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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2954
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2027
Satya Panigrahi
A new direction in biocomposite manufacturing is to integrate natural fibers and recycled polymers for manufacturing of some innovative products for various industrial uses including automotive under hood parts. The performance of these new materials are comparable to existing ones even with the replacement of synthetic fiber with biodegradable natural fiber from agricultural residue and with the shift from pure polymer to recycled polymer. Thermoplastic are reinforced with flax fiber mostly used to develop biocomppsite. Most of the research reviewed indicated that very limited work had been done on using flax fiber with recycled post consumer thermoplastic to make biocomposite. The goal of this research is to develop recycled biocomposite material by using flax fiber as a reinforcement and recycled post consumer thermoplastic as matrix and streamline the manufacturing process with optimal processing condition and fiber percentage.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0246
Patrick Granowicz, Gian Luigi Molteni, Toshikazu Kobayashi PhD
The multitude of megatrends influencing today's auto industry has clearly defined the need for new high performance thermal plastic composite materials that will extend product life under harsh conditions. In response a new family of nylons from DuPont which combines the ease of processing of conventional nylon resins with groundbreaking levels of resistance to chemicals, hot air, oil and coolant were developed. Comprehensive research shows that, in comparison to traditionally stabilized nylons, the lifetime of components can be significantly extended. This, along with other benefits, such as low warpage and an excellent surface appearance, make the new polyamides ideal for a range of applications, which to date have been reserved for metals or considerably more expensive high-performance thermoplastics.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0461
Won-Jong Noh, Jung-Gyun noh
This study is on the scratch resistance of polypropylene resins and polypropylene compound materials being widely used for automotive interior applications. The study describes the scratch phenomenon of plastic materials and demonstrates the contribution of each major component in PP compounds to the scratch characteristics of the plastic materials.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0464
Renee Hotton
As customer dissatisfaction with interior trim components is tracked by the JDPowers question on “surface durability”, there is a need to increase the durability of the parts that are molded in color. In particular, door trim panel lowers are susceptible to surface damage which results in an unfavorable appearance. To address this issue, an assessment of the various factors that can affect surface durability was conducted using talc filled TPO materials in order to determine the optimum set of physical properties. The team used Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. A Taguchi orthogonal experiment was used and included control system factors of material, grain, gloss, and color. Noise factors included molding process parameters, aging, and piece to piece variation. The output was a measure of the scratch resistance of the molded plaque which was defined by a Delta L calculation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1151
Emily M. Hunt, Pilaka Murty, Sai Pavan K. Eswara
Mechanical properties of porous materials such as bones for example are controlled by the geometry and structure of the pore space. Traditionally, most attempts to understand the effect of pore structure on mechanical properties have assumed that the pores can be modeled as ellipsoids Eshelby [9] etc. Nevertheless pictures taken by SEM show that pore shapes are never as simple as circles or ellipses. But the use of real pore shapes in the modeling process has been hindered by the lack of analytical solutions for these shapes. Zimmermann [24] suggested that the pore compressibility Cpc scales approximately with where A is the area of the pore space and P is the perimeter surrounding the pore space. Forcing this scaling law to be exact for a circular hole leads to the approximation . Zimmerman [25] showed that this approximation has an error of less than 8% for all hypotrochoids and an error of about 23% for thin, crack-like pores, which he suggested might be the "worst-case" shape.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0683
Gianluca Sartori, Guido Levi, Maja Petrovic, Eligio Stoppa, Franca Nuti
We herewith would like to consider the reasons which led to research and development of automotive leather which could be not only chrome-free but also Metal-free 1 and aldehyde-free. Thus our target has been to prepare a product able to match product features and performance requirements in line with chrome-tanned leathers. All limits have been overcome so far regarding alternative types of tannage such as wet white and there is complete compliance with continual evolution of rules, regulations and laws referring to environmental and health issues. A description of the new stages of leather processing, together with the most defining features of the new product and its process for accomplishment will follow highlighting the most significant differences with traditional processes outside automotive, too (chrome, wet white, vegetable leather).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0684
Kong Byungseok
Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges at the head impact test (ECE 21.01). Needless to say, Head impact test must keep pace with the deployment test. In this paper, we suggested soft airbag door system that is integrally molded with a hard instrument panel by using Two-shot molding. First of all, we set up the design parameters of IPAB door for the optimal deployment and head impact performance by CAE analysis. And then we optimized the open-close time at each gate of the mold so that the soft and hard material could be integrally molded with the intended boundary. We could make the boundary of two materials more constant by controlling the open-close time of each gate with resin temperature sensor.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0682
