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Viewing 1 to 30 of 69
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1118
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng
Diesel engines operating in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) mode generally tend to produce very low levels of NOx and soot. However, the implementation of LTC is challenged by the higher cycle-to-cycle variation with heavy EGR operation and the narrower operating corridors. Small variations in the intake charge dilution can significantly increase the unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions as well as escalate the consecutive cyclic fluctuations of the cylinder charge. This in turn adversely affects the robustness and efficiency of the LTC operation. However, Improvements in the promptness and accuracy of combustion control as well as tightened control on the intake oxygen concentration can enhance the robustness and efficiency of the LTC operation in diesel engines. In this work, a set of field programmable gate array (FPGA) modules were coded and interlaced to suffice on-the-fly combustion event modulations on a cycle-by-cycle basis.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0932
Raj Kumar, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng
Common-rail fuel systems have been recognized as an effective means to shape the heat release rate. In this paper measured cylinder pressure and fuel injection data for a common-rail diesel engine were analyzed to develop an empirical heat release rate model. A set of discrete Wiebe functions, one to describe the pilot injection combustion and the other to describe the main injection combustion, have been proposed to model the heat release data. The coefficients in the model were adjusted to match the observed heat release diagram. An expression for ignition delay for pilot injection and main injection has also been suggested for test conditions.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1817
Kelvin Xie, Xiaoye Han, Usman Asad, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng
Modern diesel engines were known for producing ultra-low levels of hydrogen and hydrocarbons. However, as emission control techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are implemented to meet stringent NOx standards, the resulting increase in partial-combustion products can be significant in quantity both as pollutants and sources of lost engine efficiency. In this work, a modern common-rail diesel engine was configured to investigate the EGR threshold for elevated carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen emissions at fixed loads and fixed heat-release phasing. It is noted that increase in hydrocarbons, in particular light hydrocarbons (such as methane, ethylene, and acetylene) was concurrent with ultra-low NOx emissions. Hydrogen gas can be emitted in significant quantities with the application of very high EGR. Under ultra-low NOx production conditions for medium and high load conditions, the light hydrocarbon species can account for the majority of hydrocarbon emissions.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1814
Usman Asad, Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng
In this work, engine tests were performed to realize EGR-enabled LTC on a single-cylinder common-rail diesel engine with three different compression ratios (17.5, 15 and 13:1). The engine performance was first investigated at 17.5:1 compression ratio to provide baseline results, against which all further testing was referenced. The intake boost and injection pressure were progressively increased to ascertain the limiting load conditions for the compression ratio. To extend the engine load range, the compression ratio was then lowered and EGR sweep tests were again carried out. The strength and homogeneity of the cylinder charge were enhanced by using intake boost up to 3 bar absolute and injection pressure up to 180 MPa. The combustion phasing was locked in a narrow crank angle window (5~10° ATDC), during all the tests.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0329
William De Ojeda, Tytus Bulicz, Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Frederick Cornforth
Extensive empirical work indicates that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to lower the flame temperature and thus the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) production in-cylinder in diesel engines. Soot emissions are reduced in-cylinder by improved fuel/air mixing. As engine load increases, higher levels of intake boost and fuel injection pressure are required to suppress soot production. The high EGR and improved fuel/air mixing is then critical to enable low temperature combustion (LTC) processes. The paper explores the properties of the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Diesel, which are statistically designed to examine fuel effects, on a 0.75L single cylinder engine across the full range of load, spanning up to 15 bar IMEP. The lower cetane number (CN) of the diesel fuel improved the mixing process by prolonging the ignition delay and the mixing duration leading to substantial reduction of soot at low to medium loads, improving the trade-off between NOx and soot.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3558
Ming Zheng, Edward Mirosh, Wayne Klopp, Dale Ulan, Mark Pardell, Paul Newman, Grigorii Bunimovich, Yurii Matros, Akihiro Nishimura
Upon an innovative compact design, extraordinary heat retention capability is demonstrated with a reverse-flow catalytic converter (RFC). By periodical flow reversal, the monolith solid to gas-flow thermal energy recovery, which generates a superior temperature profile oscillating along the monolith flow-path, escalates the temperature-rise by the exothermic reaction of THC and CO. Thus, the averaged temperature level of the catalytic monolith is raised substantially independent of the inflow gas temperature from engine exhaust, while an ordinary flow-through catalyst would lose light off following similar operations with low exhaust temperatures. Along the exhaust flow-path of a typical diesel-dual fuel RFC operation, the monolith center temperature is highly elevated from the boundary temperatures, while the boundary temperatures are approximating the inflow exhaust temperature.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0951
