mixture properties of group-hole nozzle with close, parallel or a small included angle orifices were investigated experimentally by means of the ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique, in comparison with the conventional single-hole nozzle. Three series of group-hole nozzles were designed to investigate the effect of group-hole nozzle specification while varying the included angle and interval between the orifices. The results suggested that: 1) Group-hole nozzle with very close, parallel orifices presents the similar spray characteristics with those of the single-hole nozzle.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1892
Yuyin Zhang, Yoshinobu Kotani, Akira Yoshida, Keiya Nishida
In the present study, a challenge has been made to quantitatively determine the vapor phase concentration distributions in an evaporating multicomponent fuel spray using the LAS imaging technique. The theoretical considerations were particularly given when applying the LAS imaging technique to the multicomponent fuel spray and reconstructing the vapor concentration distributions from the spray images.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950461
Takuo Yoshizaki, Takeshi Funahashi, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940988
Fu-Quan Zhao, Masahiko Taketomi, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed to perform the quantitative measurements of the cyclic variation of mixture concentration in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (SI) engine. Nitrogen dioxide was used as the fluorescence tracer to simulate the fuel vapor. A Nd:YAG laser operated at its second harmonic wavelength was employed as the light source. The original engine was modified to introduce laser sheet light into the combustion chamber and the induced fluorescence was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated image intensifier. The measurements were done at the engine crank angles of 180° ∼ 300° ATDC with the engine speeds of 200 ∼ 400 rpm and the injection timings of -70 °, 50° and 100° ATDC. A theoretical analysis was made to describe the cyclically varying characteristics of the mixture concentration.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930612
Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
A phenomenological spray-combustion model of a D.I. Diesel engine was applied to study the engine parameters with potential for reducing NOx and smoke emissions. The spray-combustion model, first developed at the University of Hiroshima in 1976, has been sophisticated by incorporating new knowledge of diesel combustion. The model was verified using data from an experimental, single cylinder, D.I. diesel engine with a bore of 135mm and a stroke of 130mm. After the verification process, calculations were made under a wide range of the engine parameters, such as intake air temperature, intake air pressure, intake swirl ratio, nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure, air entrainment rate into the spray, and injection rate profile. These calculations estimated the effects of the engine parameters on NOx, smoke and specific fuel consumption. As a result of the calculations, an approach for the low NOx and smoke emission engine was found.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932711
Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Keiya Nishida, Hajime Yoshida, Masataka Arai
The ignition and flame propagation processes of a propane-air mixture compounded with a kerosene spray were investigated in order to allow a better understanding of the multi-phase combustion process of the spray compound mixture in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) engine. The ignition probability and the flame propagation velocity, as functions of the overall equivalence ratio, fraction of propane in the fuel, ignition energy and the Sauter mean diameter of the spray, were measured under atmospheric conditions. The development of the flame kernel and the propagating flame were observed by a high-speed video camera combined with a schlieren system. Adding small amounts of the kerosene spray to the lean propane-air mixture improved the ignition probability. However, the ignition probability depended strongly on the Sauter mean diameter and the ignition energy.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932641
Fu-Quan Zhao, Masahiko Taketomi, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu
Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
1990-10-01
Technical Paper
902062
Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Keiya Nishida, Mamoru Suzuki, Harumi Oda, Shigeru Yoshikawa, Masataka Arai
An experimental study on emission formation processes, such as these of nitric oxide, particulate and total hydrocarbon in a small direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was carried out by using a newly developed total in-cylinder sampling technique. The sampling method consisted of rapidly opening a blowdown valve attached to the bottom of the piston bowl, and quickly transferring most of the in-cylinder contents into a large sampling chamber below the piston. No modification of the intake and exhaust ports in a cylinder head was required for the installation of the blowdown apparatus. The sampling experiment gave a history of spatially-averaged emission concentrations in the cylinder. The effects of several engine variables, such as the length-to-diameter ratio of the nozzle hole, the ratio of the piston bowl diameter to the cylinder bore and the intake swirl ratio, on the emission formation processes were investigated.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1122
