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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2178
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0692
Hamid R. Rahai, Ehsan Shamloo, Jeremy Ralph Bonifacio
The effects of humid air on the performance of a naturally aspired three-cylinder diesel engine with low sulfur diesel fuel have been investigated. The additions of the humidity to intake air were performed with a variable steam generator using distilled water, where the relative humidity levels of the intake air were changed from the ambient conditions of 65% to 75% and 95% levels. The tests were performed at two approximate engine output brake horse powers (BHP) of 5.9, and 8.9. Results showed approximately 3.7% and 22.5% reduction in NO x emissions when the relative humidity of the air was increased from 65% (the ambient relative humidity) to 75% and 95% respectively. The addition of the humidity results in increases in the CO, CO₂, and particulate matter (PM), by approximately 3.7, 3.55, 14.9 percents at 5.9 BHP and 22, 2.8, and 9.3 percents at 8.9 BHP. There was no change in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at 5.9 BHP and about 2.7 increase in the BSFC at 8.9 BHP.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1301
Gary D. Neely, Jayant V. Sarlashkar, Darius Mehta
The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III emissions standard which will require significant reductions of hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from current levels. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines so the time required to achieve effective emissions control with current aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diesel cold-start emissions control strategy for achieving LEV III emissions. The strategy combines several technologies to reduce HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1304
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
Diesel (compression ignition, CI) engines are increasingly exploited in light-duty vehicles, due to their high efficiency and favorable characteristics. Limited work has been performed on CI cold-start emissions at low temperatures. This paper presents a discussion and a brief literature review of diesel cold-start emissions phenomena at low ambient temperatures and the results of tests performed on two European light-duty vehicles with Euro 5 CI engines. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer within an advanced climate-controlled test laboratory at BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute, Poland to determine the deterioration in emission of gaseous (HC, CO, NOx, CO2) and solid (PM, PN) pollutants following the EU legislative test procedure (testing at 20°C to 30°C and at -7°C, performed over the NEDC). The tests revealed appreciable increases in emissions of regulated pollutants.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0119
Fuyuan Yang, Jingyong Zhang, Qiang Han, Minggao Ouyang
The high emission level during start-up process of common rail diesel engine is still a problem for ultra low emission control. For the map-based common rail system, engine start-up process goes through the initialization of injection and rail pressure build-up process, so the fuel injection status is not stable. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of rail pressure build-up, engine speed variety and exhausted smoke emission during engine start-up process, it is found that the injection parameters of the initial phase of engine start-up have large effects on the start-up time and smoke emission. To optimize the smoke emission, this paper makes a study on the methods of determining the injection parameters during start-up by means of well-phased investigation of engine speed and orthogonal bench test. The research is carried out on a 6-cylinder 7.8L turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a DENSO ECD-U2 common-rail system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0120
Hitoshi Yokomura, Susumu Kouketsu, Seijiro Kotooka, Yoshiyuki Akao
EGR system is one of the most useful way to reduce NOx. In order for heavy duty diesel engines to meet more stringent exhaust emission regulations, higher EGR rate should be needed. When higher EGR rate is applied to a turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine, however, spike smoke at rapid acceleration is generated due to delay of boost pressure rise. It is needed to develop new control method of EGR to eliminate smoke spike. Therefore, the closed loop EGR control system was developed and tested. The closed loop control system controls EGR valve as feed-backing estimated air excess ratio(Lambda) by detected air mass flow and engine operation condition. The closed loop control system applied to a diesel engine with displacement of 13L and experimentally evaluated the effects of the control system at the transient test.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0123
F. Mallamo, M. Badami, F. Millo
Design of Experiments (DoE) methodologies have been applied in conjunction with objective functions to the experimental optimization of multiple injection strategies for a small displacement Common Rail (CR) off-road diesel engine. One operating point, which corresponds to the 5th mode of the ISO 8178 - C1 test cycle (intermediate speed / full load), was considered during this analysis: this operating condition is one of the most critical as far as exhaust emissions for the considered engine are concerned. Three injections were actuated per engine cycle during the experimental tests, with different strategies characterized by different timings and durations of each injection. It was found that DoE techniques for the reduction of experimental plans can be very effective in finding the optimum values for the injection parameters, leading to a remarkable reduction in the calibration process time, compared to full factorial designs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0125
Daisuke Shimo, Motoshi Kataoka, Hidefumi Fujimoto
A new nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction concept is suggested. A strong vertical vortex generated within the combustion bowl can mix hot burned gas into the cold excess air at the center of the combustion-bowl. This makes the burned gas cool rapidly. Therefore, it is possible to reduce NOx, which would be produced if the burned gas remained hot. In this paper the effect was verified with a 3D-CFD analysis of spray, air, combustion gas, and thermal efficiency as well as experiments on a 4-cylinder 2.0-liter direct injection diesel engine. The results confirmed that the vertical vortex was able to be strengthened with the change of spray characteristics and the combustion bowl shapes. This strengthened vertical vortex was able to reduce NOx by approximately 20% without making smoke and thermal-efficiency worse. Above results proved the effectiveness of this method.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0152
Kenneth W. Aniolek
This paper describes efforts to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to provide some general insights on how wall-based protuberances affect the flow and thermal fields in substrates exposed to typical diesel engine exhaust conditions. The channel geometries examined included both square and round bumps as well as an extreme tortuous path design. Three different 2d CFD laminar-flow analyses were performed: (1) a transient fluid analysis to identify the existence of any vortex shedding in the vicinity of the bumps, (2) a steady-state fluid analysis to examine the velocity and pressure fields as well as momentum transport characteristics, and (3) a thermal analysis to examine the heat transport characteristics. The model predicts no vortex shedding behind the bumps for the conditions and geometries examined, confirming the validity of a steady state approach and eliminating this possible transport mechanism.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0153
C. M. Schär, C. H. Onder, H. P. Geering, M. Elsener
Basic knowledge about the reaction kinetics of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) as well as measurement data from a dynamometer are used for the design of a physical mean-value model of an SCR catalytic converter system. The converter system consists of an injection device for urea solution and a coated metallic honeycomb-type converter. It is mounted in the tailpipe of a mobile, heavy-duty diesel engine. The core of the catalytic converter model is a series of identical SCR cells describing the thermal and chemical behavior of the SCR catalytic converter. It may be used to design dynamic, model-based feedforward controllers for the injection of reducing agent. Measurements on the dynamometer show that these controllers significantly improve the performance of the SCR system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0155
Andrew P.E. York, Timothy C. Watling, Julian P. Cox, Isabel Z. Jones, Andrew P. Walker, Philip G. Blakeman, Thomas Ilkenhans, Ronny Allansson, Mats Lavenius
A 1-D numerical model describing the ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) de-NOx process has been developed based on data measured on a laboratory microreactor for a vanadia-titania washcoated catalyst system. Kinetics for various NH3-NOx reactions were investigated, as well as those for ammonia, CO and hydrocarbon oxidation. The model has been successfully validated against engine bench measurements, over light-off and ESC tests, under a wide range of conditions, e.g. flow rate, temperature, NO2/NO ratio, and ammonia injection rate. A very good agreement between the experimental data and the model has been achieved. The model has now been used to predict the effect of NO2/NO ratio on NOx conversion, and the effect of different ammonia injection rates on the efficiency of the SCR process.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0154
Rinie van Helden, Ruud Verbeek, Frank Willems, Reinier van der Welle
In the past decade, SCR deNOx technology with urea injection has grown to maturity. European OEMs will apply SCR deNOx to meet future heavy-duty emissions legislation starting with EURO-4 (2005/2006). Numerous research programs in Europe and the US have shown a variety of system layouts and control strategies. The main differences are formed by: the engine-out NOx calibration the application of an NO to NO2 catalyst open-loop or closed-loop urea dosage control. This paper gives an overview of possible SCR system configurations that are required for different stages of future emission legislation. Engine-out NOx emission is strongly influenced by ambient conditions. Projections in this study show that a combination of cold climate and a wintergrade fuel is the most severe: it may lead to 30% lower engine-out NOx emission with respect to laboratory conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0159
T. Mizutani, Y. Watanabe, K. Yuuki, S. Hashimoto, T. Hamanaka, J. Kawashima
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has been developed as one of key technologies to comply with tight diesel PM emission regulations. For the DPF control system, it is necessary to maintain temperature inside the DPF below the allowable service temperature, especially during soot regeneration to prevent catalyst deterioration and cracks. Therefore, the evaluation of soot regeneration is one of the key development items for the DPF system. On the other hand, regeneration evaluation requires a lot of time and cost since many different regeneration conditions should be investigated in order to simulate actual driving. The simulation tool to predict soot regeneration behavior is a powerful tool to accelerate the development of DPF design and safe regeneration control strategies. This paper describes the soot regeneration model applied to fuel additive and catalyzed types, and shows good correlation with measured data.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0156
Yisun Cheng, John V. Cavataio, William D. Belanger, John W. Hoard, Robert H. Hammerle
Promising lean NOx trap (LNT) results on lean-burn gasoline engines have encouraged the development of LNTs for diesel applications. Although the fundamentals of LNT are common for both gasoline and diesel applications, there are major differences due to the character of engine operation and control strategies. The sulfur tolerance and thermal durability of current state-of-the-art diesel LNTs under the conditions that represent the thermal and chemical conditions in diesel exhaust were investigated in a laboratory flow reactor. Sulfur poisoning and thermal aging are unavoidable factors contributing to diesel LNT deactivation. The results show that sensitivity to sulfur poisoning varies with the catalyst formulations, and in some formulations the sulfur poisoning appears reversible. However, the thermal deactivation is permanent regardless of its cause, i.e., LNT de-sulfation (deSOx) or diesel particular filter (DPF) regeneration.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0158
Gerd Gaiser, Patrick Mucha
Published investigations on the calculation of pressure drop of diesel particulate filters consider the contribution of substrate, soot, channel flow and inertial effects at the inlet and outlet of the channels. The model presented in this work considers further contributions as the oil ash and additive ash and their effects on the DPF pressure drop. It is shown that different types of ash deposit which are caused by different driving cycles and different regeneration modes, will result in a significantly different pressure drop even at the same total amount of ash. It will be shown that in the case without soot load the ash deposit at the wall will result in a higher pressure drop than the same amount of ash being deposited at the rear end of the channels. It is also shown that at a higher soot load this behaviour will be inverted. In addition this work considers a variable permeability of the soot layer varying with the soot load of the filter.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1427
Yasuharu Kanno, Takashi Hihara, Takeshi Watanabe, Katsuaki Katoh, Makoto Nagata
Sulfate generation by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) is still a problem although sulfur concentration in the diesel fuel will be reduced in future. Two approaches were attempted to reduce the sulfate generation without inhibiting the HC and CO oxidation performance. One was to use an optimized support material that adsorbs less SO2 and has sufficient specific surface area for HC/CO oxidation. Another approach was to apply a layer on the catalyst, which prevents SO2 adsorption. Sulfate generation was successfully reduced while maintaining high HC/CO oxidation performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1430
Yasuyuki Banno, Yasushi Tanaka, Takashi Hihara, Makoto Nagata
Pre-filter diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) development for a DOC-CSF system has been conducted. The pre-filter DOC is required to efficiently oxidize fuel and generate heat to regenerate accumulated soot within the catalyzed soot filter (CSF). Therefore, high thermal durability is required. In addition, good transient hydrocarbon (HC) activity is required for the DOC to reduce tailpipe HC emissions. The required performance is dependent on the OEM's system control strategy. A DOC catalyst designed to have well dispersed Pt showed high fuel combustion performance. Such high Pt dispersion was obtained by using high specific surface area Al2O3. Zeolite included into the catalyst formulation showed higher transient HC performance compared to a catalyst without zeolite. The effective catalyst layer depth with respect to transient HC activity was studied by computer simulation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1432
Marco Ranalli, Juergen Klement, Markus Hoehnen, Ralf Rosenberger
The key feature of a reliable DPF system is the control over the amount of soot burnt during the regeneration. Since only an overall evaluation of the collected soot is possible on-board, only a DPF-system with homogeneous soot distribution can avoid areas of local overcharging which may lead to disastrous consequences during the filter regeneration. Hence, a system layout optimisation, which can ensure a good soot distribution also in the “worst-case” loading conditions, is necessary. The major problem in the optimisation work is related to the lack of measurement methods which could be standardised for series development. Indirect methods, such as the measurement of the velocity profile, provide only a rough estimation of the soot distribution, while other methods, like Computer Aided Tomography, are too complex and expensive for standard series investigations.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1446
Junji Honma, Toshiaki Murao, Youji Yamashita, Makoto Tsujita, Hiroyuki Sugihara
A multi-tube EGR cooler was developed to have high heat exchanger efficiency with high reliability for heavy-duty diesel engine application. Using three-dimensional numerical analyses as well as several laboratory experiments on both a test rig and a diesel engine, the authors determined the most critical factors for developing such an EGR cooler with low production costs. Technology development focused on achieving a high heat transfer coefficient on the gas side in a tube for increased heat exchanger efficiency and uniform coolant flow distribution in the shell for effective cooling of all tubes in the shell. The tube's inside wall was designed with a spiral configuration both for improved gas flow and heat transfer characteristics. Both the layout of the coolant inlet and outlet on the shell and the arrangement of tubes in the shell were optimized for the best results.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1717
Crystal Reul-Chen, Ramon Cabrera, Charles Ross, Nancy L. C. Steele, Arthur Winer
Appropriate vehicle maintenance practices are a critical component to the successful long-term application of diesel particulate filters on heavy-duty vehicles. In a survey of 60 randomly-selected solid waste collection fleets in California we determined the quality of fleet maintenance practices, and ascertained whether a difference exists in the quality of maintenance between three types of fleets: publicly-owned, and large and small privately-owned companies. The fleets, in general, were well maintained, with public fleets consistently ranking above large and small private fleets. These findings are attributed to a number of factors, including time and money available for proper training and vehicle maintenance.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1938
Gordon Bartley, Magdi Khair
This study was performed by the Department of Engine and Emissions Research under an SwRI® Internal Research and Development Program. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a system design that was an advancement over SwRI's patented Protection of Aftertreatment Systems from Sulfur (PASS™) technology.[1, 2] A Lean NOx Trap (LNT) was employed as the sulfur-sensitive emissions reduction device. Lean Sulfur Traps (LST) and Rich Sulfur Traps (RST) were formulated to provide the sulfur protection. Testing was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the LNT, the sulfur poisoning of the LNT, the efficiency of the LST, and the regeneration and protection characteristics of the PASS-2™ system. The program successfully demonstrated that an LST upstream of an LNT does provide protection for the LNT from the adverse effects of fuel-borne sulfur.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1939
Paul Richards, B. Terry, J. Chadderton, M. W. Vincent
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1937
Jean-Claude Fayard, Thierry Seguelong
Diesel urban buses as well as garbage trucks are part of the particulate emissions sources that affect the city air quality. Retrofit programs have developed Diesel particulate filters approaches in order to limit the particulate emissions in the cities. To fit the particular duty driving cycle requirements, a new active Diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is proposed to control the filters regeneration. The DPF system consists of: several particulate filter units; an oxidation catalyst placed in front of the filters; valves and jacks actuators allowing thermal insulation of the filters; control valves actuators; temperature and pressure sensors; and an electronic control unit and monitoring of the DPF system. Furthermore, in order to fully control the filters regeneration, an additional heat injection strategy, based on Diesel fuel injection over the oxidation catalyst, heats up the filters individually, according to the position of the insulation valves.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1943
F. Jacquot, J.-F. Brilhac, R. Noirot
Exhaust gas from diesel engines will be subjected to new and stringent emissions standards. To lower the emissions of carbon particulates (soot), a filtration system has to be fitted in the exhaust line. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) trap the soot, which then has to be removed by combustion. Soot doped with cerium-based additives leads to an enhancement of reactivity with O2. It is also well known that the presence of NO2 significantly accelerates the carbon oxidation rate. The CRTTM (Continuous Regeneration Trap) system is based on this property. More recently, the DPNR system (Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction system), which is a DPF impregnated with a NOx trap catalyst, was proposed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different catalytic materials on soot combustion. Two catalysts were tested: a commercial Oxygen Storage Catalyst (OSC) and a Lean NOx trap catalyst (laboratory made).
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1940
J. Cizeron, R. Dalla Betta, D. Sheridan, T. Davis
Lean NOx adsorber systems are one of the primary candidate technologies for the control of NOx from diesel engines to meet the 2007-2010 US emissions regulations. Several of the technical challenges facing this technology are regeneration at low exhaust temperatures and the efficient use of diesel fuel to minimize fuel penalty. Recent reports have shown that “reactive” reductants such as H2, CO and oxygenated species can regenerate NOx traps more rapidly and at lower temperatures. A diesel fuel processor system has been developed and tested in a single leg NOx adsorber configuration on a diesel engine test stand. During NOx adsorber regeneration, this fuel processor system reduces the exhaust O2 level to zero and efficiently processes the diesel fuel to H2 and CO. Combined with a NOx adsorber catalyst, this system has demonstrated NOx reduction above 90%, regeneration of the NOx adsorber with H2/CO pulses as short as 1 second and fuel penalties in the 3 to 4% range at 50% load.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1941
O. A. Haralampous, C. K. Dardiotis, G. C. Koltsakis, Z. C. Samaras
Diesel particulate filters are today widely accepted as a viable technology for drastically reducing particulate emissions from diesel engines. Current applications are based on some form of catalytic assistance for the filter regeneration purposes, either in the form of a fuel borne catalyst or by employing catalyzed filters. This paper presents an experimental and computational study of the prevailing reaction mechanisms in the catalyst supported DPF systems. The knowledge of the soot reaction kinetics in uncatalyzed filters with O2 and NO2 is a prerequisite in this respect. Next, the reaction rates in the case of using a Ce-based fuel-borne catalyst are evaluated. Emphasis is given on the importance of oxygen diffusion effects during uncontrolled regeneration. Finally, the regeneration mechanisms in a catalyst coated filter are studied.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1907
Keiichi Okude, Kazutoshi Mori, Shiroh Shiino, Takeshi Moriya
Investigations of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion have been actively conducted as a new combustion technology to substantially and simultaneously reduce NOx and soot to comply with the future stringent exhaust emission regulations. In the past, a method of injecting fuel at the initial stage of the compression stroke has been proposed, but it is known that fuel adheres to the cylinder wall, causing a decline in combustion efficiency and oil dilution. The authors have developed Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion as a technology of solving the above problem as well as simultaneously reducing NOx and soot. In PCI combustion, fuel is injected into a combustion chamber in the vicinity of the top dead center for preventing fuel from adhering to the wall, and pre-mixture, which is formed shortly before ignition, is burnt.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1944
Masahiko Hori, Makoto Oguchi
Four urea SCR systems were developed and evaluated on a C/D and on the road to investigate their potential for Japanese emission regulations in 2005 and beyond. Test results showed that NOx conversion ratios were 50 to 70% during the Japanese D13 mode cycle, and the ratios under the transient driving cycle were lower than those tested during a steady state. Unregulated emissions, such as benzene, aldehyde and benzo[a]pyrene, existed either at a trace level using the oxidation catalyst, or lower than a base diesel engine, when no oxidation catalyst was used. The health effects of particulate matter emitted from the SCR system were almost the same as those from conventional diesel engines, as evaluated by the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test. Thermal degradation products, such as cyanuric acid and melamine, were two to four figures lower compared with the toxicological information of Safety Information Resources Inc. (SIRI).
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1955
Isao Kurihara, Shigeki Takeshima, Hiroshi Yashima
In order to meet the increasingly tough emission regulations on diesel vehicles, automobile manufacturers in Japan are focusing on the development of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), nitrogen-oxide-reducing catalysts so-called deNOx catalysts, and other technology for reducing exhaust gases. In order to reduce catalyst poisoning, diesel fuel with a sulfur content of 50 ppm or lower-one-tenth the previous level-was put on the market in Japan in April 2003. At the same time, guidelines took effect for the new DH-2 and DL-1 standards for diesel engine oils compatible with after-treatment devices; the full regulations are scheduled to come into force in 2005. The newly developed low-ash diesel engine oil described here contains a reduced amount of metallic detergents, thus lowering the sulfated ash content to about two-thirds that of conventional high-ash oil.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1956
James A. Mc Geehan
There is a global demand to reduce diesel exhaust emissions, and such countries as the U.S., Europe, and Japan have responded by setting decreasing emission standards through at least 2010. Reaching the levels defined by 2010 will be historic, as diesel engines will be “clean.” This will require a systems approach that utilizes desulfurized fuel, improved in-cylinder combustion, exhaust after-treatment, changes in vehicle design, and engine oils compatible with after-treatment systems. Balancing after-treatment life with engine durability is critical for the next generation of engine oils. In order to achieve this, a new oil category is being developed in the U.S., which will be in the marketplace by 2007 when diesel particulate traps will be required on all diesel engines. This category's development program is called “Proposed Category PC-10” (PC-10). This paper describes the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) program to deliver this new oil category on time for 2007.
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