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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1598
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0440
Ichiro Aizawa, Koji Suzuki, Isahiko Tanaka, Yoshiaki Minami
In recent years the number of vehicles equipped with millimeter wave radar has been increasing due to the popularization of driving assistance systems such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and forward vehicle collision warning (FCW) systems. Consequently, high performance millimeter wave radar must be developed to support even more advanced driving assistance systems. The investigation described in this paper confirms that it is possible to use high range resolution radar to recognize the width of a target. In tests, a simulated radar signal was transmitted and received by a millimeter waveband network analyzer using a 1.6 meter-wide aluminum foil board as the target. When the range resolution was low, only one point of reflection from the board could be detected. However, when the range resolution was improved, then multiple points of reflection from the target could be detected.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1230
Steffen Ostendorff, Joerg Sachsse, Heinz-Dietrich Wuttke, Jorge Meza Escobar
This paper presents an adaptive test approach to improve the structural testing of printed circuit boards (PCB) found in electronic automotive components. The approach makes use of FPGAs available on the PCBs, and its applicability is supported by the global trend taking place in the automotive industry of replacing ASICs with programmable devices such as FPGAs. For structural testing of PCBs, Boundary Scan (BScan) is mostly used. However, BScan has the disadvantage of being a static test method due to the slow execution speed reducing the fault coverage concerning dynamic faults. FPGAs support BScan as well, but they also offer a vast number of programmable resources. These resources can be configured for testing purposes. Our approach is to speed-up the testing process during the PCB manufacturing by moving data intensive processing from the external software side (Test-PC) to the programmable hardware side on-board (FPGA), reducing the data transfer over the slow JTAG interface.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0175
Eui Yoon Chung, Jee Yeong Kim, Eugene Chang, Jin Min Chun, In Sik Lee
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems, which detect distance of a preceding vehicle and a radar-mounted vehicle using the radar, are available from automobile manufacturers. The distance and a relative velocity of the preceding vehicle and the radar-mounted vehicle can be estimated by analyzing a millimeter-wave signal obtained through the radar. Due to a characteristic of the radar and the relative velocity between the preceding vehicle and the radar-mounted vehicle, it is difficult to detect and track the preceding vehicle in the same lane where the radar-mounted vehicle is moving. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to solve the above difficulties. The proposed algorithm separates a radar-search range into several blocks. And it detects and tracks a preceding object as a detected block of the several blocks. Applying this algorithm and assigning priority among the blocks, the searching range for the targeting vehicle and response time of the system are reduced.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0177
Shunji Miyahara
A new practical algorithm is proposed for multiple object detection in automotive FM-CW radars. They are radars for ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) radar, collision avoidance, pre-crash safety, side-object detection, etc. This algorithm can provide the distance and relative velocity of objects without the ambiguity of distance and relative velocity, an inherent problem of FM-CW. Since it is simple, straight-forward and fast, it is suitable for automotive application, in which the update time is less than 100 [msec]. This algorithm is based on two down chirp frequency sweeps with small slope-difference. Since the difference is small, the correct pairs of beat frequencies are obtained automatically. Because of the down chirps, the polarity of beat frequencies owing to the distance and the doppler becomes the same for an approaching object and then the distance and the velocity are uniquely determined.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0201
Richard T. McLaughlin, Chris Quigley
The Controller Area Network (CAN) has seen enormous success in automotive body and powertrain control systems, as well as industrial automation systems using higher layer protocols such as CANopen and DeviceNet. Now, the CAN standard ISO11898 is being extended to Time Triggered CAN (TTCAN) to address the safety critical needs of first generation drive-by-wire systems. However, their successful development depends upon the availability of silicon and software support, and appropriate development & analysis tools. Warwick Control Technologies and the University of Warwick are tasked with prototyping a TTCAN analyser within the European Union Media+ project Silicon Systems for Automotive Electronics (SSAE) consortium, and with funding from the British Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). This paper briefly outlines the current status of both CAN & TTCAN technology and describes the requirements of a TTCAN analyser over that of a traditional CAN analyser.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0366
Abe A. Conner, Paul R. Strouse
As vehicle trends move more towards “smart” Electrical / Electronics Distribution System, it is possible to replace fuses & mechanical relays with Field Effect Transistors (FET's) to perform both switching and circuit protection functions. Circuit protection utilizing fuses and relays is a well-understood practice, whereas the use of FET's as an overcurrent protection device (OCPD) is relatively new to the industry thus demanding further investigation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1684
