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Viewing 1 to 30 of 76
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0080
Koji Yoshida
A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. The cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was made from woods by the direct liquefaction process. CLF could not be completely mixed with diesel fuel, however CLF could be mixed with Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and a diesel engine could be operated by CLF and FAME blends. In this study, CLF was divided into three fractions: 473 to 523 K (CLF1), 523 to 573 K (CLF2) and 573 K or more (CLF3) by fractional distillation in order to find CLF fraction which was suitable for diesel engine, and coconuts oil methyl ester (CME) was used as FAME. In the fuel droplet combustion tests, the combustion durations of CLFs were longer than those of diesel fuel and CME, and the combustion duration increased as the distillation temperature range rose, because CLF contained a lot of flame-resisting components like aromatic compounds.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9030
Takashi Ishino, Norikuni Hayakawa, Tomomi Miyasaka, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Engine downsizing with a turbocharger / supercharger has attracted attention as a way of improving the fuel economy of automotive gasoline engines, but this approach can be frustrated by the occurrence of abnormal combustion. In this study, the factors causing abnormal combustion were investigated using a supercharged, downsized engine that was built by adding a mechanical supercharger. Combustion experiments were conducted in which the fuel octane number and supercharging pressure were varied while keeping the engine speed, equivalence ratio and intake air temperature constant. In the experiments, a visualization technique was applied to photograph combustion in the combustion chamber, absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the intermediate products of combustion, and the cylinder pressure was measured. The experimental data obtained simultaneously were then analyzed to examine the effects on combustion.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9174
Kohei Suzuki, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
There are few investigations to change wood biomasses to the industrially available energy, so that a new conversion technology of biomass to liquid fuel has been established by the direct liquefaction process. However, cellulosic liquefaction fuel (for short CLF) cold not mixed with diesel fuel. In this study, the plastic was mixed with wood to improve the solubility of CLF to diesel fuel. CLF made by the direct co-liquefaction process could be stably and completely mixed with diesel fuel in any mixing ratio and CLF included 2 wt.% of oxygen. The test engine was an air-cooled, four-stroke, single cylinder, direct fuel injection diesel engine. In the engine starting condition test, the ignition timing of 5 wt.% CLF mixed diesel fuel was slightly delayed at immediately after the engine started, however the ignition timing was almost the same as diesel fuel after the engine was warmed-up.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9166
Akira Iijima, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Naoya Itoh, Akira Terashima, Tomoya Tojo
Combustion experiments were conducted with an optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized for the purpose of making clear the characteristics that induce extremely rapid HCCI combustion and knocking accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations. The HCCI combustion regime was investigated in detail by high-speed in-cylinder visualization of autoignition and combustion and emission spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that increasing the equivalence ratio and advancing the ignition timing caused the maximum pressure rise rate and knocking intensity to increase. In moderate HCCI combustion, the autoignited flame was initially dispersed temporally and spatially in the cylinder and then gradually spread throughout the entire cylinder.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1788
Akira Iijima, Yujiro Tsutsumi, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study examined the effects of fuel composition and intake pressure on two-stage high temperature heat release characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the combustion behavior in detail. Chemical kinetic simulations were also conducted to analyze the reaction mechanisms in detail. Blended fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane were used in the experiments. It was found that the use of such fuel blends together with a suitable intake air flow rate corresponding to the total injected heat value gave rise to two-stage heat release behavior of the hot flame, which had the effect of moderating combustion. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the chemical kinetic simulations revealed that the main reaction of the first stage of the hot flame heat release was one that produced CO from HCHO.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0089
Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
In this study, optical measurements were made of the combustion chamber gas during operation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine in order to obtain a better understanding of the ignition and combustion characteristics. The principal issues of HCCI engines are to control the ignition timing and to optimize the combustion state following ignition. Autoignition in HCCI engines is strongly influenced by the complex low-temperature oxidation reaction process, alternatively referred to as the cool flame reaction or negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Accordingly, a good understanding of this low-temperature oxidation reaction process is indispensable to ignition timing control. In the experiments, spectroscopic measurement methods were applied to investigate the reaction behavior in the process leading to autoignition.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0092
Ryoga Suzuki, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida, Akira Iijima
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0098
Kenji Saitou, Akira Iijima, Yasuhiro Otagiri, Koji Yoshida, Yusuke Takahashi, Hideo Shoji
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3327
Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Hidenori Tanaka
The investigation regarding the performance of newly developed plasma jet igniter is explored by using vessel. In plasma jet ignition, combustion enhancement effects occur toward the plasma jet issuing direction. Therefore, when the igniter is attached at the center of cylindrically shaped combustion chamber, plasma jet should issue toward the round combustion chamber wall. The plasma jet igniter that had a concentric circular orifice has been developed. The maximum combustion pressure increases and the burning period decreases with increasing the cavity volume. This feature is similar to that of the ordinary plasma jet igniter. However, the combustion enhancement effect is almost independent of the orifice area.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3265
Hiroshi Mori, Kozaburo Watanabe, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Hidenori Tanaka
The uniform lean gasoline-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. In this study, the internal EGR is add to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture before the ignition. It is confirmed that the lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 40 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method when the back pressure of 80 [kPa] is added, and the burning period is shorted by internal EGR. However, as the back pressure increases, NOx concentration is increased by the high temperature residual gas.