Kensuke Wakai, Takuo Yoshizaki, Keiya Nishida, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Yuji Kawaguchi
The fuel injection characteristics of Dimethyl Ether(DME) were calculated and compared with the calculated results of diesel fuel using a simulation model of an in-line diesel injection system in order to clarify the differences between the injection characteristics of the two fuels. Moreover, numerical analyses for the DME injection were performed while changing the fuel parameters and the injection system parameters in order to estimate the effects of these parameters on the fuel injection characteristics. The effects of some of these parameters were evaluated by experimental results conducted in a constant volume vessel. Furthermore, the spray tip penetration was calculated using the computed results of the injection pressure. As a result of this study, the injection characteristics of the DME fuel are basically confirmed. By the macroscopic analyses of these spray characteristics, the DME spray behavior in a combustion chamber can be estimated.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3161
Tie Li, Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Yuyin Zhang, Keiya Nishida
In order to investigate the effect of split injections on mixture formation processes in Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engine sprays, an experimental study was conducted applying the laser absorption and scattering (LAS) technique to the sprays using double pulse injections with various dwells and mass ratios. The effects of various dwells and mass ratios between the pulsed injections on the spatial concentration distributions in the spray, the penetration of vapor and liquid phases, and the mean equivalence ratios of the vapor phase and overall spray, were clarified. It was found that the phenomenon of high concentration liquid spray piling up at the leading edge of the spray is avoided by the double injections with enough dwell or appropriate mass ratio. The maximum penetration length of the spray significantly decreases, especially for the liquid phase with high concentration.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3107
Jeekuen Lee, Keiya Nishida
The breakup and atomization processes of the pre-swirl spray, which is produced before the hollow-cone spray from a high-pressure swirl-type D.I. gasoline injector, were investigated under different ambient pressure conditions. The injector has a press-fitted swirl tip, in which six tangential slots giving the injecting fuel an angular momentum are perforated at an equal space interval. A microscopic imaging technique was applied to get the spatially high-resolution LIF tomograms of the pre-swirl spray. The sprays were illuminated by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet and imaged using a high resolution CCD camera, fixed with a micro lens and coupled with an optical low-pass filter. The droplet size and the individual droplet's velocity were obtained by applying the image processing and the particle tracking techniques, respectively.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3115
Yuyin Zhang, Keiya Nishida, Shinsuke Nomura, Tomoaki Ito
Reduction of orifice diameter of nozzle is advantageous to the fuel atomization in a D.I. diesel engine. However, the diameter reduction is usually accompanied with decrease of spray tip penetration, thus worsening fuel spatial-distribution and fuel-air mixing. In this paper, a group-hole nozzle concept was proposed to solve the problem resulting from minimization of orifice diameter. Compared to the conventional multi-hole nozzle, group-hole nozzle has a series group of orifices, and each group consists of two micro-orifices with a small spatial interval and small angle. For examining the characteristics of the spray injected by the group-hole nozzle, the ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique was adopted to determine vapor concentration and droplets density as well as other spray characteristics such as spray angle and penetration of both vapor and liquid phases.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1809
Jeekuen Lee, Keiya Nishida
An early formation process of the spray, which was injected by a high-pressure swirl-type injector that is widely used in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines, was investigated through image analyzing techniques. The sprays were illuminated both by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet for getting the spray tomograms and by a tungsten lamp for getting the scattered back light shadow images of the sprays. The sprays were imaged by using a high-resolution CCD camera and a high-speed digital imaging system. The early development aspects of the spray were investigated in detail through the measurement of the tip penetration, cone angle and width of the early spray. At the start of injection, the liquid column emerges first, and it forms the “pre-swirl spray” without the swirl component. Following the liquid column, the liquid sheet emerges, however its radial velocity component is weak to form the complete hollow-cone spray. This spray changes into the “weak-swirl spray”.
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