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Viewing 1 to 30 of 6376
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0039
Manqun Lin
Some motorcycles, such as 3 wheels and scooters, have dual high exhaust characteristics on CO and NOx. A mechanical exhaust gas recirculation (EGR in brief) system has been developed for motorcycles and attempt to reduce NOx exhaust emission as a valuable method. Mechanical control valve are driven by intake vacuum of the engine. Appropriate amount of exhaust gas are return to engine intake system during acceleration process and high speed condition. This system also can shut down EGR at deceleration and idling speed condition. Then, NOx and fuel consumption reduction performance was confirmed by means of experimental methods.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0557
Gregory Austin, Jeffrey Naber, John H. Johnson, Chris Hutton
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0559
Keld Johansen, Gurli Mogensen, Damien Mey, David Pinturaud
Silicon carbide diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now recognized as the most effective and robust way to reduce not only the mass but also the number of emitted particles on diesel passenger cars. Widespread use of expensive catalytic platinum-containing coatings has contributed to increased harmful NO₂ emissions. A novel low-cost palladium-base metal coating, BMC-211, was developed which assists soot regeneration by oxygen transport and which actively removes NO₂ still having comparable passive and active soot regeneration properties. The novel coating was tested against a traditional commercial platinum coating on a modern series-produced car, on chassis dynamometer and on engine test bench.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0560
Ted N. Tadrous, Kevin Brown, Paul Towgood, Campbell McConnell
Active regeneration of diesel particulate filters is becoming essential for performance longevity given the diversity of duty cycles and engines' operating behaviors for existing and newer engines. The Syngas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from diesel fuel and air produced by the non-catalytic Syngas Generator is potential candidate to actively enhance the regeneration efficiency of diesel particulate filters. The Syngas is utilized to create an exothermic condition over a pre-catalyst to the DPF to bring exhaust gas temperature from as low as 200°C to 650°C to enable a sustained DPF regeneration process. The Syngas is introduced to an inlet assembly which is divided into 4 quadrants so the full Syngas is mixing with a quarter of the exhaust flow and regenerating one DPF quadrant at a time. The Syngas DPF system is designed to operate seamlessly and is transparent to the vehicle operator.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0562
Kun chul Park, Soonho Song, Kwang min Chun
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems are being used to reduce the particulate matter emissions of diesel vehicles. The DPF should be regenerated after certain driving hours or distance to eliminate soot in the filter. The most widely used method is active regeneration with oxygen at 550~650°C. Fuel penalty occurs when the exhaust gas temperature is increased. The low temperature oxidation technique is needed to reduce fuel consumption. In this study, we found that hydrogen could be used to decrease the PM oxidation temperature significantly on a catalyzed DPF (CDPF). The oxidation characteristics of PM with hydrogen supplied to CDPF were studied using a partial flow system. The partial flow system was used to control temperature and a flow rate independently. The CDPF was coated with Pt/Al₂O₃ 25g/ft₃, and a multi-channel CDPF (MC CDPF) with a square cross section of 1.65 cm width and length of 10 cm was used.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0563
Svetlana Iretskaya, Steve Golden, Ted Tadrous, Shun Hong Long
Non-PGM catalyst containing base metal mixed oxide (BMMO) supported on rare earth mixed oxide (REMO) had been evaluated by various methods for soot-oxidation activity. Thermo-gravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA) experiments and synthetic gas bench activity tests showed that the catalyst was able to oxidize soot at temperatures significantly lower than soot combustion temperature leading to a conclusion that soot was oxidized via direct reaction with active species of the catalyst surface. It had been shown that low-temperature soot oxidation occurred with and without NO present in the reaction gas. Evaluation on engine benches of the BMMO catalyst coated on diesel particulate filters (DPF) confirmed low-temperature soot oxidation in exhaust gas with low NO₂ concentration and a possibility of cost-efficient diesel exhaust aftertreatment system without increasing tailpipe NO₂ content.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0569
Hanlong Yang, Christian Chimner
Future government emission regulations have lead to the development and implementation of advanced aftertreatment systems to meet stringent emission standards for both on-road and off-road vehicles. These aftertreatment systems require sophisticated control and diagnostic strategies to ensure proper system functionality while minimizing tailpipe NOx and PM emissions across all engine operating conditions. In this paper, an integrated algorithm design approach with controls and diagnostics for an aftertreatment system consisting of a fuel doser, fuel reformer, LNT, DPF, and SCR is discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0539
Thomas Wolff, Holger Friedrich, Lars Tinggaard Johannesen, Shahrokh Hajireza
