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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4937
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2161
Gareth Floweday
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology has been an area of rapidly increasing research interest for the past 15 years and appears poised for commercialisation through the efforts of international research institutions and manufacturers alike. In spite of significant worldwide research efforts on numerous aspects of this technology, the need still exists for accurate and computationally efficient fuel auto-ignition models capable of predicting the heat release dynamics of two-stage auto-ignition, especially for full boiling range fuels, sensitive to the effects of pressure, temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and inert dilution.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2162
Patricia Anselmi, Julian Kashdan, Guillaume Bression, Edouard Ferrero-Lesur, Benoist Thirouard, Bruno Walter
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2167
Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz, Reed Hanson
Heavy-duty engine experiments were conducted to explore reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion through addition of the cetane improver di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) to pump gasoline. Unlike previous diesel/gasoline dual-fuel operation of RCCI combustion, the present study investigates the feasibility of using a single fuel stock (gasoline) as the basis for both high reactivity and low reactivity fuels. The strategy consisted of port fuel injection of gasoline and direct injection of the same gasoline doped with a small volume percent addition of DTBP. With 1.75% DTBP by volume added to only the direct-injected fuel (which accounts for approximately 0.2% of the total fueling) it was found that the additized gasoline behaved similarly to diesel fuel, allowing for efficient RCCI combustion. The single fuel results with DTBP were compared to previous high-thermal efficiency, low-emissions results with port injection of gasoline and direct injections of diesel.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2168
Vahid Hosseini, W Neill, Hongsheng Guo, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu, Wallace Chippior, Craig Fairbridge, Ken Mitchell
The effects of cetane number, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature (T90) on HCCI combustion were investigated using a fuel matrix designed by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The fuels were atomized and partially vaporized in the intake manifold. The engine was operated at a relative air/fuel ratio of 1.2, 60% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and 900 rpm. The compression ratio was varied over the range of 9:1 to 15:1 to optimize the combustion phasing for each fuel, keeping other operating parameters constant. The results show that cetane number and T90 distillation temperature significantly affected the combustion phasing. Cetane number was clearly found to have the strongest effect.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2165
David Serrano, Olivier Laget, Dominique Soleri, Stephane Richard, Benoit Douailler, Frederic Ravet, Marc Moreau, Nathalie Dioc
The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2172
James P. Szybist, Eric Nafziger, Adam Weall
A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present during the SA-HCCI operating mode, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum cylinder pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2169
Gareth Floweday
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology has been an area of rapidly increasing research interest for the past 15 years and appears poised for commercialisation through the efforts of international research institutions and manufacturers alike. In spite of significant worldwide research efforts on numerous aspects of this technology, the need still exists for accurate and computationally efficient fuel auto-ignition models capable of predicting the heat release dynamics of two-stage auto-ignition, especially for full boiling range fuels, sensitive to the effects of pressure, temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and inert dilution.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2170
Hermann Obermair, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner
This paper reports on research activities aiming to improve the efficiency of direct injected, hydrogen powered internal combustion engines. In a recent major change in the experimental setup the hydrogen single cylinder research engine at Argonne National Laboratory was upgraded to a new engine geometry providing increased compression ratio and a longer piston stroke compared to its predecessor. The higher compression ratio and the more advantageous volume to surface ratio of the combustion chamber are both intended to improve the overall efficiency of the experimental setup. Additionally, a new series of faster acting, piezo-activated injectors is used with the new engine providing increased flexibility for the optimization of DI injection strategies. This study focuses on the comparison of experimental data of the baseline versus the improved single cylinder research engine for similar engine operating conditions.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2189
Hassan Babiker, Oliver Mathieu, Amer Amer, Yoann Viollet, Ahmar Ghauri
Detailed combustion studies have historically been conducted in simplified reacting systems, such as shock-tubes and rapid compression machines. The reciprocating internal combustion engine presents many challenges when used to isolate the effects of fuel chemistry from thermodynamics. On the other hand, the conditions in such engines are the most representative in terms of pressure and temperature histories. This paper describes the use of a single-cylinder research engine as an advanced reactor to better determine fuel effects experimentally. In particular, a single-cylinder engine was operated in a manner that allowed the effects of changes in charge composition and temperatures to be isolated from changes in equivalence ratio. An example study is presented where the relative effects of low-temperature and high-temperature chemistry, and their effects on combustion phasing, are isolated and examined.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2188