Vishnuvardhan Sarma, Vivek Bhise, Pankaj Mallick
This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted to evaluate the effects of four material characteristics and two driver characteristics on the perception of automotive interior materials. The perceptual characteristics of the materials were measured using two sensing conditions, namely, visual sensing only and combined visual and tactile sensing. The experiments were conducted using the Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array with seven independent variables, namely material type, surface roughness, compressibility, driver's age, driver's gender, and sensing method. Twenty-four subjects participated in the experiments. Each subject was asked to evaluate four treatment combinations and provide ratings using seven 5-point semantic differential scales. In addition, physical measurements were made on surface roughness, coefficient of friction, and compressibility.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0015
Brian P. Hake
Delivering the appropriate material data for CAE analysis of plastic components is not as straight forward as it would seem to be. While a few of the properties typically used by resin manufacturers and material engineers to describe a plastic are useful to the analysis community (density, CLTE), most are not (flexural modulus, notched izod). In addition some properties such as yield stress are defined differently by the analysis community than by the materials community. Lastly, secondary operations such as painting or chrome plating significantly change the behavior of components with plastic substrates. The materials engineering community and the CAE analysis community must work together closely to develop the material data necessary to increase the capability of the analysis. This paper will examine case studies where these issues have required modifications to the material property data to increase the fidelity of the CAE analysis.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0017
Nancy Zeng, Randy L. Dickerman
The first set of SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) was developed in 2004. It was composed of a group of 10 compounds covering multiple elastomer families. Since then, more advanced materials from many elastomer families have been introduced to the automotive industry. The purpose of this study is to add a few more reference compounds to SAE J2643, to enhance the portfolio on FKM, AEM and ACM to reflect advancements in elastomer technology, and make it suitable for a variety of fluids, such as transmission fluid and engine oil. Fourteen standard elastomer compounds were involved in this study, covering various materials currently used in automotive powertrain static and dynamic sealing applications. Participants include OEMs, major rubber manufacturers, a fluid additive company and an independent lab. Manufacturers of each test compound provided formulations, designated ingredients from defined sources, and detailed mixing and molding procedures.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0220
Andre Bendo, Gero Nordmann PhD, John Norton, Jeremy Funk, Michael Kalbe, Bernd Reck, Matthias Gerst
A family of cross-linkable acrylic copolymer resins - which uniquely have a thermoplastic “B-stage” that enables thermoplastic prepregs and semi-finished goods to be produced - is providing the opportunity to manufacture durable automotive interior trim-panel substrates with comparable or higher performance at lower weight and fewer processing steps than common thermoplastic and thermoset composites long used in such applications. Owing to their special chemistry and very-low initial viscosity, the acrylic copolymers provide excellent wetout / impregnation of fibrous or particulate reinforcements, facilitating the production of composite parts with very-high fiber volume fractions (FVFs). Loading levels as high as 70-90% have already been achieved with natural fibers. In the presence of heat and pressure, the material cross-links to form durable copolymers with excellent thermo-mechanical properties.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0217
Danick Gallant, Véronique Savard
Atmospheric pressure plasma sources are new devices for modifying the surface condition of engineering materials such as thermoplastic and thermoset-based composites. Because they operate at ambient conditions, these plasma systems can be used on a production line as a pre-treatment solution prior to painting or adhesive bonding to significantly improve adhesion strength. However, their efficient use requires sound understanding on how they modify the surface state of materials and, by the same token, how these modifications can be detected and quantified as regards their ability to provide high-strength adhesive joints. Polypropylene, since it is one of the most difficult-to-bond thermoplastic polymers and, at the same time, one of the most interesting polymers for the automotive industry (due to low cost, widespread use in the formulation of composites, lightweight and recyclability), was used in this paper as a model polymer.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0492
Yuan Zhang
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0544
Dinesh Mana, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Matthew Marks, Arunachala P
High repair cost and the subsequent increase in insurance cost in a highly competitive automobile market have forced every automobile original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to comply with the FMVSS and ECE-42 regulatory requirements of low-speed vehicle damageability. Although, the terminologies used are different, similar regulatory requirements also exist in Asia-pacific region. At the rear side, reducing the damage to expensive vehicle components in a low-speed pendulum impact or a low-speed barrier impact can attain a good rating for low-speed vehicle damageability. This paper focuses on a detailed study of various lightweight plastic rear beam designs and their effectiveness in reducing the damage to the vehicle during low-speed vehicle-to-vehicle collision or vehicle to barrier collision.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1315