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are now a mandatory part in diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems in order to achieve compliance with current emission legislations. However future demands for further NOx and CO₂ reductions combined with a maximum amount of allowed particle numbers per ccm lead to special requirements for the DPF substrate material. On the one hand high filtration efficiency of soot particles in the nanometer scale has to be reached and on the other hand high porosities and large pore sizes have to be realized to support catalytic coating. In order to have a base material composition which can easily be modified to meet current and future demands a new SiC substrate, called XP-SiC, was developed. The technology of the XP-SiC is based on a reaction forming process of coextruded silicon and carbon particles to SiC. This new manufacturing process leads to a unique microstructure with a sponge-like appearance and a high porosity in the range of 50% - 70%.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0538
Xiaogang Zhang, Paul Tennison, William Ruona
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of partial filtration DPF substrates using 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. Detailed 3-D CFD simulations were performed for real world sizes of DPF inlet and outlet channel geometries. Two concepts of partial filters were studied. The baseline geometry was a standard DPF with the front plugs removed. The second concept was to eliminate half of outlet plugs in addition to the inlet plugs to improve the pressure drop performance. The total filter efficiency was defined in current study to quantify the overall filter filtration efficiency which combines the effects from wall flow efficiency and flow through efficiency. For baseline case, 45% of total exhaust gas was found to go through the inlet channels, and the total trap efficiency was as high as 60%. However, only a 10% pressure loss reduction was found due to the removal of the outlet channel plugs from the DPF inlet side.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0477
Hu Li, Gordon E. Andrews, Dimitrios Savvidis
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function of cold start and ambient temperatures. A real-world driving cycle has been developed at Leeds and referred as LU-BS, which has an urban free flow driving pattern. The test vehicle was driven on the same route by the same driver on different days with different ambient temperatures. All the journeys were started from cold. An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was installed on a EURO2 emission compliance SI car for emissions measurement at a rate of 0.5 Hz. This emission measurement system was calibrated on a standard CVS measurement system and showed an excellent agreement on the CO₂ measurement with the CVS results. The N₂O and CH₄ were calibrated by calibration gas bottles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0322
Keith Goossen, Adrian Wetzel
Radiant “barriers” are well known in building insulation applications, where foils or metallic paints have two functions, one to reflect infrared radiation and heat back into a building in the winter, and more relevant here, to present a low-emissivity surface so that less infrared radiation is emitted into the building in the summer. While the latter function can potential greatly reduce heat loss of process equipment, it has not seemingly been widely applied for that application. There are many potential applications where process equipment having surface temperatures above 100 F can benefit from having a low emissivity, “shiny” surface, and yet this surface condition is not attended to. Here, the heat loss formulas vs. emissivity and surface temperature are presented, a simple experiment using hot water heaters shown that verifies these experiments, and several potential applications shown.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0413
Qilong Lu, Magdi Khair, Jeongmin Lee, Seongoh Lee, Euisung Lee, Kwonoh Oh
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied in modern diesels to effectively control nitric oxides (NOx) emission. However, unfiltered high-pressure loop EGR leads to EGR cooler fouling and loss of its effectiveness. Reduced EGR cooler effectiveness often leads to increased NOx emission through increased intake charge temperature and/or reduced EGR flows. Therefore, there is a desire to avoid EGR cooler fouling and its associated problems. Filtering the EGR upstream from the EGR cooler is considered a potential solution to preserve EGR cooler effectiveness over long operating periods and simplify the control of the EGR system. The effect of EGR filter filtration efficiency on the EGR cooler effectiveness was investigated at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). Alantum, a filter manufacturer from Korea, developed EGR filters having 50 and 70 percent filtration efficiency for this study. A 2008 calibration, V8, A350 International diesel engine was used in this work.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0689
Vishwas Vaidya, Anand Patidar
Automotive embedded control systems need to implement real-time closed-loop control strategies for controlling valves, motors, etc. The implementation needs to focus on use of low cost hardware and efficient software with minimal foot-print so as to adequately meet the application requirement. This paper highlights the low cost hardware and software design concepts by way of a case study related to control of progressive EGR valve. The control strategy is based on "map-driven set-points" where percentage opening of the valve is stored in the form of 16x16 matrices. The set-points are accessed based on instantaneous throttle and engine rpm values which form the row and column indices of the map. The closed loop control algorithm eliminates the need for multiplication by implementing "feed-forward with integral control algorithm." A feed-forward map specifies the most likely PWM duty cycle to be applied to the valve for a given set-point.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0679
