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Viewing 1 to 30 of 5086
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2019
William Schaudt, Darrell Bowman, Walter Wierwille, Richard Hanowski, Chris Flanigan
Rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks occur with sufficient frequency that they are a cause of concern within regulatory agencies. In 2006, there were approximately 23,500 rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks which resulted in 135 fatalities. As part of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's (FMCSA) goal of reducing the overall number of truck crashes, the Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks project was developed to investigate methods to reduce or mitigate those crashes where a heavy truck has been struck from behind by another vehicle. Researchers also utilized what had been learned in the rear-end crash avoidance work with light vehicles that was conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) serving as the prime research organization. ERS crash countermeasures investigated included passive conspicuity markings, visual signals, and auditory signals.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2017
Abhijit Vishnu Londhe, Suhas Kangde
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2021
Zhixin Liu, Hong Chen, Yongwan Shi, Xiaolong Zhang
Although the chance that occupant's upper limbs were injured is decreased significantly in frontal crash with the popularization of safety belt and airbag, the injury problem of occupant's chest is still most frequent and fatal in traffic accidents. 37 groups of data of C-NCAP crash tests including full frontal crash and offset frontal crash tests were investigated in this paper. The chest injury distributing characteristic of drivers and passengers in these two kinds of crash configurations were obtained, and the effect rules of characteristic parameters on chest injury were summarized.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2020
Gregory Fitch, Myra Blanco, Richard Hanowski, Paul Rau, Chris Flanigan
On-board Camera/Video Imaging Systems (C/VISs) for heavy vehicles display live images to the driver of selected areas to the sides, and in back of the truck's exterior using displays inside the truck cabin. They provide a countermeasure to blind-spot related crashes by allowing drivers to see objects not ordinarily visible by a typical mirror configuration, and to better judge the clearance between the trailer and an adjacent vehicle when changing lanes. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute is currently investigating commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver performance with C/VISs through a technology field demonstration sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Data collection, which consists of recording twelve CMV drivers performing their daily employment duties with and without a C/VIS for four months, is currently underway.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2014
Chris Merkle, Lisa Kennedy
Manufacturers have engineered high voltage batteries and highly efficient electric motors that have been combined with an internal combustion engine (ICE) or in some cases, replaced the engine altogether. While this advancement is beneficial in many ways, service technicians are faced with new challenges in servicing high voltage vehicle systems. Although highly trained in many areas, today's automotive and commercial vehicle service technicians traditionally have not been trained to work with high voltage (HV). To ensure proper and safe HV service, information and training is critical. This paper will highlight some typical safety precautions and service procedures directed by manufacturers, such as the use of high voltage insulation gloves, proper tools needed and the practices of performing HV disabling procedures including zero voltage checks.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2013
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Jean-Sebastien Foisy
The experience with the implementation of IV-ITS (In-vehicle Intelligent Transportation Systems, also know as EOBR or electronic onboard recorders) type tools and services in previous projects showed that there is an opportunity to standardize an infrastructure that would increase a project's rate of success. As such, a project that defined, streamlined and standardized a tech transfer approach to IV-ITS products and services was initiated. Therefore, the objective of the project was to develop a standard procedure based on technology transfer best practices and defining the steps and actions required to increase the rate of success and the optimization of the implementation of IV-ITS products and services. A literature review was conducted to identify technology transfer and implementation best practices and to assist in defining a survey for measuring the success of the implementation of participants in IV-ITS implementation projects.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0458
Xingguang Fu, Dirk Soeffker
In contrast to driver assistance systems focused on the vehicle-navigation or stabilization problems, the study of the loop-oriented interaction between driver, vehicle, and environment has been focused in the last years. The core of the proposed approach is the Situation-Operator-Modeling (SOM), which assumes that changes in the parts of the real world to be considered are understood as a sequence of effects modeled by scenes and actions. Based on SOM approach, the logic of interaction between the driver, the vehicle, and the environment can be formalized for supervision of the drivers' behaviors in a real car. Based on a general model of driving in combination with driver-vehicle-interaction developed in previous works, the personalization and individualization of the human driver model is focused.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0270
Leigh Berger, Lisa Fallon, Michael G. Carpenter
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0273
Jeffrey Braganza, Massoud S. Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
The rear seat occupant has been the subject of an increasing number of research efforts in recent years. However, the majority of the research has focused on frontal impact, while there are also a number of studies concerned with low to moderate delta-V rear impact. Very limited work exists regarding the fate of the rear seat occupant involved in high-severity rear impact, especially when utilizing the BioRID anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Furthermore, it is evident that the out of position rear occupant, as defined by leaning forward prior to rear impact, is also of relevance to this line of research. The objective of this study is to explore and compare the response of BioRID and 50 th percentile Hybrid III in conjunction with the effects of head restraint geometry and the occupant seating configuration (normal seating versus forward leaning) in high-severity rear impact tests.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0261