2011-11-08
Journal Article
2011-32-0524
Yusuke Takahashi, Kenta Suyama, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
2011-11-08
Journal Article
2011-32-0522
Kiyoshi Komatsu, Mitsuo Asanuma, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
In this study, experiments were conducted using a blend of two types of fuel with different ignition characteristics. One was dimethyl ether (DME) that has a high cetane number, autoignites easily and displays low-temperature oxidation reaction mechanisms; the other was methane that has a cetane number of zero and does not autoignite easily. A mechanically driven supercharger was provided in the intake pipe to adjust the intake air pressure. Moreover, flame light in the combustion chamber was extracted using a system for observing light emission that occurred in the space between the cylinder head and the cylinder and in the bore direction of the piston crown. The results of previous studies conducted with a supercharged HCCI engine and a blended fuel of DME and methane have shown that heat release of the hot flame is divided into two stages and that combustion can be moderated by reducing the peak heat release rate (HRR).
2011-11-08
Journal Article
2011-32-0521
Ryosuke Shimizu, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted much interest as a combustion system that can achieve both low emissions and high efficiency. But the operating region of HCCI combustion is narrow, and it is difficult to control the auto-ignition timing. This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging. The blended fuel consisted of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines, and methane, the main component of natural gas. A spectroscopic technique was used to measure the light emission of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber in order to ascertain the combustion characteristics. HCCI combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail in the present study by measuring this light emission spectrum.
2011-11-08
Technical Paper
2011-32-0577
Ryuichi Yamaguchi, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
The flame propagation behavior of homogeneous hydrogen-air mixture under application of high-voltage uniform or non-uniform electric field was explored by using combustion vessel. When a uniform electric field was applied, two plate electrodes were attached to ceiling and bottom of combustion chamber and, to apply a non-uniform electric field, an electrode in ceiling was needle-shaped and an electrode in bottom was plate-shaped. The positive or negative polarity DC high voltage was applied for an electrode in ceiling. When a positive polarity non-uniform electric field was applied to the mixture at any equivalence ratios and the input voltage was higher than 12 kV, the flame propagation was enhanced in the downward direction. This is because the corona wind was generated from the tip of needle-shaped electrode to grounded electrode by the brush corona.
2011-11-08
Technical Paper
2011-32-0615
Asako Sato, Koji Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
An air motor with regenerating system for propulsion of a bicycle was newly developed. An air motor was driven by the compressed air and the bicycle was propelled. When the bicycle was decelerating, the air motor was acted as a compressor and the kinetic energy of bicycle was regenerated as compressed air. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the performance of air motor and driving characteristic of bicycle. The air motor in this study was the reciprocating piston type like an internal combustion engine, and cylinder arrangement was in-line two-cylinder. The output power increased with an increase of supply air pressure although the maximum cylinder pressure was less than the supply air pressure. The output power decreased as the revolution increased due to friction loss. The maximum cylinder pressure reduced as the rotational frequency increased because the inlet valve opening duration was decreased.
