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Viewing 1 to 30 of 66
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1968
Ock Taeck Lim, Naofumi Sendoh, Norimasa Iida
The purpose of this research is to get fundamental knowledge and to experimentally understand about combustion characteristics of the fuel mixture. This paper shows the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) characteristics of a mixture of n-Heptane and iso-Octane in a rapid compression machine. The experimental matrixes cover the n-Heptane mixing ratios, rn-Heptane, ranging from 0 to 100vol% and the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.1 to 0.6. The experimental study on the effect of mixing fuels focuses on the low temperature oxidation reaction temperatures, TL, the high temperature oxidation reaction temperatures, TH, the low temperature oxidation reaction starting times, tL, the high temperature oxidation reaction starting times, tH, and the degeneration period. The results show that as rn-Heptane decreases, tL and tH become longer and TL and TH increase by 30K. As the equivalence ratio increases, tL becomes longer but tH is not a function of equivalence ratio.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1974
Daesu Jun, Norimasa Iida
The operating range is restricted by knocking and misfiring in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. In an HCCI engine, the autoignition does not always mean the high combustion efficiency because the operating range to achieve high combustion efficiency is very narrowly restricted by knocking and high THC, CO emissions. In this study, we have investigated the operating conditions to achieve high combustion efficiency and low CO emission in a four-stroke HCCI engine using experimental analysis and elementary reactions calculation. It is shown that the combustion efficiency reaches higher than 90%, and the CO emission can be reduced considerably when the in-cylinder maximum gas temperature is over 1600K.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1978
Yuichiro Kojima, Norimasa Iida
The exhaust gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and combustion completion was investigated in a 2-stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The experiment was performed using n-Butane as a typical pure fuel to easily identify the origin of exhaust gas components. The effect of maximum gas temperature on combustion completion was investigated by both the experiment and the calculation. From the measurements of unburned n-Butane emission, the thickness of the quenching layer was estimated.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1902
Kengo Kumano, Norimasa Iida
In the HCCI Engine, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution and temperature in the pre-mixture exists microscopically, and has the possibility of affecting the ignition and combustion process. In this study, the effect of charge inhomogeneity in fuel distribution on the HCCI combustion process was investigated. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured by using a framing camera with an optically accessible engine in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. DME was used as a test fuel. By changing a device for mixing air and fuel in the intake manifold, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution in the pre-mixture was varied. The result shows that luminescence is observed in a very short time in a large part of the combustion chamber under the homogeneous condition, while luminescence appears locally with considerable time differences under the inhomogeneous condition.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9070
Kyohei Ozaki, Dong-Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
Problem of HCCI combustion is knocking due to a steep heat release by the ignition that is occurred in each local area at the same time. It is considered that dispersion of auto-ignition timing at each local area in the combustion chamber is necessary to prevent this problem. One of technique of this solution is to make thermal stratification. It could be made by using two-stage ignition fuel, which has large heat release at low temperature reaction. Dispersion of fuel concentration leads to difference of temperature histories while combustion phasing is dispersed at each local area. Also, EGR gas stratification could make difference of temperature histories at each local area because of that of the characteristics. This study examines the effect of mixing stratification by stratifying the charge of fuel and CO2. A single-cylinder engine equipped with optical access was used in experiments, and numerical analysis was executed.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9069
Yusuke Nakamura, Dong-Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
This study experimentally investigates the control system and the algorithm after constructing a HCCI combustion control system for the development of a small HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME). This system can control four throttles for the mixing ratio of three gases of in-cylinder (stoichiometric pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas). At first, the combustion behavior for combustion phasing retarded operation with cold and hot EGR was examined. Then, the potential of model-based and feed back control for HCCI combustion with change of the demand of IMEP was investigated. In the end, the limit of combustion-phasing retard for IMEP and PRR was explored. Results shows that to get high IMEP with acceptable PRR and low coefficient of variation of IMEP, crank angle of 50% heat release (CA50) should be controlled at constant phasing in the expansion stroke. CA50 can be controlled by changing the ratio of pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas with throttles.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9083