Manish Gopal, Senthilkumaran Varatharajan, Kedar Gokhale
IC Engine manufacturers are constantly in pursuit of better sealability of cylinder head and engine block interface for meeting performance and durability targets. In order to overcome variation in torque - tension characteristics of cylinder head bolt because of friction variations, yield based clamping are being extensively adopted. Current study is done on torque - tension characteristics of a cylinder head bolt with a controlled quality. The paper enumerates the experimental setup representing a sub 1 liter all aluminum engine's head-block joinery. Studies on torque - tension characteristics of cylinder head bolt and the effect of sealing interface using a cost effective single layer steel gasket are being discussed in the paper. Subject work has led to a successful implementation of angular torque parameters on head bolts to meet functional and durability targets.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1943
Mohamad Qatu, Mohammad Abu-Shams, Mehdi Hajianmaleki
With rising fuel prices, lightweight structures and materials (like composites) are receiving more attention. Composite materials offer high stiffness to weight and strength to weight ratios when compared with traditional metallic materials. Traditionally, composite materials were generally costly which made them only attractive to very limited industries (e.g., the defense industry). Advances in their manufacturing and new innovations have brought the cost of these materials down and made them reasonably competitive. They have gained more and more usage in the last 3 decades in the aerospace industry and have recently been gaining more usage in the automotive industry. In automotive design, they yield lighter structures which have positive impact on attributes like fuel economy, emission and others.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1939
Michael Fasse, Nicolas Brichet
The use of acoustic cavity fillers or “baffles” to prevent the propagation of air borne and structure borne noise, water and dust into the interior spaces of vehicle structures has been in practice for many years. Continuous development of new OEM requirements has pushed the state of the art concerning the design and functionality of these cavity sealing systems. Various technologies are available to OEMs to provide sealing that will prevent water and dust penetration, maximize performance of vehicle HVAC systems, and minimize the propagation of noise from the body structure into the interior compartment under operating conditions.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1989
Mohamad Qatu, Mohammad Zannon, Golam Mainuddin
With rising fuel prices, light weight structures and materials (like composites) are receiving more attention. Composite materials offer high stiffness to weight ratio when compared with traditional metallic materials. Traditionally, composite materials were generally costly which made them only attractive to very limited industries (e.g., the defense industry). Advances in their manufacturing and new innovations have brought the cost of these materials down and made them reasonably competitive. They have gained more and more usage in the last 3 decades in the aerospace industry and have recently been gaining more usage in the automotive industry. In automotive design, they yield lighter structures which have positive impact on attributes like fuel economy, emission and others. Proper modeling and analyses need to be performed to make sure that other attributes (e.g. noise, vibration and harshness or NVH) are assessed properly and remain competitive.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1395
Rory Wolf
Many experiments have been performed globally to investigate ways of controlling and improving adhesion of energy curable UV paints, inks and coatings utilized to decorate structural polymers. Automotive plastics with a low polarity, such as PE, PP, TPO, POM, PUR and PTFE typically require surface treatment when value-added decoration is required. Metallic surfaces may also require cleaning to remove low molecular weight organic materials prior to decoration. Once the above-mentioned interior and exterior grades of substrate surfaces are cleaned and activated, printing, gluing and painting are possible without the use of adhesion-promoting primers. There is a class of innovations in three-dimensional surface treating technologies for plastics finishing which address the need to advance adhesion properties of decorating materials, increase product quality, and achieve environmental objectives within the automotive industry.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1396
Chang Hee Sohn, Ok Kim, Yong Chun, Jong Wook Lee
TPO (thermoplastic olefin) composite for rear bumper back beams was developed. In this study, the composition of PP (polypropylene), rubber and mineral fillers was optimized to minimize the intrusion and the failure after crash. The optimization of the composition was achieved using the mixture design of experiments. The physical properties of TPO composites with various compositions were investigated and the effect of each material on the crash performance of back beam was studied through CAE (computer-aided engineering). The back beams made of the optimized TPO composite for a subcompact car were prepared for the ECE 42 crash test and the TPO-based back beam showed even better performance than conventional PC/PBT-based counterpart. In addition, the newly developed composite has delivered a 15 ~ 40% cost saving and 4 ~ 10% weight reduction versus conventional PC/PBT and GMT (glass mat-reinforced thermoplastic).