2011-11-08
Technical Paper
2011-32-0605
Syuichi Nanba, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
The ignitability and engine performance of FAMEs at the cold condition were experimentally investigated by using two FAMEs, i.e. coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and soybean oil methyl ester (SME). The cold start test and forced over cooling test were conducted. In the forced over cooling test, engine was forced cooled by the injecting water mist to engine cooling fin. In the cold start test, the cylinder pressure of CME rose earliest because CME has a superior ignitability. The crank angle at ignitions of diesel fuel and CME were not so affected by the forced over cooling, however ignition timing of SME was remarkably delayed. In cases of forced over cooling, COV of maximum combustion pressure of CME was lower than that of normal air cooling condition. The forced over cooling has a potential to reduce NOx emission, however HC, CO and smoke concentrations were increased in a high load due to incomplete combustion.
2011-11-08
Technical Paper
2011-32-0606
Masatoshi Iwai, Koji Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
The application of emulsified fuel for diesel engines is expected to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of water content in emulsified fuel and fuel injection timing on diesel engine performance. The engine performance of emulsified fuel was compared with the water injection method. In the water injection test, water was injected to intake manifold and diesel fuel was directly injected into combustion chamber. Two emulsified fuels of which mixing ratio of water and emulsifier to diesel fuel were 15 and 30 vol.% were tested. Engine performance and exhaust gas emission of water injection method were almost similar to those of diesel fuel, so that water presented in combustion chamber had almost no influence on engine performance. Therefore, it can be considered that the micro explosion of fuel droplet enhanced the fuel atomization and mixing of fuel and air.
2004-09-27
Technical Paper
2004-32-0097
Kentaro Goto, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a new combustion concept for internal combustion engines. On the other hand, two combustion concepts proposed for two-cycle spark-ignition (SI) engines are Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) and Activated Radical (AR) combustion. The authors undertook this study to examine the similarities and differences between HCCI combustion and ATAC (AR) combustion. Differences in the low-temperature oxidation reaction behavior between these two combustion processes were made clear using one test engine.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0078
Tomoya Tojo, Koji Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Akira Terashima, Kenta Suyama
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a single-cylinder test engine fitted with a sapphire observation window to facilitate visualization of the entire cylinder bore area. In addition to in-cylinder visualization of combustion, spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission and absorption in the combustion chamber to investigate autoignition behavior in detail. Engine firing experiments were conducted to visualize HCCI combustion over a wide range of compression ratios from 12:1 to 22:1. The results showed that increasing the compression ratio advanced the ignition timing and increased the maximum pressure rise rate, making it necessary to moderate combustion. It was also found that autoignition can be induced even in a mixture lean enough to cause misfiring by raising the intake air temperature so as to advance the overall combustion process.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0080
Mitsuo Asanuma, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Go Emori
The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0079
Akira Iijima, Tomoya Tojo, Akira Terashima, Kenta Suyama, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0075
Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging as possible means of overcoming these issues of HCCI combustion. Low-carbon gaseous fuels with clean emissions were used as the test fuels. The specific fuels used were dimethyl ether (DME, cetane number of 55 or higher) that autoignites easily And exhibits pronounced low-temperature oxidation reactions, methane (cetane number of 0) that does not autoignite readily and is the main component of natural gas which is regarded as petroleum substitute, and propane (cetane number of 5) that is a principal component of liquefied petroleum gas. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and methane produces a two-stage main combustion process under certain operating conditions, with the result that combustion is moderated.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0001
Ryo Sasaki, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
This study clarified the influence of hot gas jet on combustion enhancement effect for lean mixture in the plasma jet ignition. The hot gas jet was generated by the high temperature plasma and was ejected from igniter after plasma jet finished issuing. In combustion tests, propane-air mixture at equivalence ratio of 0.6 was used and the mixture was filled in the combustion chamber at atmosphere pressure and room temperature. For generation of the hot gas jet, the standard air was filled in chamber at same conditions and the hot gas jet was visualized by schlieren method in the absence of combustion. The combustion development processes were also visualized and the combustion pressure was measured. The discharge voltage, discharge current and the plasma luminescence were also measured. The plasma luminescence disappeared within 0.05 ms for any experimental conditions. When cavity depth was deep and orifice diameter was small, the maximum plasma luminescence height was short.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0738
Shota Yanagisawa, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida, Jun Osaka, Yoshihiko Matsui, Wakichi Kondo
The purpose of this study is to elucidate flame propagation behavior of homogeneous propane-air mixture under application of non-uniform electric field. A needle-shaped electrode was attached to the ceiling and a plate electrode was set at bottom of combustion chamber, so that the electric field was applied in the direction of the chamber's vertical axis. A homogeneous propane-air mixture was supplied at equivalence ratio of 1.0 and was ignited by leaser induced breakdown under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. It was found that the flame front and plate electrode were repelled each other and a thin air layer was formed between the flame and plate electrode when a relatively low positive DC non-uniform electric field was applied to the needle-shaped electrode. It might be thought that the induced current was generated in the flame front, so that the flame front and plate electrode repelled each other.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0807
