Criteria

Text:
Sector:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 9416
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2196
William P. Attard, Patrick Parsons
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark-initiated pre-chamber combustion system for an otherwise standard spark ignition engine found in current on-road vehicles. This next-generation pre-chamber design simply replaces the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, widely distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly. This high energy ignition system results from the partially combusted (reacting) prechamber products initiating main chamber combustion. The fast burn rates allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn and/or EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion, with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (HCCI) without the complex control drawbacks.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2198
Vittorio Manente, Claes-Goeran Zander, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestal, William Cannella
A Scania 13 1 engine modified for single cylinder operations was run using nine fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline, but very different octane number, together with PRF20 and MK1-diesel. The eleven fuels were tested in a load sweep between 5 and 26 bar gross IMEP at 1250 rpm and also at idle (2.5 bar IMEP, 600 rpm). The boost level was proportional to the load while the inlet temperature was held constant at 303 K. For each fuel the load sweep was terminated if the ignitibility limit was reached. A lower load limit of 15 and 10 bar gross IMEP was found with fuels having an octane number range of 93-100 and 80-89 respectively, while fuels with an octane number below 70 were able to run through the whole load range including idle. A careful selection of boost pressure and EGR in the previously specified load range allowed achieving a gross indicated efficiency between 52 and 55% while NOx ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 g/kWh.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2199
Leslie Bromberg, Daniel Cohn
Non-petroleum based liquid fuels are essential for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas generation. Increased substitution of alcohol fuel for petroleum based fuels could be achieved by 1) use in high efficiency spark ignition engines that are employed for heavy duty as well as light duty operation and 2) use of methanol as well as ethanol. Methanol is the liquid fuel that is most efficiently produced from thermo-chemical gasification of coal, natural gas, waste or biomass. Ethanol can also be produced by this process but at lower efficiency and higher cost. Coal derived methanol is in limited initial use as a transportation fuel in China. Methanol could potentially be produced from natural gas at an economically competitive fuel costs, and with essentially the same greenhouse gas impact as gasoline. Waste derived methanol could also be an affordable low carbon fuel.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2202
Umut Uysal, Ozgen Akalin
A timing drive model was developed based on computer-aided simulation methods and used to calculate the contribution of each system component to the overall timing drive friction loss at various engine operating conditions. Combining the analytical results and statistical methods, an optimization study was performed to calculate the ideal system design parameters such as hydraulic tensioner spring force and flow rate, sprocket tooth profiles and circularity, and oil supply pressure. The simulation results revealed that while the plastic guide - timing chain friction is responsible for the most part of the frictional losses, the contribution of timing chain friction increases with increasing speed. It was found that the tensioner guide is the key element in the guiding system that causes friction losses. Furthermore, tensioner spring force and engine oil pressure were identified as major design parameters that influence the efficiency of the timing drive.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2205
Thomas Edward Briggs, Robert Wagner, K. Dean Edwards, Scott Curran, Eric Nafziger
In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 45%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2206
Scott Curran, Vitaly Prikhodko, Kukwon Cho, C. Scott Sluder, James Parks, Robert Wagner, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline with diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 5.5 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2209
K. Dean Edwards, Robert Wagner, Thomas Briggs
Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2094
John Williams, Nozomi Yokoo, Koichi Nakata, Rana Ali, Walter Bunting, Kenichi Ishiwa
Toyota and BP have performed a collaborative study to understand the impact of fuel composition on the combustion and emissions of a prototype 1.8L lean boosted engine. The fuel matrix was designed to understand better the impact of a range of fuel properties on fundamental combustion characteristics including thermal efficiency, combustion duration, exhaust emissions and extension of lean limit. Most of the fuels in the test matrix were in the RON range of 96 - 102, although ethanol and other high octane components were used in some fuels to increase RON to the range 104 - 108. The oxygen content ranged from 2 - 28%, and constituents included biocomponents, combustion improving additives and novel blend components. Performance and emissions tests were conducted over a range of engine operating conditions. Thermal efficiency was mapped at stoichiometric and lean conditions, and the limit of lean combustion was established for different fuels.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2086
Peter Grabner, Helmut Eichlseder, Gregor Eckhard
This paper presents an analysis of the potential of E85 (a mixture of 85 % (bio)ethanol and 15 % gasoline) as a fuel for spark-ignition (SI) direct-injection internal combustion engines. This involves investigation of not only application to downsizing concepts with high specific power but also behavior relating to emissions and efficiency at both part and full load. Measurements while running on gasoline were used for comparison purposes. The first stage involved analysis using 1D simulation of two different downsizing concepts with regard to turbocharging potential and performance. Following this, various influential parameters such as injector position, injection pressure, compression ratio, degree of turbocharging etc. were investigated on a single cylinder research engine. In the case of high pressure direct injection, particulate emissions also play an important role, so particulate count and particulate size distribution were also studied in detail.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2087