Deyang Hou, Yiqun Huang, Ming Huo, Way Lee Cheng, Xuan Feng, Cai Shen, Chia-Fon Lee
HCCI/PCCI combustion concepts have been demonstrated for both high brake thermal efficiency and low engine-out emissions. However, these advanced combustion concepts still could not be fully utilized partially due to the limitations of conventional fixed spray angle nozzle designs for issues related to wall wetting for early injections. The micro-variable circular orifice (MVCO) fuel injector provides variable spray angles, variable orifice areas, and variable spray patterns. The MVCO provides optimized spray patterns to minimize combustion chamber surface-wetting, oil dilution and emissions. Designed with a concise structure, MVCO can significantly extend the operation maps of high efficiency early HCCI/PCCI combustion, and enable optimization of a dual-mode HCCI/PCCI and Accelerated Diffusion Combustion (ADC) over full engine operating maps. The MVCO variable spray pattern characteristics are analyzed with high speed photographing.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1119
Francisco Payri, Jose Lujan, Hector Climent, Benjamín Pla
Despite the development in NOx aftertreatment for Diesel engines, EGR is a cost-effective solution to fulfill current and future emission regulations. There is a wide bibliography discussing the global effects of EGR on combustion and emissions. However, little has been published concerning the effects of the unsuitable EGR and air distribution among cylinders. Since current HSDI engines operate with EGR rates as high as 50% the effect of the unequal EGR distribution becomes important. In addition, cylinder-to-cylinder charge dispersion becomes a critical aspect on the control of low temperature combustion systems. In concordance with the aspects outlined before, the aim of this paper is to study the effects of the EGR cylinder to cylinder distribution on the engine performance and emissions. To cope with this objective, experiments have been conducted in a HSDI engine with two different EGR systems.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1552
Federico Millo, Davide Vezza, Theodoros Vlachos, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Andrea De Filippo
The aim of this work is to analyze particle number and size distribution from a small displacement Euro 5 common rail automotive diesel engine, equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a DOC and a DPF integrated in a single canning. In particular the effects of different combustion processes on PM characteristics were investigated, by comparing measurements made both under normal operating condition and under DPF regeneration mode. Exhaust gas was sampled at engine outlet, at DOC outlet and at DPF outlet, in order to fully characterize PM emissions through the whole exhaust line. After a two stage dilution system, sampled gas was analyzed by means of a TSI 3080 SMPS, in the range from 6 to 240 nm. Particle number and size distribution were evaluated at part load operating conditions, representative of urban driving.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1554
Alexis Manigrasso, PIerre Darcy, Patrick Da Costa
One of the challenges in the automotive industry is to develop new vehicles and new technologies with minimal costs. In this context, modeling becomes an important tool for the design of future technologies by reducing the number of tests needed to develop a new exhaust system. With the emergence of future European standards, which are more restrictive on NOx and takes account of the differentiation between NO and NO₂ emissions, European manufacturers have to describe precisely the formation and the behavior of NO₂ in the aftertreatment systems. The aim of this study is to improve the one-dimensional aftertreatment models developed by Renault by introducing the NO₂ contribution from the engine to the tailpipe. The first part of this study focuses on the adaptation of aftertreatment systems models in order to differentiate NO and NO₂. Thus different global kinetics models for the Lean NOx-Trap System were studied.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1555
Guillaume Latouchent, PIerre Darcy, Bertrand Coulet
This study deals with a coupled experimental and modeling approach of Diesel Particulate Filter cracking. A coupled model (heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions) is used to predict the temperature field inside the filter during the regeneration steps. This model consists of assembled 1D models and is calibrated using a set of laboratory bench tests. In this set of experiments, laboratory scale filters are tested in different conditions (variation of the oxygen rate and gas flow) and axial/radial thermal gradient are recorded with the use of thermocouples. This model is used to build a second set of laboratory bench tests, which is dedicated to the understanding of the phenomena of Diesel Particulate Filter cracking.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0537
Kyeong O. Lee, Seung Yeon Yang
The limited spatial area in conventional diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems requires frequent regenerations to remove collected particulate matter (PM) emissions, consequently resulting in higher energy consumption and potential material failure. Due to the complex geometry and difficulty in access to the internal structure of diesel particulate filters, in addition, many important characteristics in filtration processes remain unknown. In this work, therefore, the geometry of DPF membrane channels was modified basically to increase the filtration areas, and their filtration characteristics were evaluated in terms of pressure drop across the DPF membranes, effects of soot loading on pressure drop, and qualitative soot mass distribution in the membrane channels. In this evaluation, an analytical model was developed for pressure drop, which allowed a parametric study with those modified membranes.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0536
Raphaël Berthelin, Patrick Girot
On September 1 st 2011, the Euro 5 + emission legislation will apply to passenger cars in Europe. It is characterized by the introduction of a new regulation concerning the number of soot particle emissions, whereas Euro5 legislation only applies to soot mass. This new regulation makes it necessary to investigate the impact of filter design on filtration efficiency as it pertains to particle number and to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) operating window. This paper describes the investigation performed on a light duty test bench equipped with a Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) which measures soot concentration number and soot particle size distribution in the exhaust gas effluent. Specific protocols were developed to be able to evaluate filtration efficiency in particle number when the DPF is empty of soot and also when the filter is soot loaded. Several DPF parameters such as filter length, filter diameter, cell geometry, and microstructure were studied.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0534
Shohji Tsushima, Issei Nakamura, Satoshi Sakashita, Shuichiro Hirai, Daisuke Kitayama
In this study, particle transport and captured behaviors in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was investigated with Lattice Boltzmann Method. LBM calculation was performed to a 3D-reconstructed micro porous DPF substrate, which was obtained by micro-focus 3D X-ray technique. Simulating advection-diffusion behaviors of diesel particulates in micro porous channel, we adapted a LBM method used for high Peclet number flow, simulating flow conditions in DPFs. We investigated flow behaviors in a wide variety of inlet velocity. LBM simulation has clearly shown that non-dimensional flow field is similar in wide range of flow conditions in the DPF, because flow Reynolds number in the micro porous substrate is sufficiently low, dominated by laminar flow regime. It was also revealed that less than 40% pore channels was responsible for more than 80% volume flux in the porous substrate without particle loading.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0533
James R. Warner, Douglas Dobson, Giovanni Cavataio
In this study an attempt to understand and demonstrate the effects of various washcoat technologies under active and passive regeneration conditions was performed. Six different formulations, on 1.0" D. x 3.0" L. SiC wall flow filters at the laboratory level were used at various test conditions, including variable NO₂/NO ratios and O₂ concentrations. Samples were regenerated using active and passive conditions to evaluate regeneration rates and the potential impact of regeneration at the vehicle level. Results were applied to vehicle operating conditions to determine passive functionality and potential benefits. Active regenerations at 2% O₂ and 5% O₂ showed no significant difference in time to complete regeneration and soot burn rates. Active regenerations performed at 1% O₂ and 5% O₂ concentration showed that the regeneration temperature was shifted by approximately 50°C.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0532
Hans-Joerg Rembor, Thomas Rahn
In this paper, a new diesel particle filter material made from silicon carbide sintered in a liquid phase is presented. The sintering process allows for controlling of certain parameters that influence the extrusion process, the material properties and hence the filtering characteristics. Furthermore, using triangular channel geometry to build up a wall flow filter makes it possible to have a newly segmented geometry that leads to hexagonal shaped filter cartridges. A variety of on the market available wall flow filter materials are compared with data about material porosity, particle size distribution, strength, specific filtration surface as well other parameters influencing the filtration efficiency. The material characteristics gathered are analyzed and evaluated.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0531
Takashi Mizutani, Shingo Iwasaki, Yukio Miyairi, Kazuya Yuuki, Mikio Makino, Hiroshi Kurachi
The Inlet-Membrane DPF which has a small pore size membrane formed on the inlet side of the body wall has been developed as a next generation diesel particulate filter (DPF). It simultaneously realizes low pressure drop, small pressure drop hysteresis, high robustness and high filtration efficiency. The low pressure drop improves fuel economy. The small pressure drop hysteresis has the potential to extend the regeneration interval since the linear relationship between the pressure drop and accumulated soot mass improves the accuracy of the soot mass detection by means of the pressure drop values. The Inlet-Membrane DPF's high robustness also extends the regeneration interval resulting in improved fuel economy and a lower risk of oil dilution while its high filtration efficiency reduces PM emissions. The concept of the Inlet-Membrane DPF was confirmed using disc type filters in 2008 and its performances was evaluated using full block samples in 2009.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0740
R. Muthu Shanmugam, Nilesh M. Kankariya, Jacques Honvault, L. Srinivasan, H. C. Viswanatha, Patrice Nicolas, N. Saravanan, Dias Christian
Most of the energy consumed in today's mobility industry is derived from fossil fuels. The demand for clean, renewable and affordable alternative energy is forcing the automotive industry to look beyond the conventional fossil fuels. Fuels options like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and ethanol blends are quickly finding widespread acceptance as alternative sources. This paper presents the results of experimental studies conducted on a 1.2-liter MPI engine with three different alternate fuels. The fuels considered for the evaluation (apart from base gasoline) are 10% ethanol-blended fuel (E10), LPG (gaseous propane: butane mix) and CNG (gaseous methane). Experiments were conducted to compare their effect on engine performance and emissions. The test results show that E10 has the lowest power drop whereas CNG has the highest power drop (12%) as compared to gasoline. The maximum power drop in LPG is 4%, which is close to the theoretical predictions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0143
Daniel Sabathil, Achim Koenigstein, Peter Schaffner, Jan Fritzsche, Arndt Doehler
The future EURO 6 emission standard will limit the particle number and mass for gasoline engines. The proposed limit for particle mass is 4.5 mg/km. For particle number there is not yet a limit defined but a wide range of proposals are under discussion (6E11 - 8E12 Particles/km) The particle emissions on a homogeneous SIDI engine are mainly caused by insufficient mixture preparation. A combustion improvement could be achieved by a careful recalibration as well as a hardware optimization that mainly avoids wall impingement and substoichiometric zones in the combustion chamber. The analyses of current SIDI vehicles show significant PN emission peaks during cold start and transient operation on a NEDC cycle. To give a better understanding of cause and effect of the particle formation at steady state results so as transient load steps were performed at an engine dynamometer.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0636
Michael Hedge, Phillip Weber, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Imad A. Khalek
Gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines are becoming a concern with respect to particulate matter (PM) emissions. The upcoming 2014 Euro 6 regulations may require a drastic reduction in solid particle number emissions from GDI engines and the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) LEV III regulations for 2014 and 2017 will also require some PM reduction measures. As a result, it is necessary to characterize PM emissions from GDI engines and investigate strategies that suppress particle formation during combustion. The main focus of this work was on using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a means to reduce engine-out particle emissions from a GDI engine with an overall stoichiometric fuel to air mixture. A small displacement, turbocharged GDI engine was operated at a variety of steady-state conditions with differing levels of EGR to characterize total (solid plus volatile) and solid particle emissions with respect to size, number, and soot or black carbon mass.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0639
Anand Kumar Pandey, Milankumar Nandgaonkar
Global warming due to increasing pollution and rapid depletion in petroleum reserves has given us opportunity to find bio fuels. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be produced from renewable feedstock such as edible and non-edible vegetable oils, waste frying oils, and animal fats. Biodiesel is an oxygenated, sulphur free, non-toxic, biogradable, and renewable fuel. The diesel performance and emission characteristics depend upon the fuel properties such as cetane number, density, low caloric value, and kinematic viscosity. In this experiment, 12 cylinders, 780hp CIDI military diesel engine performance and emission characteristics from non-edible karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) biodiesel and diesel fuel were compared by applying EGR with supercharging. The test results showed that the engine performance of karanja oil methyl ester biodiesel fuel was similar to that of diesel fuel.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0626
Leonidas Ntziachristos, Pavlos Fragkiadoulakis, Zissis Samaras, Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
Efforts to develop a sensor for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of diesel vehicles are intensive as diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have become widespread around the world. This study presents a novel sensor that has been successfully tested for OBD diagnosis of damaged DPFs. The sensor is based on the "escaping current" technique. Based on this, a sample of exhaust gas is charged by a corona-ionized flow and is pumped by an ejector dilutor built in the sensor's construction. While the majority of ions return to the grounded sensor's body, a small quantity is lost with the charged particles exiting the sensor. This "escaping current" is a measurement of the particle concentration in the exhaust gas. Such a sensor has been developed and tested in real-exhaust of a diesel car and a diesel engine. The sensor provides high resolution (1 Hz, 0.3 s response time) and high sensitivity superseding OBD requirements. The sensor was used on an engine to monitor the efficiency of damaged DPFs.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
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