Takashi Shimada, Yuki Yoshida, Chibin Rin, Masanori Yamada, Naoya Ito, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have attracted much attention and are being widely researched as engines characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, one issue of HCCI engines is their limited operating range because of the occurrence of rapid combustion at high loads and misfiring at low loads. It is known that knocking accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations also occurs in HCCI engines at high loads, similar to knocking seen in spark-ignition engines. In this study, HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations was visualized by taking high-speed photographs of the entire bore area. In addition, the influence of internal exhaust gas circulation (EGR) on HCCI knocking was also investigated. The visualized combustion images revealed that rapid autoignition occurred in the end-gas region during the latter half of the HCCI combustion process when accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0801
Masayuki Yamazawa, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Koji Yoshida
In recent years, it has been expected the conversion of wasted biomass to industry available energy. In this study, 80 wt.% of wood and 20 wt.% of polypropylene were liquefied by the mineral oil used as solvent. The liquefied material was distilled, and distillation fraction of temperature from 493 to 573 K was recognized as light oil fraction CLF (Cellulose Liquefaction Fuel) and that from 378 to 493 K was recognized as naphtha fraction CLF. CLFs were blended with light oil and, in engine performance test, mixing ratio of light oil fraction CLF was 5 wt.%, and in vehicle running test, weight mixing ratios were 5 or 10 wt.%. In engine performance test, indicator diagrams and rate of heat releases of light oil fraction CLF 5 wt.% mixed light oil were almost equivalent to those of light oil in all load conditions, and engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were also almost equivalent to light oil.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1785
Hirotaka Suzuki, Keisuke Mochizuki, Takahiro Shima, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
In this study, a detailed analysis was made of supercharged HCCI combustion using a two-component fuel blend of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel, and methane. The quantity of fuel injected and boost pressure were varied to investigate the equivalence ratio and operating region conducive to optimal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that varying the boost pressure according to the engine load and applying a suitable equivalence ratio induced two-stage main combustion over a wide load range, making it possible to avoid excessively rapid combustion.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0790
Takahiro Shima, Yuki Takamura, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keisuke Mochizuki, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Internal combustion engines today are required to achieve even higher efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions. Currently, research interest is focused on premixed compression ignition (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI) combustion. However, HCCI engines have no physical means of initiating ignition such as a spark plug or the fuel injection timing and quantity. Therefore, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. In addition, combustion occurs simultaneously at multiple sites in the combustion chamber. As a result, combustion takes place extremely rapidly especially in the high load region. That makes it difficult for the engine to operate stably at high loads. This study focused on the fuel composition as a possible means to solve these problems. The effect of using fuel blends on the HCCI operating region and combustion characteristics was investigated using a single-cylinder test engine.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9031
Akira Terashima, Naoya Ito, Tomoya Tojo, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine was operated under a continuous firing condition in this study to visualize combustion in order to obtain fundamental knowledge for suppressing the rapidity of combustion in HCCI engines. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke engine fitted with a quartz observation window that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The effect of varying the compression ratio and fuel octane number on HCCI combustion was investigated. In-cylinder spectroscopic measurements were made at compression ratios of 11:1 and 15:1 using primary reference fuel blends having different octane numbers of 0 RON and 50 RON. The results showed that varying the compression ratio and fuel octane number presumably has little effect on the rapidity of HCCI combustion at the same ignition timing when the quantity of heat produced per cycle by the injected fuel is kept constant.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3732
Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion processes can be broadly divided between a CAI process that is applied to four-stroke engines and a CAI process that is applied to two-stroke engines. The former process is generally referred to as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the later process as Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC). The region of stable engine operation differs greatly between these two processes, and it is thought that the elucidation of their differences and similarities could provide useful information for expanding the operation region of HCCI combustion. In this research, the same two-stroke engine was operated under both the ATAC and HCCI combustion processes to compare their respective combustion characteristics. The results indicated that the ignition timing was less likely to change in the ATAC process in relation to changes in the fuel octane number than it was in the HCCI combustion process.
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