Adrien Halle, Alexandre Pagot
The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2154
Alberto Boretti
Current flexi fuel gasoline and ethanol engines have brake efficiencies generally lower than a dedicated gasoline engines because of the constraints to accommodate a variable mixture of the two fuels. Considering ethanol has a few advantages with reference to gasoline, namely the higher octane number and the larger heat of vaporization, the paper explores the potentials of dedicated pure ethanol engines using the most advanced techniques available for gasoline engines, specifically direct injection, turbo charging and variable valve actuation. Computations are performed with state-of-the-art, well validated, engine and vehicle performance simulations packages, generally accepted to produce accurate results targeting major trends in engine developments. The higher compression ratio and the higher boost permitted by ethanol allows larger top brake efficiencies than gasoline, while variable valve actuation produces small penalties in efficiency changing the load.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2155
Stefan de Goede, Tiaan Rabe, Riaan Bekker, Sibusiso Mtongana, John Edwards
Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine technology is becoming increasingly common in the South African and global vehicle parcs. South Africa is in a unique position because a significant portion of all liquid fuels consumed are synthetically produced from coal and gas. These fuels are mainly supplied into the inland regions, particularly the Gauteng province, the economic heartland of South Africa and the most densely populated area in the country. It is important to understand the performance of synthetic fuels in the latest generation engines, in order to ensure that these fuels are fit for use in these new applications. The latest generation DISI gasoline engines (also known as Gasoline Direct Injection™ and Fuel Stratified Injection™) differ significantly in operation to older Port-Fuel-Injected (PFI) engines.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2152
Heechang Oh, Choongsik Bae, Kyoungdoug Min
An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of ethanol blending on to gasoline spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine under lean stratified operation. The spray characteristics, including local homogeneity and phase distribution, were investigated by the planar laser-induced fluorescence and the planar Mie scattering method in a constant volume chamber. Therefore, the single cylinder engine was operated with pure gasoline, 85 %vol, 50 %vol and 25vol % ethanol blended with gasoline (E85, E50, E25) to investigate the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics. Ethanol was identified to have the potential of generating a more appropriate spray for internal combustion due to a higher vapor pressure at high temperature conditions. The planar laser-induced fluorescence image demonstrated that ethanol spray has a faster diffusion velocity and an enhanced local homogeneity.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2153
Mayank Mittal, David L.S. Hung, Guoming Zhu, Harold Schock
An experimental study is performed to investigate the fuel impingement on cylinder walls and piston top inside a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with optical access to the cylinder. Three different fuels, namely, E85, E50 and gasoline are used in this work. E85 represents a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline by volume. Experiments are performed at different load conditions with the engine speeds of 1500 and 2000 rpm. Two types of fuel injectors are used; (i) High-pressure production injector with fuel pressures of 5 and 10 MPa, and (ii) Low-pressure production-intent injector with fuel pressure of 3 MPa. In addition, the effects of split injection are also presented and compared with the similar cases of single injection by maintaining the same amount of fuel for the stoichiometric condition. Novel image processing algorithms are developed to analyze the fuel impingement quantitatively on cylinder walls and piston top inside the engine cylinder.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2151
Atsushi Matsumoto, Yi Zheng, Xing-Bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Wayne Moore
Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2134
Xin Yue, Xiaofeng Bao, Xianjiang Huang, Jiming Hao, Ye Wu, Tingting Yue, Yao Ma, Mingyu Wang
Gasoline detergency is related to deposits at various parts of the engine and therefore has impact on vehicle driveability and emission properties. The widely used engine tests such as CEC F-20 M111 and ASTM D6201 Ford 2.3L tests take tens of hours and thus are very expensive and time consuming to carry out. A new simulation test for gasoline detergency on intake valve cleanliness using lean-oxygen gum method was developed and the correlation of test results with M111 engine test was studied. Gasoline samples with different detergency levels were tested with both the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test. Test results of 24 gasoline samples show satisfactory correlation between the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test (R₂=0.7258).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2132
Thummarat Thummadetsak, Chonchada Tipdecho, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Pakasit Monnum
To promote utilization of renewable fuels in transportation sector, the Thai government has actively sought to obtain higher-ratio ethanol blends in gasoline as early as 2007, at which time E85 was introduced and fuel specifications were determined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate E85 fuel performance in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) with considerations for tailpipe emissions, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde emissions, evaporative emission and vehicle performance. These findings will aid future research in ethanol blends. All tests were conducted utilizing three Volvo S40 FFVs and four specific ethanol blend fuels: E10, E20, E50 and E85 (E-Fuels, collectively). Tailpipe emission tests were conducted in full compliance with Thailand Industrial Standard Institute; TIS 2160 - 2546 (Euro 3 legislation).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2121