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1394
Hiroki Kobayakawa, Hideo Tsuji, Naohisa Kawakami, Colin McAleese, Hiromitsu Katsuki, Kenta Kato
With increased awareness of environmental issues and regulations, developments for recent automotive engines are progressing towards engines with low fuel consumption. Due to these changes, automotive engine bearings are increasingly used in harsher environments, with higher loading and corresponding wear. From this background, resin overlays, where solid lubricant is dispersed in a resin binder, are being developed. Resin overlays show excellent sliding properties under boundary lubrication conditions, and are known to have superior wear and fatigue resistance compared with conventional aluminium based bearings. However, while conventional resin overlay bearings display excellent sliding properties, they tend to have inferior seizure resistance compared to Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings. In this study, by optimizing the strength of the resin overlay layer with addition of calcium carbonate particles, a resin overlay with equal wear resistance but improved seizure resistance was developed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1392
Frank Bayerl, Sigrid ter Heide, Cedric A. Ball
The automotive industry is looking for options to reduce weight and increase engine efficiency to comply with new CO₂ emission and fuel economy regulations. Increasingly, automakers are examining their use of materials for even the smallest components. Engineering thermosets are an effective lightweighting alternative to heavier conventional steel and aluminum die cast products. They combine outstanding temperature stability, long-term mechanical strength, dimensional stability and high chemical resistance. This paper focuses on two recent projects where (BAKELITE™) phenolic-based engineering thermosets have successfully replaced traditional metals in automotive under-the-hood applications and outperformed engineering thermoplastics also considered for the applications. First, a water pump housing made with engineering thermoset material is shown to have good chemical resistance to coolants without additional corrosion protection and to maintain its mechanical properties.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1393
Alain Malo, Zohir Benrabah, Francis Thibault, Anna Bardetti
The heating stage is of primary importance in stretch blow molding and thermoforming processes. Computational methods using the finite element technique for modeling the radiation heating stage of thick gauge plastic preforms and thin gauge, roll-fed plastic sheets are presented and discussed. The theoretical approach as well as the experimental validation are also presented. For stretch blow molding, the energy absorbed by the preform is adjusted by accounting for the selective heating process. An oriented preform is heated from two sides on a mandrel with a pre-defined pattern. This results in a controlled, optimized and uniform material distribution on the bottle which is essential to meet the growing needs of the packaging industry. For this purpose, preferential heating combined with the use of universal preforms produces a range of standard bottles having excellent aesthetic features without sacrificing the physical properties.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1391
Mrunal R. Hatwalne, Prachi Joshi
Automotive Industry is constantly upgrading the value offered on their products at optimized cost. Scratch and mar resistance of interiors and exterior parts, is an important attribute which is linked to perceived quality and value offered to customers. Polypropylene material is optimum material of choice for these parts due to its unique advantages. However, filled polypropylene material has poor scratch and mar resistance. Many techniques for scratch resistance improvement are available such as additions of slip agents, co additives, special fillers, siloxanes, etc. However, some of them may offer some disadvantages like stickiness or tackiness on the surfaces. The choice depends on its effectiveness & cost. This paper deals with design of experiments to evaluate effectiveness of 4 types of additives and their optimum % to give scratch resistance improvement without having detrimental impact on other critical properties.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1390
Norimasa Hosonuma, Hidenori Arai, Yuuichi Shutou, Nozomu Suzuki, Hirotaka Mizuta
We developed a measurement method to evaluate the sealing performance for narrow gap between a metal shaft and a fitted sleeve quantitatively in a brief time. We examined the effect of the chamfer shape and the surface roughness of the shaft on the leakage rate. We also conducted liquid leakage test in order to compare the leakage rate of gas with that of the liquid. From this comparison, we showed that it is possible to evaluate the sealing performance for liquid by measuring leakage rate of gas. In addition, we discussed the leakage rate of fluid through the gap by assuming viscous flow. The estimated leakage rate of the liquid derived from the leakage rate of air by converting viscosity of air into that of the liquid was totally proportional to the measured leakage rate of the liquid. Therefore, we concluded that the leakage rate of liquid can be estimated by measuring that of air.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1397