Shota Ito, Hiroki Ikeda, Dong-Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
The charge stratification has been thought as one of the ways to reduce the sharp pressure rises of HCCI combustion. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications for reducing pressure-rise rate of HCCI combustion. Using rapid compression machine, the stratified pre-mixture is charged, and compressed to analyze the change of in-cylinder gas pressure and temperature traces during compression process. Based on the experiment results, numerical calculations by CHEMKIN are conducted to more specifically analyze the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications on the reduction of pressure rise rate. Multi-zone model is used to simulate the thermal stratification, fuel stratification and EGR gas stratification of in-cylinder charge as like real engine.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1104
Hung Nguyen Ba, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
Abstract A simulation study was conducted to examine the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston engine fuelled with propane. Operation of the free piston engine was simulated based on the combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. The dynamic model included an analysis of the piston motion, based on Newton's second law. The linear alternator model included an analysis of electromagnetic force, which was considered to be a resistance force for the piston motion. The thermodynamic model was used to analysis thermodynamic processes in the engine cycle, including scavenging, compression, combustion, and expansion processes. Therein, the scavenging process was assumed to be a perfect process. These mathematical models were combined and solved by a program written in Fortran.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1958
Dong Won Jung, Jae Hoon Jeong, Ock Taeck Lim, Young Duck Pyo, Young Jae Lee, Norimasa Iida
This work experimentally investigates how the dwell time between pilot injection and main injection influences combustion characteristics and emissions (NOx, CO, THC and Smoke) in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. Additionally, results from diesel injection are compared with those shown in dimethyl ether (DME) injection under the identical injection strategy to demonstrate the sensitivity of the combustion characteristics and emissions to changes of the fuel type. Two fuel injection systems are applied for this experiment due to the differences of fuel characteristic with regard to physical and chemical properties. The injection strategy is accomplished by varying the dwell time (10°CA, 16°CA and 22°CA) between injections at five main injection timings (-4°CA aTDC, -2°CA aTDC, TDC, 2°CA aTDC and 4°CA aTDC).
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1762
Ryo Odajima, Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is able to achieve low NOx and particulate emissions as well as high efficiency. However, its operation range is limited by the knocking at high load, which is the consequence of excessively rapid pressure rises. It has been suggested that making thermal or fuel inhomogeneities can be used to solve this problem, since these inhomogeneities have proved to create different auto-ignition timing zones. It has also been suggested that EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) has a potential to reduce pressure rise rate. But according to a past report, it was concluded that under the same fueling ratio and CA50 with different initial temperature and EGR ratio, the maximum PRR is almost constant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fundamental effects of EGR. First, I considered EGR homogeneous charge case. In this case, the effects of EGR and its components like CO₂, H₂O or N₂ on HCCI combustion process is argued.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1779
Masato Kanehara, Hiroki Iino, Norimasa Iida
In HCCI Engine, the HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to the engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the influence of engine speed was showed. And then, in order to clarify the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetic computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2279
Susumu Sato, Hisakazu Suzuki, Masayoshi Miya, Norimasa Iida
For the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in the transportation sector, various countermeasures against CO₂ emission have been taken. The eco-driving has been paid attention because of its immediate effect on the CO₂ reduction. Eco-driving is defined as a driving method with various driving techniques to save fuel economy. The eco-driving method has been promoted to the common drivers as well as the drivers of carriers. Additionally, there are many researches about improvement of fuel efficiency and CO₂ reduction. However, the eco-driving will have the reduction effect of CO₂ emission, the influence of the eco-driving on air pollutant emission such as NOx is not yet clear. In this study, the effect of the eco-driving on real-world emission has been analyzed using the diesel freight vehicle with the on-board measurement system.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2277