Andrew Mathes, Jacob Ries, Patrick Caton, Jim Cowart, Dianne Luning Prak, Leonard Hamilton
Future synthetic diesel fuels will likely involve mixtures of straight and branched alkanes, possibly with aromatic additives to improve lubricity and durability. To simulate these future fuels, this study examined the combustion characteristics of binary mixtures of 50%, 70%, and 90% isododecane in hexadecane, and of 50%, 70%, and 80% toluene in hexadecane using a single-cylinder research diesel engine with variable injection timing. These binary blends were also compared to operation with commercial petroleum diesel fuel, military petroleum jet fuel, and five current synthetic Fischer-Tropsch diesel and jet fuels. The synthetic diesel and jet fuels showed reasonable similarity with many of the combustion metrics to mid-range blends of isododecane in hexadecane. Stable diesel combustion was possible even with the 80% toluene and 90% isododecane blends; in fact, operation with 100% isododecane was achieved, although with significantly advanced injection timing.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2191
Paul Lacey, Jean Marc Kientz, Sandro Gail, Nebojsa Milovanovic, Paul Stevenson, Richard Stradling, Richard H. Clark, Ratchatapong Boonwatsakul
An increasing range of conventional and unconventional feed stocks will be used to produce fuel of varying chemical and physical properties for use in compression ignition engines. Fischer-Tropsh (F-T) technology can be used to produce fuels of consistent quality from a wide range of feed stocks. The present study evaluates the performance of F-T fuel in advanced common rail fuel injection systems. Laboratory scale tests are combined with proprietary engine and electrically driven common rail pump hydraulic rig tests to predict long-term performance. The results obtained indicate that the performance of F-T fuel is at least comparable to conventional hydrocarbon fuels and superior in a number of areas. In particular, the lubricity of F-T fuel was improved by addition of lubricity additives or FAME, with minimal wear under a wide range of operating conditions and temperatures.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2192
Amanda Lea-Langton, Nikolaos Giannakeas, Gavin Rickett, Valerie Dupont, Martyn Twigg
Initial results are presented for the production of hydrogen from waste lubricating oil using a chemical looping reforming (CLR) process. The development of flexible and sustainable sources of hydrogen will be required to facilitate a "hydrogen economy." The novel CLR process presented in this paper has an advantage over hydrogen production from conventional steam reforming because CLR can use complex, low value, waste oils. Also, because the process is scalable to small and medium size, hydrogen can be produced close to where it is required, minimizing transport costs. Waste lubricating oil typically contains 13-14% weight of hydrogen, which through the steam reforming process could produce a syngas containing around 75 vol% H₂, representing over 40 wt% of the fuel. The waste oil was converted to a hydrogen-rich syngas in a packed bed reactor, using a Ni/ Al₂O₃ catalyst as the oxygen transfer material (OTM).
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2193
Peter Hottenbach, Thorsten Brands, Gerd Grünefeld, Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. An investigation program is carried out to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. In this paper, fundamental results of the Diesel engine relevant combustion are presented. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different reference fuels have been investigated. The fundamental effects of different physical and chemical properties on emission formation and engine performance are investigated using a thermodynamic diesel single cylinder research engine and an optically-accessible combustion vessel. Depending on the chain length and molecular structure, fuel compounds vary in cetane number, boiling temperature etc. Therefore, different hydrocarbons including n-heptane, n-dodecane, and l-decanol were investigated.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2196
William P. Attard, Patrick Parsons
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark-initiated pre-chamber combustion system for an otherwise standard spark ignition engine found in current on-road vehicles. This next-generation pre-chamber design simply replaces the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, widely distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly. This high energy ignition system results from the partially combusted (reacting) prechamber products initiating main chamber combustion. The fast burn rates allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn and/or EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion, with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (HCCI) without the complex control drawbacks.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2198
Vittorio Manente, Claes-Goeran Zander, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestal, William Cannella
A Scania 13 1 engine modified for single cylinder operations was run using nine fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline, but very different octane number, together with PRF20 and MK1-diesel. The eleven fuels were tested in a load sweep between 5 and 26 bar gross IMEP at 1250 rpm and also at idle (2.5 bar IMEP, 600 rpm). The boost level was proportional to the load while the inlet temperature was held constant at 303 K. For each fuel the load sweep was terminated if the ignitibility limit was reached. A lower load limit of 15 and 10 bar gross IMEP was found with fuels having an octane number range of 93-100 and 80-89 respectively, while fuels with an octane number below 70 were able to run through the whole load range including idle. A careful selection of boost pressure and EGR in the previously specified load range allowed achieving a gross indicated efficiency between 52 and 55% while NOx ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 g/kWh.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2199
Leslie Bromberg, Daniel Cohn