Zohir Benrabah, Hicham Mir, Yi Zhang
Blow moulding is one of the most important polymer processing methods for producing complex thermoplastic automotive parts. Contrary to injection molding, little attention has focused on process control and simulation of blow molding processes. Yet, there are still several problems that affect the overall success of forming these parts. Among them are thermally induced stresses, relevant shrinkage and part warpage deformations caused by inappropriate mold design and/or processing conditions. Tolerance issues are critical in automotive applications and therefore part deformation due to solidification needs to be controlled and optimized accordingly. The accurate prediction tool of part deformation due to solidification, under different cooling conditions in automotive formed parts, is important and highly suited for part designers to help achieve an efficient production.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0197
Brian E. Johnson, Eric J. Olsen
High technology vehicle applications are expanding functionality and connectivity, enabling increased information access, and improving occupant safety. In-vehicle data transmission systems are also evolving to meet the requirements of these applications, which include diverse node locations, an increased number of interacting nodes, information transfer capacity, and data transmission rates. The Yazaki Polymer Clad Silica (PCS) Optical Data Communication System is leading this evolution. This next generation optical communication system integrates gigabit communication technology, including glass fiber and VCSEL light sources. It exceeds current vehicle network system demands, and anticipates future requirements to enable the automotive optical communication networks of tomorrow.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0386
Amrith Ramanan, Richard B. Hathaway, Travis Lee Boerema
Major emphasis on the use of lightweight components in engines has lead to widespread use of polymer intake manifolds. The pulsed flow through these manifolds combined with the lower elastic modulus materials can result in excessive noise under certain speed load conditions. Using full-field optical techniques allowed for the detection and analysis of the resonance behavior in polymer intake manifolds. The test procedures involved techniques including time-averaged holography, with variable excitation sources to identify resonating regions and associated critical frequencies. The results clearly indicate the development of an efficient test methodology to analyze manifold designs for resonance and structural characteristics
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1565
Jerome K. Hastings, Joseph C. Zuercher, Engelbert Hetzmannseder
Experimental data and analysis show the relationship between arcing watts, the time of the arc exposure and the degree to which common polymers experience damage. Arcing test apparatus for 125V DC and 48 volt DC are shown. Arc gap control allows 125-volts to mimic arcs in lower voltage systems. Arcing current waveforms depict the chaotic behavior of arcs and differences due to anode / cathode materials. Levels of degradation are defined and used for “Constant Damage Contours” for Vinyl, Carpeting and Sound insulation. The polymers were exposed to conditions of constant arcing watts for increasing times. Connecting the points of “first flame” establishes a “contour of constant damage”. The data indicates that a “3 second flame free” limit is between 50 and 100 watts. 4000 watts of arcing takes 1/4 to ½ second to cause burning. The influence of circuit resistance on the maximum arc power transfer is presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1440
Tsuyoshi Iwasa, Atsushi Funaki, Eiichi Nishi, Evan Laganis, Noriyuki Isobe, Tomoyuki Nishioka, Koji Nakamura
As the evaporative emission control of cars becomes severe year by year, lower fuel permeation comes to be required as fuel tube in order to clear the regulation. Although the multi-layer fuel tube that has ETFE as an inner layer and PA12 as an outer layer is used now, development of a fuel tube with lower fuel permeation and better adhesion durability is required. Considering these requirements, we introduced a functional group into ETFE, modified PA12, and successfully developed new two-layer fuel tube systems. The systems do not need any internal adhesive layer. The design of the systems is quite simple, and provides excellent fuel permeability, durability of adhesion and processability.
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