Masayoshi Miya, Susumu Sato, Norimasa Iida
Nitrogen oxides, collectively called NOx, from diesel vehicles are considered to be accumulated by particular area of roadsides, so-called "Hot-spot," and result in harmful influence to pedestrians and residents by roadsides. Japanese regulations over emissions of diesel vehicles have been tightened year by year and adopting regulations, emissions in mode test on chassis dynamometer or engine dynamometer have reduced. In this research, it was investigated the effect of introduce of transient mode test, Japanese JE05 mode, to NOx emission in real world and to roadside NOx pollution by road test using on-board measurement system. As test vehicles, 2 ton diesel vehicle which is adopted for Long Term Regulation (steady-state mode test, Diesel 31 mode test, 1998) and 3 ton diesel vehicle adopted for New Long Term Regulation (transient mode test, Japanese JE05 mode, 2005) with on-board measurement system was used.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0097
Taketora Naiki, Norimasa Iida, Cedric Lhomme
Theoretically, homogeneous charge compression engines (HCCI) are able to grant a high thermal efficiency, as well as a low NOx and particulate emissions. This ability is mainly due to the combustion process, which, contrary to both Diesel and Gasoline engine, is homogeneous in time and space within the combustion chamber. But despite these advantages, the engine operating condition is limited by the narrow boundaries of misfire at low load and knocking at high load. For that matter, one of the numerous ways of overcoming knocking is to deliberately create fuel inhomogeneities within the combustion chamber, since it has proved to lengthen combustion duration and to drastically reduce maximum pressure rise rate (PRR). Nevertheless, though the global effects of fuel inhomogeneities on PRR have been studied, we lack information that explains this phenomenon.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3274
Norimasa Iida
ATAC (Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion) is autoignition combustion in two stroke engines, which occurs by diluting trapped Fuel-Air mixture with residual gas to maintain a high temperature at low load operation. In this study, two-stroke ATAC engine testing was carried out to obtain fundamental knowledge for controlling the autoignition and combustion characteristics in this premixed charge compression-ignition combustion engine. The influences of delivery ratio, equivalence ratio and enginespeed (i.e. compression speed) on autoignition timing, autoignition temperature and combustion duration were investigated. It was found that the ATAC autoignition temperature and combustion duration did not depend on the delivery ratio and equivalence ratio, but were determined by the individual fuel characteristics. Increasing the compression speed reduced the ATAC autoignition temperature a little.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0236
Hidenori Kosaka, Volker H. Drewes, Luca Catalfamo, Allen A. Aradi, Norimasa Iida, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
2004-09-27
Technical Paper
2004-32-0095
Norimasa Iida, Yudai Yamasaki, Susumu Sato, Kengo Kumano, Yuichiro Kojima
In the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine, a mixture of fuel and air is supplied to the cylinder and auto-ignition occurs resulting from compression. This method can expand the lean flammability limit, realizing smokeless combustion and also having the potential for realizing low NOx and high efficiency. The optimal ignition timing is necessary in order to keep high thermal efficiency. The Ignition in the HCCI engine largely depends on the chemical reaction between the fuel and the oxidizer. Physical methods in conventional engines cannot control it, so a chemical method is demanded. Combustion duration is maintained properly to avoid knocking. In addition, the amount of HC and CO emissions must be reduced. The objective of this study is to clarify the following through calculations with detailed chemical reactions and through experiment with the 2-stroke HCCI engine: the chemical reaction mechanism, and HC and CO emission mechanisms.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0149
Susumu Sato, Daesu Jun, Soonpyo Kweon, Daisuke Yamashita, Norimasa Iida
In this study, attention was paid to the method of mixing fuel to solve one of problems of the HCCI engine, which is the avoidance of knocking. The objectives of the work reported in this paper were to research the characteristics of HCCI combustion of the Methane/DME/air pre-mixture in the experiment and to check the oxidation reaction in two cases: when DME was used as an ignition accelerator for the Methane/air pre-picture, and when Hydrogen was used as ignition accelerator. Furthermore, from these results reference was made about basic specifications required fuel for an HCCI engine.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1619
Yutaka Takada, Norifumi Takada, Norimasa Iida