Non-petroleum based liquid fuels are essential for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas generation. Increased substitution of alcohol fuel for petroleum based fuels could be achieved by 1) use in high efficiency spark ignition engines that are employed for heavy duty as well as light duty operation and 2) use of methanol as well as ethanol. Methanol is the liquid fuel that is most efficiently produced from thermo-chemical gasification of coal, natural gas, waste or biomass. Ethanol can also be produced by this process but at lower efficiency and higher cost. Coal derived methanol is in limited initial use as a transportation fuel in China. Methanol could potentially be produced from natural gas at an economically competitive fuel costs, and with essentially the same greenhouse gas impact as gasoline. Waste derived methanol could also be an affordable low carbon fuel.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2202
Umut Uysal, Ozgen Akalin
A timing drive model was developed based on computer-aided simulation methods and used to calculate the contribution of each system component to the overall timing drive friction loss at various engine operating conditions. Combining the analytical results and statistical methods, an optimization study was performed to calculate the ideal system design parameters such as hydraulic tensioner spring force and flow rate, sprocket tooth profiles and circularity, and oil supply pressure. The simulation results revealed that while the plastic guide - timing chain friction is responsible for the most part of the frictional losses, the contribution of timing chain friction increases with increasing speed. It was found that the tensioner guide is the key element in the guiding system that causes friction losses. Furthermore, tensioner spring force and engine oil pressure were identified as major design parameters that influence the efficiency of the timing drive.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2205
Thomas Edward Briggs, Robert Wagner, K. Dean Edwards, Scott Curran, Eric Nafziger
In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 45%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2206
Scott Curran, Vitaly Prikhodko, Kukwon Cho, C. Scott Sluder, James Parks, Robert Wagner, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline with diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 5.5 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2209
K. Dean Edwards, Robert Wagner, Thomas Briggs
Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0054
Jeff R. Wasil, Justin Johnson, Rahul Singh
In pursuit of reducing dependencies on foreign oil coupled with U.S. renewable fuel standards and an overall focus and interest in greenhouse gas emissions, investigations continue on feasibility of replacement biologically derived fuels such as ethanol and butanol. Majority of existing recreational products such as marine outboard engines, boats, personal watercraft, all terrain vehicles and snowmobiles are carbureted or operate open-loop, meaning the engine does not have the capability to sense air-fuel ratio. Ethanol has a specific energy content that is less than gasoline. Without means to compensate for air-fuel ratio requirements of specific fuels, open-loop engines may suffer from a condition known as enleanment, in which catastrophic engine failure may result. On the contrary, butanol has specific energy content closer to that of gasoline, suggesting open-loop engines may be less prone to negative effects of increased biologically derived fuel concentrations in gasoline.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0053
Olawole Abiola Kuti, Wu Zhang, Keiya Nishida, Xiangang Wang, Zuohua Huang
The effect of injection pressure ranging from 100 to 300MPa on the ignition, flame development and soot formation characteristics of biodiesel fuel spray using a common rail injection system for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a constant volume vessel under conditions similar to the real engine condition using a single hole nozzle. Biodiesel fuels from two sources namely; palm oil (BDFp) and cooked oil (BDFc) with the commercial JIS#2diesel fuel were utilized in this research. The OH chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the ignition and the lift-off length of the combusting flame. The natural luminosity technique was applied to study the flame development and the two color pyrometry was applied for the soot formation processes. Ignition delay decreased as the injection pressure progressed from 100 to 300MPa. This was as a result of the enhanced mixing achieved at higher injection pressures.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0055
Yasuhiro Sugimoto, Hiroaki Kojima, Masanori Fujinuma
To enhance the convenience of small engines and their current range of application, we studied on the application of commercial liquefied butane fuel canisters containing sealed liquefied normal-butane (n-butane) and iso-butane (i-butane). In processes for extracting a fuel mixture of n-butane and i-butane in a vapor phase state, the discharge pressure dropped as the fuel within the canister was decreased, due to the phenomenon of prior discharge of the higher vapor pressure of i-butane. This pressure loss from gas discharge had to be restored by raising canister temperature which increased the butane vapor pressure. However, in the liquid phase process, since there is no pressure loss as a vapor, the canister holding temperature could be set lower than that of the vapor phase process. Moreover, when the ambient temperatures were the same or lower than the canister holding temperature, the liquid phase process was superior in terms of heat balance.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0050
Yasufumi Yoshimoto
This paper investigates the performance, exhaust emissions, and combustion characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine fueled by CNG (compressed natural gas) as the main fuel. The experiments used a small single cylinder DI diesel engine and two kinds of fuels for the ignition: FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) fuels such as Methyl Oleate (OME) and OME-Methyl Palmitate (PME) blends, major components of biodiesel, and ordinary gas oil. The rate of the CNG supply was defined as the proportion of the heat energy of the supplied CNG to the total heat energy available in the cylinder. Compared with gas oil ignition, the FAME fuels had shorter ignition delays and significantly reduced smoke densities regardless of the PME contents. The PME contained in the FAME fuels gave rise to slight improvements in ignitability. The results also showed that the conditions where operation with CNG/FAME fuels is possible are very similar to those of the CNG/gas oil.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0052
Chunming Hu, Shengzhi Hou
Natural gas is regarded as one of the most potential alternative fuels of engines because of its fruitful storage, good obtainable resources, and high octane value, etc. Compared with port fuel injection (PFI), Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has many advantages on volumetric efficiency improvement, lean-burning, emissions control, etc. A set of measuring and data acquisition system on CNG direct injection spark-ignited engines and the CNG multi-direct injection system are developed in this paper. Based on different injection modes of CNG single DI and compound DI (main injection and auxiliary-Injection), the investigations on combustion process of CNG DI engines has been conducted by the factors of in-cylinder mixture formation, air/fuel ratio, and injection timing, etc. Meanwhile, the three-dimension simulation on mixture formation and combustion principle of low-pressure CNG compound direct injection engines has also been researched.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0051
Hiroaki Wakizaka, Akihiro Hara, Tsugio Fukushima, Yasuhiro Noda, Tohru Nakazono
The role of biomass energy is becoming more and more important in renewable energy. As biomass energy utilization has the problems of collection and transportation. A small-scale dispersed power source is required. Biomass gasification CHP (combined heat and power) system converting biomass energy into gas for CHP at high temperature is one of the most effective solutions because of its high energy conversion efficiency. Dual fuel engine which can ignite low calorie biomass gasification gas by injected light oil is suitable for woody biomass gasification gas of changing calorie and amount. The effect of gas ratio which is defined as gas energy ratio in total inlet energy, injection timing, throttling and gas composition on the performance and exhaust emission of dual fuel engine was investigated by using 2 kinds of model gas which consists of H₂, CO, CH₄, CO₂ and N₂. As gas ratio of low calorie gas increases, NOx and thermal efficiency decrease but CO and THC increase.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0079
Yuya Ozawa
The cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was made from woods by the direct liquefaction process. The compression ignition did not occur when neat CLF was supplied for diesel engines, because CLF mainly consisted of aromatic compounds. CLF could not be completely mixed with diesel fuel, however, CLF and diesel fuel could be blended when FAME was mixed as a solvent. Coconuts-oil methyl ester (CME) was used and 5 wt% that was allowed mixing ratio to diesel fuel in JIS was mixed. To clarify a desirable CLF fraction for diesel engines, CLF was divided into two fractions by the fractional distillation: 473 to 523 K (CLF1), 523 to 573 K (CLF2). The purpose of this study is to analyze ignition characteristics and performance of diesel fuel-CME-CLF blends and the tested weight mixing ratio of CLF were 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%. It was confirmed engine could be stably operated for both CLF1 and CLF2 mixed fuels.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0080
Koji Yoshida
A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. The cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was made from woods by the direct liquefaction process. CLF could not be completely mixed with diesel fuel, however CLF could be mixed with Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and a diesel engine could be operated by CLF and FAME blends. In this study, CLF was divided into three fractions: 473 to 523 K (CLF1), 523 to 573 K (CLF2) and 573 K or more (CLF3) by fractional distillation in order to find CLF fraction which was suitable for diesel engine, and coconuts oil methyl ester (CME) was used as FAME. In the fuel droplet combustion tests, the combustion durations of CLFs were longer than those of diesel fuel and CME, and the combustion duration increased as the distillation temperature range rose, because CLF contained a lot of flame-resisting components like aromatic compounds.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0081
Heiko Pflaum, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer, Werner Weissel
Future legislations claim further reduction of all restricted emissions as well as the limitation of soot emissions in diesel engines. Special alternative diesel fuels that do not contain aromatic compounds, therefore, promise great potential for further reduction of HC, CO and particulate emissions. During a research project carried out at the Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology at the Vienna University of Technology, the potential of alternative diesel fuels was investigated using a state-of-the-art diesel engine with common rail direct injection. The testing took part using an engine test rig as well as on the chassis dynamometer test bench to demonstrate the emission levels in real life conditions. As real biofuel, pure HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) was investigated and additionally in different blends with fossil diesel fuel.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0078
Taib Iskandar Mohamad, Ali Yusoff, Shahrir Abdullah, Mark Jermy, Matthew Harrison, How Heoy Geok
Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been widely used as alternatives to gasoline and diesel in automotive engines. It is a very promising alternative fuel due to many reasons including adaptability to those engines, low in cost, and low emission levels. Unfortunately, when converting to CNG, engines usually suffer from reduced power and limited engine speed. These are due to volumetric loss and slower flame speed. Direct injection (DI) can mitigate these problems by injecting CNG after the intake valve closes, thus increasing volumetric efficiency. In addition, the high pressure gas jet can enhance the turbulence in the cylinder which is beneficial to the mixing and burning. However, conversion to direct fuel injection (DFI) requires a costly modification to the cylinder head to accommodate the direct injector and also can involve piston crown adjustment. This paper discusses a new alternative to converting to DFI using a device called Spark Plug Fuel Injector (SPFI).
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