Thanh Tran, Tim McDonald, Scott Downer, John Ambrus, Alex Kwan
1 Abstract An FEA (Finite Element Analysis) model was developed based on the physical dimension of the MOSFET device to produce a Zth curve closely matching the experimental Zth curve. This Finite Element Analysis model would then be extrapolated down to the region beyond the capability of the hardware of the Zth measurement system
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1683
P. Miller, M. Nisbet
This paper describes the packaging impacts of forecast advances in automotive electronics in two significant areas: The need for a much higher processing performance than is currently found in automotive applications. The need for a much higher network performance within a vehicle. In particular, the thermal and EMC issues resulting from these advances are discussed, and practical, cost effective, automotive relevant, solutions are proposed. To illustrate these issues in a realistic situation, a prototype implementation of a network vehicle controller has been developed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1682
Robert J. Campbell, Kaushik Rajashekara
With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing hybrid, 42 V and fuel cell vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, the requirements of the power semiconductor devices and the criteria for selecting the power devices for various types of low emission vehicles are presented. A comparative study of the most commonly used power devices is presented. A brief review of the future power devices that would enhance the performance of the automotive power conversion systems is also presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1681
M. Ray Fairchild, John D. Myers, Jerry L. Badgett, Carl W. Berlin, D.H.R. Sarma, Thomas M. Morris, Harold Warren
High power electronic applications in the automotive industry require interconnecting substrates that have high reliability, high thermal conductivity, high current capability, multi-layer potential, and small size. This paper addresses the design requirements for automotive power substrates and how ever increasing demands are challenging the current substrate technology. Four different substrate material types, with various design features, capable of meeting these stringent requirements are described. Thermal impedance testing of each substrate along with design variations to enhance thermal capability was completed. The results of the thermal testing are compared based on appropriate application of the substrate technology.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1666
Barbara J. Czerny, Joseph G. D'Ambrosio, Paravila O. Jacob, Brian T. Murray, Padma Sundaram
In this paper, we review existing software safety standards, guidelines, and other software safety documents. Common software safety elements from these documents are identified. We then describe an adaptable software safety process for automotive safety-critical systems based on these common elements. The process specifies high-level requirements and recommended methods for satisfying the requirements. In addition, we describe how the proposed process may be integrated into a proposed system safety process, and how it may be integrated with an existing software development process.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1665
Stefan Benz, Elmar Dilger, Werner Dieterle, Klaus D. Müller-Glaser
For the development of future safety-relevant automotive electronic systems a thorough adaptation of the existing design process is necessary to consider safety and reliability in a more systematic way. In this paper an approach for a new design methodology is presented. It is based on the V-Model which is the established process model for the development of electronic and software systems in the automotive domain. For an advanced consideration of safety and reliability the existing process is extended by a second V (with process elements that have a special focus on safety and reliability) to a “Double V”. The new elements are interconnected with the existing ones at several points of time during the development process. By a defined information exchange between the two Vs continuity in the methodology is guaranteed. Basis for the extension are experiences of the aerospace domain that were adopted to automotive conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1725
Kim Lankford, Rodney Cummings
With the abundance of electronic devices and sensors in automotive technology, it has become increasingly important to establish efficient, cost-effective device validation methods for CAN, J1939, and GMLAN. An easy method of validation is simultaneous sampling of multiple measurements for comparison. For instance, if you have an ECU that receives inputs using CAN, and controls analog outputs, you can measure both CAN and analog data to verify that the ECU algorithm is behaving properly. This paper will discuss techniques for sharing timing and triggering signals between CAN, analog, and digital hardware to prevent clock drift and start latencies and reduce operating system jitter. We will cover techniques to use a common clock to drive multiple boards and specify events to trigger multiple board acquisitions. Timing and triggering signals can be shared in a PC through timing and triggering cables or in PXI through the PXI Trigger bus in the backplane.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1722
John S. Stimitz, Richard V. Wagner
The automotive industry is making a transition from 12 to 36 volt electrification systems requiring a 42 volt battery charging system. This higher DC voltage is capable of producing more pronounced arcing when interrupting electrical connections and at component contacts. This paper describes the development of two new test methodologies specifically designed to evaluate the arc ignition properties of polymeric materials used in 42 V automotive applications. The first test is a DC Comparative Tracking Index (DC-CTI) Test. The second test is the DC High-Current Arc Ignition (DC-HAI) Test.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1706
Hideki Matsumura, Shinichiro Itoh, Tomonori Hasegawa, Takashi Iwasaki
Recently, study of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) for vehicles has become more and more important. In this paper, the authors examine the potential effectiveness of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, one method for simulating an electromagnetic field, as a tool to analyze automotive EMC. The authors have calculated the electromagnetic field for a strip line, and examined the effectiveness of the calculation method by comparing the calculations with measurements. Consequently, the calculated trends of the spacial distribution of the electrical field surrounding the strip line are approximately equal to the measured trends. The calculations of the S-parameter are very close to the measurements in the 20 to 200 MHz frequency range.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1707
Uwe Reinhardt, Ivo Rynda
Modern vehicles contain a multitude of networked electronics. This feature causes distributed functions in distributed electronics. Malfunctions occurring during EMC testing cannot be allocated precisely without detailed knowledge of the data streams. The electromagnetic environment during EMC-testing limits the possibilities of using standard solutions to detect these malfunctions. The paper will present a new tool, which is able to track the data streams in a CAN-Bus system during EMC-testing. By integrating EMC related parameters in the existing data stream of the vehicle's data bus, it is possible to keep a record of malfunctions as they occur.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1704
M. Kull, K. Feser, U. Reinhardt
Automotive electric and electronic devices are commonly tested with standard pulses at the battery lines according to ISO 7637-Part 1 and 2. As these pulses do not cover all disturbances that occur in modern passenger cars, each OEM defines its own additional test-pulses which makes it difficult for component suppliers to satisfy all existing requirements. The paper shows a comparison between measurement and simulation such as slow “ignition on” pulses of a modern passenger car. Additionally, the ability of the computing model to calculate the propagation of fast transients and characteristic pulses of currently used electric and electronic devices is demonstrated. This data can be used for the definition of new test-pulses.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1705
Uwe Reinhardt, Christoph Keller, Kurt Feser
EMC Emission Measurements are usually carried out in frequency domain with measuring receivers and spectrum analyzers in frequency domain. The advantage is the sensitivity of the measurement by pre-selecting the input signal. The time consumption of such a frequency scan is significant high. Modern oscilloscopes cover the needed frequency range and with additional signal processing the sensitivity can be significant improved. Therefore modern time domain EMC emission techniques are a time and cost effective alternative to traditional frequency range measurement. Further more the “real” signal is being monitored which allows the design engineer to trace the source of the emission much better than with frequency range methods.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1256
Alex Zaguskin, Charles Curmi, William Clarke
Driven by a tight vehicle development schedule and unique performance and styling goals for the new Ford GT, a Ford-Lear team delivered a complete interior and electrical package in just 12 months. The team used new materials, processes and suppliers, and produced what may be the industry's first structural instrument panel.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1259
Matt LaCourse, Dan Fisher
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0674
Jim Luyckx, Mohan Sethi, Mike Clancy
Today's automobiles have become increasingly complex and use state-of-the-art electronic technologies and control systems. This, in turn, has placed significant pressure on technicians to perform accurate vehicle diagnosis. This has therefore, created the need for intelligent diagnostic systems, which are affordable such that they are accessible by every technician and can be easily implementable by an OEM. Such dynamic requirements have pushed the envelope at the diagnostic system providers to develop fully integrated diagnostic systems, which guide and assist the technician to efficiently diagnose vehicles using standard off-the-shelf and affordable hardware.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0679
Jason Miller, Tim Thomas, Bill Waldeck
Ford Motor Company (FMC) plans to adopt ISO 14229 - Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) as the sole diagnostic vehicle protocol. All Ford brands, including Ford, Lincoln-Mercury, Jaguar, Land Rover, Volvo, and Mazda, will eventually use this protocol. Migrating from the many diagnostic protocols currently in use today to a single common protocol presents many challenges. However, the long-term benefits of using a single industry-standard protocol throughout the company far outweigh the short-term difficulties. This paper will present the issues facing Ford as it makes the transition to one common protocol as well as outline the potential benefits.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0777
Hiroshi Kuribayashi, Satoru Komatsu, Tomoyuki Fukumaru, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Kenji Taguchi
Parallel computational software employing the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method was developed and used in a large-scale electromagnetic simulation of a full automobile model. The results demonstrate that this method enables the characteristics of vehicle-installed antennas to be calculated. In addition, a comparison of the results of the simulation and actual measurements verify the viability of the simulation as a design tool.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0701
Anthony J. Torre
This document describes an aggregate framework for specifying, developing and maintaining distributed-computer architecture requirements. The emphasis is placed on the application of evolving development techniques including “architecture”, product line and requirement patterns. These are studied at the inception (also referred to as concept or requirements) phase of development. This paper is based on recent ideas and experiences with automotive and military applications, and is supported by information from university research, industry applications and various Internet documents. The purpose for using the described approach is to reduce overall efforts, and improve system performance and vehicle reliability. It is believed that the use of these techniques would provide a competitive advantage.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0706
Philipp Nenninger, Thomas Rambow, Uwe Kiencke
There are a number of tools available to assist the engineer during the automotive electronics design process, for example when transferring a graphical specification to a real time rapid prototyping environment. One step in this tool chain however is largely ignored by automated design tools: mapping a large monolithic model to a distributed system, more specifically the mapping of several functions on only a few electronic control units (ECUs) which are connected by a bus. In this paper we will present a method to analyze the underlying functional structure of a given model, partition it using a heuristic algorithm and verify the results with a model of the CAN bus. Based on a given functional model, we will show how to extract an algebraic representation of the communication behavior, the adjacency matrix. Using the adjacency matrix, the heuristic algorithm Best Gain First can be applied to map functions to ECUs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0711
Auto Lin, Go-Long Tsai, Bo-Chiuan Chen
Electronic Control has been widely used in automotive systems, such as Vehicle Dynamics Control, Anti-Lock Braking Systems, Active Suspension and Steering System control, etc. The rapid prototyping development of an embedded controller for an electronic power assisted steering system (EPAS) will be presented in this paper. A steering model is established in MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify the proposed EPAS in this paper. This model includes the effects of kingpin inclination, caster, camber and lateral offset to calculate the total steering torque. The EPAS control strategy has considered the driver commands and vehicle speed to provide multiple stages of steering torque assistance. TMS320F240 DSP is used as the embedded controller of EPAS. EPAS Control algorithms have been designed using MATLAB/SIMULINK/Real-Time Workshop and Input/Output of Blocksets of TMS320F240 DSP have been developed in SIMULINK.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0713
Martin Törngren, Niklas Adamsson, Per Johannessen
Model based development promises to facilitate the development of embedded control systems, including design, early verification and validation as well as implementation. Existing tools are beginning to support the development of distributed control systems. There are however still challenges when it comes to integration with mechanics and methodologies for such interdisciplinary systems.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0719
Alex Shoshiev, Victor Fey
Significant resources are spent by the OEMs and suppliers to determine the most promising directions for the development of next-generation vehicle electronics and software. Existing technology planning methods, while useful, still leave a large margin of error. The authors describe a new structured approach to technology and product planning based on TRIZ methodology. This approach largely removes guesswork from pinning down the next most likely evolutions of automotive software and electronics and provides objective justification for investment decisions.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3067
Ronald W. Stence
The traditional twelve-volt automotive system is already being strained by luxury add-ins and with the coming inclusion of the next generation powertrain systems, it is now apparent that the electrical system has to provide more power than a twelve-volt system could ever economically supply. The advances in HCCI and SI engine technology will lead to direct injection, Variable Valve Actuation & Control, variable compression technology and CVT transmissions that require much more electrical energy than the current alternator can supply. The hybrid vehicle and the drive towards fuel cell vehicles will enable a series of other exciting options to the automotive digital design engineer. The enablement of new hybrid powertrain solutions, x-by wire, Digital Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) and electric power assisted steering systems that a 42 volt electrical system becomes a clear next generation choice for many automotive OEM's.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3056
Luigi Orofino, Fabrizio Amante, Bruno Dilecce, Fabio Pigliacampo, Alessandro Piu
The increase of the electrical power required by current vehicles suggests the need to evaluate its impact on fuel consumption, emissions and performances. Moreover, due to the growing amount of cars equipped with Air Conditioning System, a deep knowledge on how these additional loads influence vehicle performances is required. Often, the mechanical power requested by electrical and AC systems is comparable to the mechanical power necessary to move the vehicle (or sometimes even higher) and this happens mainly during urban driving cycles. Drivetrain 3.0 is an integrated simulation model for vehicle energetic evaluation and management; fuel consumption and performances on a generic speed vs time driving cycle are dynamically evaluated as a function of electrical power loads and their possible management strategies. Other additional mechanical loads (i.e. climate compressor) and the related transmission efficiency could also be taken into account.
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