In order to clarify the reason why NOx emissions factor becomes higher at vehicle acceleration at intersections etc, two freight vehicles, that have EGR system for the reduction of NOx, were tested by an on-board NOx measurement system. Higher NOx emissions factor was observed in operations in lower-gear operation for each vehicle. Since the engine speed change was higher in the operation of lower gears, NOx emissions characteristics were analyzed in view of engine torque, NOx mass emissions and EGR rate, considering engine speed change. It was found that lower-gear operations made the engine speed change higher and the EGR rate lower. This seems to be one of the factors to engender the intensive NOx pollution at roadsides.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0077
Narankhuu Jamsran, Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
This work has been investigated the potential of in-cylinder EGR stratification for reducing the pressure rise rate of DME HCCI engines, and the coupling of both thermal stratification and fuel stratification. The numerical analyses were done by using five-zone version of CHEMKIN-II kinetics rate code, and kinetic mechanics for DME. The effects of inert components were used for the presence of EGR in calculation. Three cases of EGR stratification were tested on both thermal stratification and fuel stratification at the fixed initial temperature, pressure and fueling rate at BDC. In order to explore the appropriate stratification of EGR, EGR width was employed from zero to thirty percent. Firstly, EGR homogeneity case which means EGR width zero was examined. Secondly, EGR is located densely in hotter zone for combining with thermal stratification or in richer zone for a combination with fuel stratification. Lastly, the case was judged inversely with the second case.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0076
Dong Won Jung, Norimasa Iida
This study computationally investigates the combined effects of EGR and boost pressure on HCCI autoignition using iso-octane, PRF50 and n-heptane. The computations were conducted using the single-zone model of CHEMKIN included in CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemical-kinetics mechanisms for iso-octane, PRF and n-heptane from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To better reproduce the state of EGR addition in real engine, the EGR composition is determined after several combustion cycles under the constant amount of fuel. All data points were acquired with a CA50 of 5°CA aTDC by adjusting initial temperature to remove the effect of combustion phasing, which can influence on HCCI autoignition from any effect of the EGR and boost pressure themselves. The results show that EGR increases the burn duration and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate with lower peak of maximum heat-release rates for all fuels even for a boost pressure, which accelerates a HCCI autoignition propensity.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0008
Ocktaeck Lim, Norimasa Iida, Gyubaek Cho, Jamsran Narankhuu
CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine is using CNG as a main fuel, and injects diesel only a little as an ignition priming. In this study, remodeling an existing diesel engine into dual-fuel engine that can inject diesel with high pressure by CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection), and injecting CNG at intake port for premixing. The results show that CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine satisfied coordinate torque and power with conventional diesel engine. And CNG alternation rate is over 89% in all operating ranges of CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine. PM emission is lower 94% than diesel engine, but NOx emission is higher than diesel engine. The output of dual fuel mode is 95% by the diesel mode. At this time, amount of CO₂ and PM are decreased while CO, NOx, and THC are increased. In NEDC mode, exhaust gases except NOx are decreased.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1788
Hiroshi Mizokami, Mina Nishi, Norimasa Iida
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine has a problem which causes knocking when the maximum PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) reaches a certain level because it takes the form of combustion of simultaneous multi-point ignition by compression of the air-fuel pre-mixture. This study focused on stratified charge of fuel in combustion chamber. This method disperses the timing of local ignition. The distribution of fuel concentration is measured by using LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence). As a result, the maximum PRR is reduced by stratified charge of fuel. In addition, it is confirmed that the dispersion of combustion timing depends on the dispersion of fuel concentration.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1866
Keito Negoro, Yuichi Seki, Mina Nishi, Norimasa Iida, Katsuya Matsuura, Yoshihisa Sato
Nowadays, highly super charging is required corresponded to downsizing concept for improving thermal efficiency in direct-injected spark ignition (DISI) engine. However, highly super charging increases the possibility of super-knock caused by pre-ignition. Recently, in many studies, the reason of pre-ignition has been investigated but the reason why pre-ignition leads such strong knocking called super-knock has not been investigated. In DISI engine, it is estimated that there is more inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio and temperature of air-fuel mixture than it in port injection SI engine. In this study, factors which decide self-ignition timing was reviewed and the influence of inhomogeneity of air-fuel mixture to super-knock was investigated based on numerical calculation.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1851