Senthil Kumar Masimalai
Methyl esters were prepared from the mixture of unrefined palm oil (URPO) and D-Limonene oil (DLO) and evaluated for their properties to be used as fuel in a diesel engine. DLO was blended with URPO in different proportions (such as 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) before transesterification to reduce viscosity of the URPO. 15% of DLO and 85% of URPO by mass was found as the optimum based on the optimum yield. Reaction influential factors, such as amount of alcohol, temperature for reaction, reaction time and amount of catalyst have been investigated for the methyl ester of 15% of DLO and 85% of URPO mixture (PODLO15). In the second phase of work, tests were conducted on a single cylinder, air cooled diesel to analyze the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the methyl ester of PODLO15. Engine tests results indicated reduced brake thermal efficiency with neat URPO as compared to neat diesel. Methyl ester of PODLO15 showed improvement in brake thermal efficiency.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2255
Sadami Yoshiyama
In order to detect the combustion quality in a production SI engine, the ion sensor of gasket type was used. The relationship between the ion current and the rate of heat release has been discussed. Under varying equivalence ratio, intake pressure and engine speeds, the averaged start and peak timings of the ion current for 8 electrodes correspond to timings of 50% MFB and 90% MFB respectively, are also discussed. The waveforms accumulated for all signals of the 8 electrodes are discussed as being analogues to the waveform of a ring ion sensor. Coincidentally, the cycle resolved ion current waveforms accumulated from the 8 electrodes is seen to vary with the rate of heat release. The ion current fraction accumulated (ICFA), has been defined using the summation waveforms of ion current from a gasket ion sensor. It was found that the timing of 5% ICFA corresponds with that of 50% MFB and the timing of 50% ICFA corresponds with that of 90% MFB.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2265
Mario Marzano, Patrizio Nuccio
As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2264
Bogdan Radu, Dinu Fuiorescu
This paper study the case of a heavy-duty spark ignition engine fueled with LPG, for which it was demonstrated that the thermal effect of the pre-knock reactions in the end-gas occur in the presence of alkenes, one of the commercial LPG main component. In this sense, the engine was operated at full load, with different spark advances generating different levels of knock, which was characterized in terms of angle and intensity. It was developed a classical two zone thermodynamic combustion model for predicting the end-gas pressure and temperature levels, which are cycle-by-cycle variables. It was made the comparison between the cycles with knock and without and it was find that in the knocking cycles case the end-gas temperature is higher, this situation being attributed to the presence of alkenes in the fuel composition.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0595
Qianwang Fan, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng, Liguang Li, Yi You, Jingyan Hu
This paper presents the simulation of in-cylinder stratified mixture formation, spray motion, combustion and emissions in a four-stroke and four valves direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine with a pent-roof combustion chamber by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The Extended Coherent Flame Combustion Model (ECFM), implemented in the AVL-Fire codes, was employed. The key parameters of spray characteristics related to computing settings, such as skew angle, cone angle and flow per pulse width with experimental measurements were compared. The numerical analysis is mainly focused on how the tumble flow ratio and geometry of piston bowls affect the motion of charge/spray in-cylinder, the formation of stratified mixture and the combustion and emissions (NO and CO₂) for the wall-guided stratified-charge spark-ignition DISI engine.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0591
Philipp Adomeit, Rolf Weinowski, Jens Ewald, Andre Brunn, Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic, Stefan Pischinger, Markus Jakob
Advanced technologies such as direct injection DI, turbocharging and variable valve timing, have lead to a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on driving pleasure, fuel consumption and emissions. Today's developments are primarily focused on the implementation of improved full load characteristics for driving performance and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbocharging and high specific power. The requirements of a relatively small cylinder displacement with high specific power and a wide flexibility of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and additionally to a high number of degrees of freedom during optimization. In order to successfully approach an optimum solution, FEV has evolved an advanced development methodology, which is based on the combination of simulation, optical diagnostics and engine thermodynamics testing.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0593
Ben Twiney, Richard Stone, Xiangdong Chen, Gavin Edmunds
In the catalyst heating operation for a spray guided DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engine, split injection has been shown to improve combustion stability which is critical for the trade-off between tailpipe emissions and vehicle idle NVH [ 1 ]. The spray guided DISI engine has a multi-hole injector centrally located in the chamber with the spark plug. For catalyst heating operation, the first injection occurs during induction, which forms a relatively well mixed but lean mixture in the cylinder before ignition, and the second injection occurs close to a retarded ignition, which produces a stratified fuel rich mixture in the central region of the combustion chamber. Combustion initialization is found to be sensitive to spark plug protrusion and orientation, injector orientation and 2 nd injection timing relative to ignition [ 1 ].