Nathan T. Dorris, Kelly A. Burke
In a previous SAE paper (2001-01-0046), the authors reviewed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) activities in the development of mandatory air bag warnings and analyzed those activities against the framework of the available human factors engineering (HFE) and warning literature. That analysis concluded that in both rulemaking procedures, NHTSA developed labeling requirements that appropriately addressed the respective injury prevention policies and strategies of those respective timeframes. In most regards, the agency properly identified and responded to HFE criteria although some methodological improvement could be obtained. Since the previous paper, the rulemaking process has continued and there have been significant changes to the mandatory air bag warnings. Some of these changes reflect the improvements in advanced air bag technologies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0260
Rachel Strauss, Megan Bland, Adam Biddle, Matthew P. Reed
As passenger car use becomes more common in developing countries, the number of child passengers killed and injuries also increases. Rates of child restraint use appear to be much lower in developing countries than in the U.S. or Europe. One barrier to increased restraint use is the relatively high cost of child restraints in low- and middle-income countries, where the cost of child restraints can be similar to the U.S. but incomes and typical vehicle prices are much lower. As part of a broader effort to improve child passenger safety worldwide, a team at the University of Michigan has begun development of a child restraint that is intended to be fabricated using low-cost technology in developing countries with minimal capital investment. Providing a design that has been tested successfully to regulatory standards may reduce barriers to entry and allow the restraints to be marketed at low prices.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0267
William W. Van Arsdell, Paul Weber, Charles Stankewich, Daniel Davee, Marie Moralde
This study investigates the technique used and forces applied on the latch plate and buckle during typical seat belt operation and driving conditions. These techniques and forces are relevant to whether the latch plate can be partially engaged with the buckle during typical operation and whether the latch plate will dislodge during vehicle operation. In addition to studying the insertion of the latch plate, we examined the tensile forces that are applied to the latch plate and buckle during typical, non-crash driving conditions, and how these forces compare to the performance requirements established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) as part of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 209. These tensile forces are important in understanding whether the latch plate is likely to dislodge from the buckle if it is in a position of partial engagement.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0434
Madhu V. Shurpali, Logan Mullinix
The seat of a class-8 commercial vehicle in North America consists of a seat-suspension system to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the seat occupant from the cab floor. The vibration isolation provided by the suspension of the seat determines the ride comfort experienced by the occupant. Until now, the vibration isolation provided by the suspension seat was evaluated by exciting the seat on a Six-Axis shaker table with different displacement profiles. This paper presents the development of a validated Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model that can be used to assess the ride comfort of a given suspension seat. The model was validated using the data generated during testing of a prototyped suspension seat. The vibration transmissibility predicted by the model was compared with that of test data and it was observed that they correlated by about 80%. The development of this model will significantly reduce the amount of testing needed which can further condense the product development time.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0433
Jared Gragg, Jingzhou (James) Yang
Seated posture inside a vehicle influences driver performance and control of a vehicle. Many vehicles do not properly allow for a natural seated posture for all drivers. Some vehicles are difficult to drive due to the fact that the driver is inadequately accommodated in the driver seat. For people of extreme stature, tall or short, and for people of extreme width, obese or pregnant populations, it can be difficult to safely operate a vehicle if there is not enough room in the cab or if some controls cannot be reached. This paper employs digital human models to study the effect of obesity on seated posture inside a vehicle. Eight digital human models, four non-obese and four obese, are subjected to reach tests inside a virtual vehicle cab. These tests are used to determine how obesity affects the clearance between the steering wheel and driver body and whether additional factors contribute to discomfort associated with obese people seated inside a vehicle.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0432
André Levesque, Jennifer Johrendt
The following paper presents an outline of the current state of driver modeling along with the various methods that are employed in their development. In recent years, vehicle manufacturers have implemented various systems that, in some manner, improve the operation of their vehicles. Many of these systems include an electronically controlled device which is capable of making decisions based on the immediate conditions affecting the vehicle. Much of the influence to develop such systems stems from the issue of safety: in emergency situations the control device is capable of making a decision quicker than the driver and thus reduces the potential for some form of collision. Another motivating factor behind these systems is to improve fuel efficiency, specifically in regard to hybrid vehicles where more than one form of propulsion is used and such devices can aid the driver to operate in a more efficient manner.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0466
Satori Hachisuka, Teiyuu Kimura, Kenji Ishida, Hiroto Nakatani, Noriyuki Ozaki
This paper presents the method of detecting driver's drowsiness level from the facial expression. The motivation for this research is to realize the novel safety system which can detect the driver's slight drowsiness and keep the driver awake while driving. The brain wave is commonly used as the drowsiness index. However, it is not suitable for the in-vehicle system since it is measured with sensors worn over the head. We precisely investigated the relationship between the change of brain wave and other drowsiness indices that can be measured without any contact; PERCLOS, heart rate, lane deviation, and facial expression. We found that the facial expression index had the highest linear correlation with the brain wave. Therefore, we selected the facial expression as the drowsiness-detection index and automated the drowsiness detection from the facial expression.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0524
Anne M. Curzon, Eddie Cooper, Richard N. Hinrichs
A modeling study was conducted to explore the potential for reducing rollover occupant injury via seat belt geometry modifications and the effect such modifications would have on frontal impact protection. MADYMO software was used to model the first roof-to-ground strike of a dolly rollover crash test as well as a frontal impact test using a facet-style human driver occupant in a sport utility vehicle. The objective of this study was to learn whether occupant protection could be improved for rollover without reducing occupant protection in frontal impact. The models were validated using crash test results. Seat belt anchor locations were independently varied in the models to examine the effects of shortening the length or increasing the angle of the lap belt, shortening the torso belt, or lowering the D-ring. Several combinations of the most promising independent anchor relocations were investigated first in near-side and far-side rollover and then in frontal impact.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0516
Michelle F. Heller, William N. Newberry, Janine E. Smedley, Senthil K. Eswaran, Jeffrey J. Croteau, Michael R. Carhart
Rollover events involving multiple revolutions are dynamic, high-energy, chaotic events that may result in occupant injury. As such, there is ongoing discussion regarding methods that may reduce injury potential during rollovers. It has been suggested that increasing a vehicle's roof strength will mitigate injury potential. However, numerous experimental studies and published field accident data analyses have failed to show a causal relationship between roof deformation and occupant injury. The current study examines occupant kinematics and injury mechanisms during dolly rollover testing of a vehicle with a high roof strength-to-weight ratio (SWR = 4.8). String potentiometers and high-speed video cameras were used to capture and quantify the dynamic roof motion throughout the rollover. Instrumented Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in the front occupant positions allowed for the assessment of occupant kinematics, loading, and injury mechanics during the rollover event.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0640
S. Shoop, B. Coutermarsh, J. Stanley
Synthetic Automotive Virtual Environment (SAVE) is a research program to develop useful descriptions of high-speed, loose-surface ground vehicle interface dynamics and to apply those findings to synthetic training environments, autonomous vehicle development, active safety systems development, and to the construction of safer roads. Live training for accident avoidance through vehicle control is problematic due to the dangers of having unskilled drivers in critical situations. Furthermore, for a driver to perform the critical skills well in an unexpected driving situation requires that their response become automatic through muscle memory development. A simulator environment removes the student from the potentially dangerous consequences of these situations and allows for repetitive training to develop muscle memory.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0681
Gene Dixon
This paper describes research into the relationship of emotional intelligence, emotion regulation, and follower behaviors. The research is part of an ongoing initiative to recognize and understand followers in the transportation and service industries. Behavioral complexities such as emotions are paramount in the intricacies of management and leadership and are widely studied. Emotional intelligence has become a standard concept in business settings while its predictive powers relative to personnel performance forecasting abilities are still being researched. An ability to interact with a diverse employee population, a complex environment, and multifaceted decision requirements would seemingly require leaders and followers to have a fully developed emotional presence. This presence is necessary for workers at all levels to be able to accommodate unpredictability, demonstrate adaptability, and perform flexibly within the workplace.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0210
Yu-Sung Chen, Jia-Xiu Liu, Chung-Chih Tsai, Chia-Tseng Chen
This study proposes an anti-counterfeiting system of drunk driving, which prevents drivers from drunken driving and cheat of driver's alcohol detection. The study develops the technology of driver's facial image match by a serial image processes. The methodology of facial image match uses the Adaboost algorithm, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to extract the facial features of drivers, is suitable to be applied under the internal environments of cabin. By analyzing the facial features of drivers, the time of driver's exchange is detected, and the driver's identity is indentified. When the cheat act of driver's alcohol detection occurred, the system will generate warning signals through a buzzer to notice the driver to take alcohol detection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0206
Hiroyuki Tachibana
Recently, automobile features designed to improve maneuverability and convenience are being improved. However, many drivers still have difficulty with parking maneuvers. Although parking is unavoidable for drivers, yet ranks third among the most difficult driving situations for Japanese drivers. Drivers in other countries also consider parking to be difficult and even skill drivers would appreciate some assistance. Therefore, a parking support system has been developed to reduce the workload for all drivers while also improving parking performance. The parking support system Human-Machine Interface (HMI) operation should be designed to easy to use for best performance. The back-in perpendicular parking performance of drivers with different skill levels was studied to see the effect of the parking support system. Back-in perpendicular parking is the major parking method in Japan.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0130
Darshan Gopalrao Pahinkar, Vivek Kumar
An analytical model, which takes care of thermal interactions of human body with surroundings via basic heat transfer modes like conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation, is compiled. The analytical model takes measurable inputs from surroundings and specific human parameters. Using these parameters a quick calculation entailing all heat transfer modes ensues in net heat exchange of human body with surroundings. Its magnitude and direction decides the qualitative indication of thermal comfort of concerned human being. The present model is scaled on actual human beings by noting the subjective assessment in comfortable as well as uncomfortable surroundings. As a part of validation, it is implemented in an actual Climatic Wind Tunnel Heater test, where temperatures and other parameters on different parts of the body are noted down and fed to the model as input. Output of the equation is then compared with the subjective assessment of human beings.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0132
Sambhaji Jaybhay, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Sangeet Kapoor
In cold climatic regions (25°C below zero) thermal comfort inside vehicle cabin plays a vital role for safety of driver and crew members. This comfortable and safe environment can be achieved either by utilizing available heat of engine coolant in conjunction with optimized in cab air circulation or by deploying more costly options such as auxiliary heaters, e.g., Fuel Fired, Positive Temperature Coefficient heaters. The typical vehicle cabin heating system effectiveness depends on optimized warm/hot air discharge through instrument panel and foot vents, air directivity to occupant's chest and foot zones and overall air flow distribution inside the vehicle cabin. On engine side it depends on engine coolant warm up and flow rate, coolant pipe routing, coolant leakage through engine thermostat and heater core construction and capacity.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0062
Bradley Howard, Jingzhou (James) Yang
Digital human modeling and posture prediction can only be used as a design tool if the predicted postures are realistic. To date, the most realistic postures have been realized by simultaneously optimizing human performance measures (HPMs). These HPMs currently consist of joint discomfort, delta potential energy, and visual displacement. However these HPMs only consider the kinematics of human posture. Dynamic aspects of human posture such as external loads and mass of limbs have not yet been considered in conjunction with the current HPMs. This paper gives the formulation for a new human performance measure combination including the use of joint torque to account for the dynamics of human posture. Postures are then predicted using multi-objective optimization (MOO) techniques to optimize the combination of the new HPM and the current. The predicted postures are then compared with the benchmark postures which are those obtained from using the current HPMs only.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0521
Landon Onyebueke, Akindeji Ojetola, Edward Winkler
This paper presents a PC based mathematical and rapid prototyping technique for anthropometric accommodation in a maintenance environment using the principle of simulation based design. The developed technique is capable of analyzing anthropometric data using multivariate (Principal component Analysis) approach to describe the body size variability of any given population. A number of body size representative cases are established which, when used properly within the constraints of the maintenance environments, will ensure the accommodation of a desired percentage of a population. This technique evaluates the percentage accommodation of a given population for the environment using the specific manikin cases as boundary conditions. In the case where any member of a maintenance crew cannot be accommodated, the technique has the capability of informing the designer of the environment why the member(s) is/are not accommodated.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0527
Diana M. Wegner, Matthew P. Reed
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0582
Christian Fischer, Thomas Fischer, Bernd Tibken
The unattended left behind of children in parked vehicles is one of the major causes of lethal or serious injuries to children in non-traffic accidents in the U. S. For this reason Delphi is interested in the development of a low cost left behind occupant recognition so that its safety division launched the evaluation of different approaches for a reliable detection system in 2008. This contribution discusses the sensor evaluation, experiments under different conditions and the classification via data mining algorithms based on two potential approaches. The first one uses high sensitive analogue accelerometers at the car chassis and the second one is based on a pressure mat in the seat. Occupants inside the vehicle produce vibrations at the car chassis which can be monitored by the accelerometers. The needed electronic and different experimental results are explained in regard to an autonomous left behind recognition. Subsequently the experiments with the pressure mat are discussed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0577
Christopher Edwards, Jon Hankey, Raymond Kiefer, Donald Grimm, Nina Leask
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, roadway efficiency, and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0578
M. Lucas Neurauter, Robert E. Llaneras, Brian Li, Charles Green
Alternative implementations of a Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system intended to actively notify drivers of the presence of rear cross-path traffic when backing were evaluated in naturalistic settings. The feature is one of several emerging technologies designed to assist drivers when backing - in this case, enhancing drivers' awareness of traffic approaching from the rear. The study allowed performance under a range of RCTA system driver interface implementations to be contrasted with conventional and wide Field of View (FOV) Rear Vision systems. Evaluations were conducted using a sample of 70 drivers under naturalistic settings and environments with repeated exposures to backing tasks. The study also made use of a staged conflict situation with a confederate vehicle in order to more precisely quantify driver behavior and system usage across drivers under controlled conflict situations.
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