Mina Nishi, Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara, Takayuki Fuyuto
In PCCI combustion with multiple injections, the mechanism having two heat release peaks which has a favorable characteristic of reducing noise is studied using numerical tool of single- and also multi-zone model of CHEMKIN PRO. In the present investigation, the physical issues, such as variations in the equivalent ratio and temperature caused by the fuel injection are simplified first so that the key issues of chemical reaction occurred in the combustion chamber can be extracted and are discussed in detail. The results show that the interval of two heat-release peaks can be controlled and as the number of zones of the calculation increases, the change in the timing of a heat release peak is increased but over three-zones, it is not affected any more. This indicates that to study about complex diesel combustion phenomena, three-to four-zone model shall give sufficiently accurate results.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1848
Shoma Tsuboi, Akira Kojima, Mina Nishi, Norimasa Iida, Fumiya Shimizu, Yudai Yamasaki, Ryo Hasegawa
The dynamics model and model-based controller (LQG servo controller) have been constructed to improve performance of diesel engine in transient condition. The input parameters of the model are fuel quantity of main injection, timing of main injection, fuel quantity of pilot injection, timing of pilot injection, external EGR ratio and boost pressure. The parameters that are succeeded between cycles to express transient condition are residual gas temperature and of residual oxygen. In the model, one cycle is discretized into 10 representative points. The precision of the accuracy of the model and the responsiveness of the controller were confirmed.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1883
Sejun Lee, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
This study tried to find a potential of dedicated EGR (d-EGR) system added to the four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine to decrease heat loss (Qheatloss) and improve thermal efficiency (ηth). Test fuels were chosen by methane and propane. PREMIX code in CHEMKIN-PRO was employed to calculate laminar burning velocity (SL) and flame temperature (Tf). Wiebe function and Wocshni's heat transfer coefficient were considered to calculate ηth. The results show that the d-EGR system increased ηth and it was higher than that of stoichiometric combustion of conventional SI engines due to the low Tf and fast SL.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1805
Dongwon Jung, Norimasa Iida
The characteristics of cycle-to-cycle variations of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) with combustion-phasing retard have been investigated experimentally and computationally in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using dimethyl ether (DME). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) passage for external EGR and a two-stage exhaust cam for rebreathed EGR. To understand the chemical effects of rebreathed EGR, which is assumed to contribute to the autoignition enhancement, the computations were performed with a single-zone model of CHEMKIN using a chemical-kinetic mechanism developed by combining DME mechanism and NOx submechanism.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0141
O Seok Kwon, Dong Won Jeong, Ock Taeck Lim, Norimasa Iida
The HCCI engine is a next generation engine, with high efficiency and low emissions. However a rate of pressure rise is a major limitation for high load range. Recently, we are able to reduce the rate of pressure rise using thermal stratification. Nevertheless, this was insufficient to produce high power. Without the higher equivalent ratio, one way to improve the power is to increase the intake boost pressure. It is suggested that the rate of pressure rise is reduced by thermal stratification and the power is increased by boost pressure at the same time. The objective of this work is to understand the characteristics of combustion, knock and emissions for using both thermal stratification and the boost pressure. The calculations are performed by CHEMKIN and modified SENKIN. As a result of increasing the boost pressure, a higher IMEP was attained while the rate of pressure rise increased only slightly in the HCCI with thermal stratification.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0085
Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
Thermal and mixing stratifications have been thought as one of the ways to avoid an excessive pressure rise on HCCI combustion. The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of thermal and mixing stratifications for reducing PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) on HCCI combustion. The pre-mixture with thermal and mixing stratifications is charged in RCM (Rapid Compression Machine). After that, the pre-mixture is compressed and in that process, in-cylinder gas pressure and chemiluminescence images are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, experimental results are compared with the computational results calculated by using multi-zone model for analyzing these mechanisms.
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