Ming Zheng, Dong Wang, Graham T. Reader
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are viable to reduce smoke from diesel engines. An oxidation process is usually required to remove the Particulate Matter (PM) loading from the DPF substrates. In cases when the engine exhaust temperature is insufficient to initiate a thermal regeneration, supplemental energy is commonly applied to raise the exhaust gas and/or the DPF substrate temperatures. A flow reversal (FR) mechanism that traps a high temperature region in the DPF substrate by periodically altering the gas flow directions has been identified to be capable of reducing the supplemental energy and thus to improve the overall thermal efficiency of the engine. However, extended operations with low exhaust temperature lowers the DPF boundary temperatures that defers the regeneration processes. Furthermore, the temperature fluctuations caused by the periodic FR operation also increase the thermal stress in the DPF.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3020
Ming Zheng, Graham T. Reader, Dong Wang, Jun Zuo, Meiping Wang, Edward A. Mirosh, Arie van der Lee, Benlin Liu
One-dimensional transient modeling techniques are adapted to analyze the thermal behavior of lean-burn after-treatment systems when active flow control schemes are applied. The active control schemes include parallel alternating flow, partial restricting flow, and periodic flow reversal (FR) that are found to be especially effective to treat engine exhausts that are difficult to cope with conventional passive flow converters. To diesel particulate filters (DPF), lean NOx traps (LNT), and oxidation converters (OC), the combined use of active flow control schemes are identified to be capable of shifting the exhaust gas temperature, flow rate, and oxygen concentration to more favorable windows for the filtration, conversion, and regeneration processes. Comparison analyses are made between active flow control and passive flow control schemes in investigating the influences of gas flow, heat transfer, chemical reaction, oxygen concentration, and converter properties.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0240
Nazila Rajaei, Xiaoye Han, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valves have been used in diesel engine operation to reduce NOx emissions. In EGR valve operation, the amount of exhaust gas re-circulating back into the intake manifold is controlled through the open position of the valve plate to keep the combustion temperature lower for NOx emission reduction. Different methods have been proposed to control the EGR valve. However, most of the approaches do not have the desired accuracy and the response time, which is critical for the after-treatment performance in low temperature diesel combustion. In this paper, the model of a motor driven EGR valve is first identified through experiments and then the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) method which is an effective Model Predictive Control (MPC) method is applied to control the plate position of the valve.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0724
Tadanori Yanai, Christopher Aversa, Shouvik Dev, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Abstract In this study, impacts of neat n-butanol fuel injection parameters on direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine performance were investigated to gain knowledge for understanding the fuel injection strategies for n-butanol. The engine tests were conducted on a four-stroke single-cylinder DI CI engine with a compression ratio of 18.2:1. The effects of fuel injection pressure (40, 60 and 90 MPa) and injection timing in a single injection strategy were investigated. The results showed that an increase in injection pressure significantly reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions which is the opposite trend seen in conventional diesel combustion. The parallel use of a higher injection pressure and retarded injection timing was a proposed method to reduce NOx and cylinder pressure rise rate simultaneously. NOx was further reduced by using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) while keeping near zero soot emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0706
Shui Yu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract The present work investigates the efficacy of distributed electrical discharge to increase the ignition volume by means of multipole spark discharge and radio frequency (RF) corona discharge. A range of ignition strategies are implemented to evaluate the efficacy of distributed ignition. The multipole spark igniter design has multiple high-voltage electrodes in close proximity to each other. This distributed spark ignition concept has the ability to generate multiple flame kernels either simultaneously or in a staggered mode. A novel elastic breakdown ignition strategy in responsive distribution (eBIRD) high frequency discharge is also implemented via the multipole igniter. The RF corona discharge is generated through an in-house developed ignition system. A form of distributed ignition is initiated along the streamer filaments.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0707
Shui Yu, Kelvin Xie, Xiao Yu, Xiaoye Han, Liguang Li, Mengzhu Liu, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
Abstract Research studies have suggested that changes to the ignition system are required to generate a more robust flame kernel in order to secure the ignition process for the future advanced high efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In a typical inductive ignition system, the spark discharge is initiated by a transient high-power electrical breakdown and sustained by a relatively low-power glow process. The electrical breakdown is characterized as a capacitive discharge process with a small quantity of energy coming mainly from the gap parasitic capacitor. Enhancement of the breakdown is a potential avenue effectively for extending the lean limit of SI engine. In this work, the effect of high-power capacitive spark discharge on the early flame kernel growth of premixed methane-air mixtures is investigated through electrical probing and optical diagnosis.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1889
Shui Yu, Kelvin Xie, Qingyuan Tan, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
In order to improve the fuel economy for future high-efficiency spark ignition engines, the use of advanced combustion strategies with an overall lean and/or exhaust gas recirculation diluted cylinder charge is deemed to be beneficial, provided a reliable ignition process available. In this paper, experimental results of igniting methane-air mixture by means of capacitive coupled ignition and multi-coil distributed spark ignition are presented. It is found that with a conventional spark plug electrode configuration, increase of spark energy does not proportionally enhance the ignition flame kernel development. The use of capacitive coupled ignition to enhance the initial transient power resulted in faster kernel growth compared to the conventional system. The distribution of the spark energy across a number of spark gaps shows considerable benefit.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1816
Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Jimi S. Tjong, Tie Li
This work investigates the suitability of n-butanol for enabling PCCI, HCCI, and RCCI combustion modes to achieve clean and efficient combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Systematic engine tests are conducted at low and medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) and at a medium engine speed of 1500 rpm. Test results indicate that n-butanol is more suitable than diesel to enable PCCI and HCCI combustion with the same engine hardware. However, the combustion phasing control for n-butanol is demanding due to the high combustion sensitivity to variations in engine operating conditions where engine safety concerns (e.g. excessive pressure rise rates) potentially arise. While EGR is the primary measure to control the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, the timing control of n-butanol direct injection in PCCI provides an additional leverage to properly phase the n-butanol combustion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0845
Prasad Divekar, Zhenyi Yang, David Ting, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract An experimental investigation of low temperature combustion (LTC) cycles is conducted with diesel and ethanol fuels on a high compression ratio (18.2:1), common-rail diesel engine. Two LTC modes are studied; near-TDC injection of diesel with up to 60% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and port injected ethanol ignited by direct injection of diesel with moderate EGR (30-45%). Indicated mean effective pressures up to 10 bar in the diesel LTC mode and 17.6 bar in the dual-fuel LTC mode have been realized. While the NOx and smoke emissions are significantly reduced, a thermal efficiency penalty is observed from the test results. In this work, the efficiency penalty is attributed to increased HC and CO emissions and a non-conventional heat release pattern. The influence of heat release phasing, duration, and shape, on the indicated performance is explained with the help of parametric engine cycle simulations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0808
Tadanori Yanai, Shouvik Dev, Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract This study investigated neat n-butanol combustion, emissions and thermal efficiency characteristics in a compression ignition (CI) engine by using two fuelling techniques - port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI). Diesel fuel was used in this research for reference. The engine tests were conducted on a single-cylinder four-stroke DI diesel engine with a compression ratio of 18.2 : 1. An n-Butanol PFI system was installed to study the combustion characteristics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). A common-rail fuel injection system was used to conduct the DI tests with n-butanol and diesel. 90 MPa injection pressure was used for the DI tests. The engine was run at 1500 rpm. The intake boost pressure, engine load, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio, and DI timing were independently controlled to investigate the engine performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0803
Marko Jeftić, Jimi Tjong, Graham Reader, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract Experimental testing was done with a modern compression ignition engine to study the effect of the engine load and the effect of different fuels on the post injection characteristics. Two different fuels were utilized; ultra-low sulphur diesel and n-butanol. The results showed that a post injection can be an effective method for increasing the operating range of the engine load. Engine operation at high load can be limited by the peak cylinder pressure but the test results showed that an early post injection can increase the engine load without increasing the peak in-cylinder pressure. Neat butanol combustion may have a very high peak in-cylinder pressure and a very high peak pressure rise rate even at low load conditions. The test results showed that a butanol post injection can contribute to engine power without significantly affecting the peak pressure rise rate and the peak in-cylinder pressure.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1298
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0003
Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract This study investigates neat n-butanol, as a cleaner power source, to directly replace conventional diesel fuels for enabling low temperature combustion on a modern common-rail diesel engine. Engine tests are performed at medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) with the single-shot injection strategy for both n-butanol and diesel fuels. As indicated by the experimental results, the combustion of neat n-butanol offers comparable engine efficiency to that of diesel while producing substantially lower NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation. The greater resistance to auto-ignition allows n-butanol to undergo a prolonged ignition delay for air-fuel mixing; the high volatility helps to enhance the cylinder charge homogeneity; the fuel-borne oxygen contributes to smoke reduction and, as a result, the smoke emissions of n-butanol combustion are generally at a near-zero level under the tested engine operating conditions.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0001
Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract This work investigates the benefits and challenges of enabling neat n-butanol HCCI combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Minor engine modifications are made to implement n-butanol port injection while other engine components are kept intact. The impacts of the fuel change, from diesel to n-butanol, are examined through steady-state engine tests with independent control of the intake boost and exhaust gas recirculation. As demonstrated by the test results, the HCCI combustion of a thoroughly premixed n-butanol/air lean mixture offers near-zero smoke and ultralow NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation and produces comparable engine efficiencies to those of conventional diesel high temperature combustion. The test results also manifest the control challenges of running a neat alcohol fuel in the HCCI combustion mode.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0766
Tongyang Gao, Marko Jeftic, Geraint Bryden, Graham Reader, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
Abstract The control of nitrogen oxide and smoke emissions in diesel engines has been one of the key researches in both the academia and industry. Nitrogen oxides can be effectively suppressed by the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, the introduction of inert exhaust gas into the engine intake is often associated with high smoke emissions. To overcome these issues there have been a number of proposed strategies, one of the more promising being the use of low temperature combustion enabled with heavy EGR. This has the potential to achieve simultaneously low emissions of nitrogen oxide and smoke. However, a quantitative way to identify the transition zone between high temperature combustion and low temperature combustion has still not been fully explored. The combustion becomes even more complicated when ethanol fuel is used as a partial substitution for diesel fuel.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1294
Prasad Divekar, Xiaoye Han, Shui Yu, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Abstract Conventionally, the diesel fuel ignites spontaneously following the injection event. The combustion and injection often overlap with a very short ignition delay. Diesel engines therefore offer superior combustion stability characterized by the low cycle-to-cycle variations. However, the enforcement of the stringent emission regulations necessitates the implementation of innovative diesel combustion concepts such as the low temperature combustion (LTC) to achieve ultra-low engine-out pollutants. In stark contrast to the conventional diesel combustion, the enabling of LTC requires enhanced air fuel mixing and hence a longer ignition delay is desired. Such a decoupling of the combustion events from the fuel injection can potentially cause ignition discrepancy and ultimately lead to combustion cyclic variations.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4035
Ming Zheng, Usman Asad
The diesel fuel reforming process in an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop of a diesel engine is capable of utilizing the engine exhaust energy to support the endothermic process of hydrogen gas generation. However, the EGR stream commonly needs to be heated to enable the operation of the reformer and thus to sustain higher yield of hydrogen. A central-fuelling and flow-reversal embedment that is energy-efficient to raise the central temperatures of the catalytic flow-bed is therefore devised and tested to drastically reduce the supplemental heating to the EGR reformer. One-dimensional modeling analyses are conducted to evaluate the fuel delivery strategies and temperature profiles of the reformer at various reforming gas flow rates and engine-out exhaust temperatures and compositions. This research attempts to quantify the energy saving by the catalytic flow-reversal and central-fuelling embedment in comparison to a unidirectional flow EGR reformer.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4019
Ming Zheng, Yuyu Tan, Mwila Clarence Mulenga, Meiping Wang
Thermal efficiency comparisons are made between the low temperature combustion and the conventional diesel cycles on a common-rail diesel engine with a conventional diesel fuel. Empirical studies have been conducted under independently controlled exhaust gas recirculation, intake boost, and exhaust backpressure. Up to 8 fuel injection pulses per cylinder per cycle have been applied to modulate the homogeneity history of the early injection diesel low temperature combustion operations in order to improve the phasing of the combustion process. The impact of heat release phasing, duration, shaping, and splitting on the thermal efficiency has been analyzed with zero-dimensional engine cycle simulations. This paper intends to identify the major parameters that affect diesel low temperature combustion engine thermal efficiency.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1883
Ming Zheng, Yuyu Tan, Graham T Reader, Usman Asad, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang
Diesel engines operating in the low-temperature combustion (LTC) mode generally tend to produce very low levels of NOx and soot. However, the implementation of LTC is challenged by the higher cycle-to-cycle variation with heavy EGR operation and the narrower operating corridors. The robustness and efficiency of LTC operation in diesel engines can be enhanced with improvements in the promptness and accuracy of combustion control. A set of field programmable gate array (FPGA) modules were coded and interlaced to suffice on-the-fly combustion event modulations. The cylinder pressure traces were analyzed to update the heat release rate concurrently as the combustion process proceeds prior to completing an engine cycle. Engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that such prompt heat release analysis was effective to optimize the LTC and the split combustion events for better fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1126
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng
Exhaust gas recirculation, fuel injection strategy and boost pressure are among the key enablers to attain low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously on modern diesel engines. In this work, the individual influence of these parameters on the emissions are investigated independently for engine loads up to 8 bar IMEP. A single-shot fuel injection strategy has been deployed to push the diesel cycle into low temperature combustion with EGR. The results indicated that NOx was a stronger respondent to injection pressure levels than to boost when the EGR ratio is relatively low. However, when the EGR level was sufficiently high, the NOx was virtually grounded and the effect of boost or injection pressure becomes irrelevant. Further tests indicated that a higher injection pressure lowered soot emissions across the EGR sweeps while the effect of boost on the soot reduction appeared significant only at higher soot levels.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0730
Yuyu Tan, Ming Zheng, Graham T. Reader, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang
Low temperature combustion (LTC), though effective to reduce soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) simultaneously from diesel engines, operates in narrowly close to unstable regions. Adaptive control strategies are developed to expand the stable operations and to improve the fuel efficiency that was commonly compromised by LTC. Engine cycle simulations were performed to better design the combustion control models. The research platform consists of an advanced common-rail diesel engine modified for the intensified single cylinder research and a set of embedded real-time (RT) controllers, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, and a synchronized personal computer (PC) control and measurement system.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1670
Ming Zheng, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Mwila C. Mulenga, Jimi Tjong
Extensive empirical work indicates that the exhaust emission and fuel efficiency of modern common-rail diesel engines characterise strong resilience to biodiesel fuels when the engines are operating in conventional high temperature combustion cycles. However, as the engine cycles approach the low temperature combustion (LTC) mode, which could be implemented by the heavy use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) type of combustion, the engine performance start to differ between the use of conventional and biodiesel fuels. Therefore, a set of fuel injection strategies were compared empirically under independently controlled EGR, intake boost, and exhaust backpressure in order to improve the neat biodiesel engine cycles.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1726
Ming Zheng, Raj Kumar, Yuyu Tan, Graham T. Reader
Empirical results indicated that the engine emission and fuel efficiency of low-temperature combustion (LTC) cycles can be optimized by adjusting the fuel-injection scheduling in order to obtain appropriate combustion energy release or heat-release rate patterns. Based on these empirical results the heat-release characteristics were correlated with the regulated emissions such as soot, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. The transition from conventional combustion to LTC with the desired set of heat-release rate has been implemented. This transition was facilitated with the simplified heat-release characterization wherein each of the consecutive engine cycles was analyzed with a real-time controller embedded with an FPGA (field programmable gate array) device. The analyzed results served as the primary feedback control signals to adjust fuel injection scheduling.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1607
Ming Zheng, Usman Asad, Graham T Reader, Xiaoye Han, Mohammad Pournazeri, David S-K Ting, Meiping Wang
Empirical work has been conducted with an EGR fuel reformer configured in a flow reversal and central fueling embedment to improve the fuel dispersion quality and the reforming energy efficiency. Comprehensive comparison analyses are made between the unidirectional flow and the periodic reversal flow embodiments of similar substrate size and properties; and between the inlet and central heating schemes. With a unidirectional EGR reformer, a large amount of supplemental heating is commonly required prior to reforming. The central-fueling and flow-reversal embedment in this study is shown to significantly reduce the supplemental heating energy. The EGR cooler loading for the two strategies is also analyzed. One-dimensional modeling analyses are conducted to evaluate the fuel delivery strategies and temperature profiles of the reformer at various reforming gas flow rates and engine-out exhaust temperatures and compositions.
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