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0598
Walter F. Piock, Peter Weyand, Edgard Wolf, Volker Heise
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0600
Christophe Pfister, Soeren Bernhardt, Ulrich Spicher
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection demonstrates great potential to reduce both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, conventional materials used in high-pressure pumps wear severely under fuel injection pressures above 20 MPa as the lubricity and viscosity of gasoline are very low. The use of ceramic components promises to overcome these difficulties and to exploit the full benefits of spray-guided GDI-engines. As part of the Collaborative Research Centre “High performance sliding and friction systems based on advanced ceramics” at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a single-piston high-pressure gasoline pump operating at up to 50 MPa has been designed. It consists of 2 fuel-lubricated sliding systems (piston/cylinder and cam/sliding shoe) that are built with ceramic parts. The pump is equipped with force, pressure and temperature sensors in order to assess the behaviour of several material pairs.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0596
Diana Martin, Jochen Stratmann, Philipp Pischke, Reinhold Kneer, Ming-Chia Lai
In present GDI engines, multiple injection strategies are often employed for engine cold start mixture formation. In the future, these strategies may also be used to control the combustion process, and to prevent misfiring or high emission levels. While the processes occurring during individual injections of GDI injectors have been investigated by a number of researchers, this paper concentrates on the interactions of multiple injection events. Even though multiple injection strategies are already applied in most GDI engines, the impact of the first injection event on the second injection event has not been analyzed in detail yet. Different optical measurement techniques are used in order to investigate the interaction of the two closely timed injection events, as well as the effect of dwell time and the in-cylinder conditions. The injector investigated is a GDI piezo injector with an outwardly opening needle.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0597
Yunlong Bai, Zhi Wang, Jianxin Wang
Knocking is the main obstacle of increasing compression ratio to improve the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. In this paper, the concept of stratified stoichiometric mixture (SSM) was proposed to suppress knocking in gasoline engines. The rich mixture near the spark plug increases the speed of the flame propagation and the lean mixture in the end gas suppresses the auto ignition. The overall air/fuel ratio keeps stoichiometric to solve the emission problem using three way catalysts (TWC). Moreover, both the rich zone and lean zone lead to soot free combustion due to homogeneous mixture. The effect on the knocking of homogeneous and stratified mixture was studied in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine using numerical simulation and experimental investigation respectively.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0601
Atsushi Matsumoto, Wayne R. Moore, Ming-Chia Lai, Yi Zheng, Matthew Foster, Xing-Bin Xie, David Yen, Keith Confer, Eunjoo Hopkins
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0586
Avoki Michel Omekanda, Todd Geib, Dan Buehler, Kirk Wan, Lucille G. Lavan
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) system is a relatively new technology. In early implementations, its major components, i.e. high pressure fuel pump, injectors, and fuel rails, emit objectionable acoustic noise during normal operation. This paper will focus on making an objective comparison (assessment) of acoustic noise emitted by several cam-driven high pressure fuel pumps during their normal operation, especially at engine idle. Taguchi robust engineering methods will be used to conduct the robust assessment study of six GDi high-pressure pumps. A-weighted total sound pressure level (SPL), processed from two free-field microphones around each pump, will be used as the main function in the Taguchi design of experiments (DOE).
Viewing 1 to 30 of 9416

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: