Criteria

Text:
Sector:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 1611
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0272
David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau, Roger Burnett
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0276
Si-Woo Kim, So-Jung shim, Myung-Won Suh
A large study of rear-end collisions was conducted for the neck injury indicators and test procedures. Neck injury in low-speed rear-end collisions is a big issue because there are a lot of patients despite low-speed rear-end collisions. Europe, Korea and Japan introduced the specific part in the New Car Assessment Program to reduce whiplash injury in low-speed rear-end collisions. From the legal point of view, to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries caused by rearward displacement of the head in rear-end collision, USA, EC, Korea, Japan and others internationally cooperated to make the global technical regulation (GTR) in UNECE/WP29. In 2008, after much meandering, GTR No. 7 head restraints were established. However the GTR No.7 is not a unique regulation because many countries had their own opinions and domestic regulations, and many questions related to injury criteria and biomechanical issues of dummy remain unresolved.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0014
Yuji Fujiyama, Daisuke Sonoyama, Kazuhiro Obayashi, Qiang Yu PhD
Evaluations of dummy injury readings obtained in regulatory crash tests and new car assessment program tests provide indices for the development of crash safety performance in the process of developing new vehicles. Based on these indices, vehicle body structures and occupant restraint systems are designed to meet the required occupant injury criteria. There are many types of regulatory tests and new car assessment program tests that are conducted to evaluate vehicle safety performance in side impacts. Factoring all of the multiple test configurations into the development of new vehicles requires advanced design capabilities based on a good understanding of the mechanisms producing dummy injury readings. In recent years, advances in computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and computer processing power have made it possible to run simulations of occupant restraint systems such as side airbags and seatbelts.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0018
Xuru Ding, Yi-Pen Cheng, Wenyu Lian, Fuchun Zhu, Zaifei Zhou
Accurate prediction of the responses from the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in vehicle crash tests is critical to achieving better vehicle occupant performances. In recent years, automakers have used finite element (FE) models of the ATDs in computer simulations to obtain early assessments of occupant safety, and to aid in the development of occupant restraint systems. However, vehicle crash test results have variation, sometimes significant. This presents a challenge to assessing the accuracy of the ATD FE models, let alone improving them. To resolve this issue, it is important to understand the test variation and carefully select the target data for model improvement. This paper presents the work carried out by General Motors and Humanetics Innovative Solutions (formerly FTSS) in a joint project, aimed at improving the FE model of the Hybrid III-50 ATD (HIII-50) v5.1.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0070
Stuart J. Brown
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0541
Mahmoud Yousef Ghannam, Todd Clark, Yeruva Reddy, Jinkoo Lee
This work presents a study of crash energy and severity in frontal offset Vehicle-To-Vehicle (VTV) crash tests. The crash energy is analyzed based on analytical formulations and empirical data. Also, the crash severity of different VTV tests is analyzed and compared with the corresponding full frontal rigid barrier test data. In this investigation, the Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) concept is used to calculate the initial impact velocity of frontal offset VTV test modes such that the offset VTV tests are equivalent to full frontal impact tests in terms of crash severity. Linear spring-mass model and collinear impact assumptions are used to develop the mathematical formulation. A scale factor is introduced to account for these assumptions and the calculated initial velocity is adjusted by this scale factor. It is demonstrated that the energies due to lateral and rotational velocity components are very small in the analyzed frontal VTV tests.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0188
Christoph Knotz, Bernd Mlekusch
Many safety regulations in the automotive engineering use impactor testing (e.g. FMVSS201 in the US; Pedestrian Protection, ECE-R21, proposal for EEVC WG13 in Europe) in the certification process. Through the increasing demand for very short development times virtual engineering has become an inevitable tool. We show a complete virtual development process for the Free-Motion-Headform (FMH) regulation (FMVSS201u), where we use a combination of self-developed and standard software. The process starts with the definition of the target-points, the possible and allowed positioning of the FMH, the detection of worst case angles, the automated generation of section cuts, the Finite-Elements (FE) analysis and the web based documentation of the results. Our self-developed tools play an important role in the FMH-positioning/worst case detection area as well as in the result analysis and documentation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0183
Y. Wang, P. K. Mallick
This paper describes the results of dynamic denting experiments conducted on AA5754 and AA6061 alloys. Dynamic denting tests were performed using a drop weight impact machine. The drop height was varied from 38 mm to 914 mm to generate impact velocities ranging from 53.4 m/min to 254 m/min. The dent depth created at different drop heights was related to the input impact energy and peak load observed in the tests. The effects of sheet thickness and yield strength were explored.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0336
Naoki Kaneko, Masayuki Wakamatsu, Masanobu Fukushima, Shigeru Ogawa
Development of anti-whiplash technology is one of the hottest issues in the automotive safety field because of the frequent occurrence of rear impact accidents. We analyzed the whiplash mechanism and conducted a study to seek the optimized seat characteristics with BioRID II and MADYMO simulations. A parameter study was made to construct a conceptual theory to decrease NIC, Neck Injury Criteria, with the MADYMO model. As a result of the study, head restraint position and seatback stiffness were found to affect dummy movement and injury values. Applying the NIC mechanism and the influential parameters to the MADYMO model, the optimized seat characteristics for whiplash prevention were obtained.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0348
Chen Xiaodong, Lin Haiyan, Ge Ruhai, You Guozhong, Luo Yan, Shi Guangkui, Zhu Xichan
Now, crash simulation has brought remarkable advances using the finite element method for evaluating vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection. In accordance with the first full-scale side impact test in China, the finite element model of CHERY side crash simulation including CHERY car, Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB), and EuroSID-I dummy is modeled using nonlinear finite element analysis program visual proving ground (VPG) of engineer technology associate (ETA), inc. The results of simulation show excellent correlation with the test data, which provides the confidence of the simulation prediction. Finally, mend application for vehicle side crashworthiness is evaluated using the side impact model.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0350
Suzanne Tylko, Dainius Dalmotas
The responses of a 5th percentile female ATD in the driver and/or rear passenger positions of 56 crashes are described. The Transport Canada side impact programme consisted of LTV-to-car impacts, car-to-car impacts and IIHS barrier-to-car tests. The majority of the tests involved severe crash conditions for which the vehicles were not designed. The SID-IIs head, chest and abdominal responses were compared to determine the effects of the striking bullet geometry, the angle of impact, the impact point and the self-protective elements of the struck vehicle, including airbag technology and armrest designs. The SID-IIs head responses and deflection measures were sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the various striking vehicles, crash configurations, airbag systems and armrest characteristics.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1483
Michael Keranen, Kumar Kulkarni, Jeff Stasevich, Ravi Thyagarajan
Interior compartment doors are required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201, to stay closed during physical head impact testing, and when subjected to specific inertia loads. This paper defines interior compartment doors, and shows examples of several different latches designed to keep these doors closed. It also explores the details of the requirements that interior compartment doors and their latches must meet, including differing requirements from automobile manufacturers. It then shows the conventional static method a supplier uses to analyze a latch and door system. And, since static calculations can't always capture the complexities of a dynamic event, this paper also presents a case study of one particular latch and door system showing a way to simulate the forces experienced by a latch. The dynamic simulation is done using Finite Element Analysis and instrumentation of actual hardware in physical tests.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0837
Zhiqing Cheng, Annette L. Rizer, Joseph A. Pellettiere
The performance of inflatable toepan padding for mitigating lower limb injuries was investigated. A rigid multi-body model was used to describe the scenario of an occupant in an automobile frontal crash with toepan intrusion. The emphasis was placed on the lower limb responses during impact. The interaction between the lower limbs and the inflatable toepan padding was described by the contact between the feet and the load distribution plate of the padding. Computational simulations were performed to analyze the effects of the controlled motion of this plate on the lower limb impact responses.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0844
Raj S. Roychoudhury, James K. Conlee, Michael Best, David Schenck
Deployable or active knee bolsters are being introduced by many OEMs, primarily on the driver side, as an improvement to the fixed or passive knee bolsters. There are shortcomings with the fixed knee bolster and many of them can be overcome with a deployable knee bolster. Also the deployable knee bolster has a few other advantages that make it a critical restraint system component for reducing the occupant injury numbers in frontal impact crashes. With the latest revision of FMVSS208, vehicle manufacturers must now demonstrate occupant performance for a wide range of test conditions. OEMs are now required to evaluate the 5th percentile female and the 50th percentile male in both belted and unbelted scenarios. A wide range of crash conditions must also be evaluated, including rigid barriers, angled impacts and offset deformable barriers.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0843
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert, Michael E. Carlson
This paper describes the design and development of a family of surrogate child restraints that are intended for use in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. Detailed measurements were made of the geometry and mass distribution characteristics of 34 commercial child restraints, including infant restraints, convertibles, combination restraints, and boosters. The restraints were installed in three test seats with appropriately sized crash dummies to obtain data on seat-surface pressure patterns and the position and orientation of the restraint with belt loading. The data were used to construct two surrogates with removable components. The convertible surrogate can be used to represent a rear-facing infant restraint with or without a base, a rear-facing convertible, or a forward-facing convertible. The booster surrogate can represent a high-back belt-positioning booster, a backless booster, or a forward-facing-only restraint with a five-point harness.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0854
Daniel Davee, William Van Arsdell, Christine Raasch
Detailed investigations continually demonstrate that vehicle collision environments are extremely unlikely to produce accelerations of sufficient magnitude and duration to cause inertial release of seat belt buckles. Recently, it has been proposed that the dynamic response of an end-release buckle mounted to the vehicle structure via a metal strap or wire rope can amplify acceleration levels experienced at the floor of the vehicle by a factor of 10 or more, to levels that are high enough to cause inertial release. Experiments and modeling presented here confirm that accelerations may be amplified from the floor of the vehicle to the seat belt buckle, but not by more than a factor of 1.3, and only for acceleration pulse durations that are very short. Shock table testing of end-release seat belt buckles shows that, even with amplification, the resulting buckle accelerations are far below those required to cause inertial release, even at very low webbing tension.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1255
Huibert Mees, Celyn Evans, Simon Iregbu, Tim Keer
The Ford GT is a high performance sports car designed to compete with the best that the global automotive industry has to offer. A critical enabler for the performance that a vehicle in this class must achieve is the stiffness and response of the frame structure to the numerous load inputs from the suspension, powertrain and occupants. The process of designing the Ford GT spaceframe started with a number of constraints and performance targets derived through vehicle dynamics CAE modeling, crash performance requirements, competitive benchmarking and the requirement to maintain the unique styling of the GT40 concept car. To achieve these goals, an aluminum spaceframe was designed incorporating 35 different extrusion cross-sections, 5 complex castings, 4 smaller node castings and numerous aluminum stampings.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1193
Herbert M. Guzman, Whitman E. McConnell, Darrin A. Smith
The vehicle dynamics of non-collinear, low-velocity front-to- rear collisions have received little formal study. The twenty-three angled collisions conducted for this project revealed significant vehicle dynamic differences when compared with similar-energy collinear rear-end collisions. Two recent model year vehicles were used to conduct non-collinear collisions at a nominal 12 km/h impact velocity. The pre-collision angles between the test vehicles were established so that the striking vehicle's line of action through its CG was either 15 or 30 degrees from the stationary struck vehicle's initial heading. Both vehicles had accelerometers at their CG's measuring longitudinal and lateral accelerations. The struck vehicle also had sensors to measure CG vertical accelerations, yaw rates, and longitudinal and lateral velocities. Film from three high-speed 16-mm [film] cameras was digitized and analyzed for each collision. The ΔV at various points within the struck vehicle was studied.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1195
Thomas F. Fugger, Bryan C. Randles, Jerry J. Eubanks
Recent models of General Motors (GM) and selected Ford vehicles may be equipped with an event data recorder (EDR) that records information in the airbag sensing and diagnostic module (GM-SDM) or restraint control module (Ford-RCM). These systems have become a resource to the accident reconstructionist in the analysis of collisions involving data recorder equipped vehicles, as typically the data can be downloaded via the Vetronix Crash Data Retrieval (CDR) System. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of the CDR System in pedestrian accidents. A series of impacts using a pedestrian dummy and SDM equipped vehicles were performed. After each test, the SDM was downloaded via the CDR system and the data evaluated. The dummy and vehicle kinematics were documented and the vehicle impact response was compared with the SDM recorded velocity change and impact speed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1319
Joseph M. Nolan, Matthew Brumbelow, David S. Zuby, Matthew Avery
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1282
B. Wördenweber, H. Schäfer
The European Commission has set itself the ambitious target of cutting the figure of killed road users by half until the year 2010. In order to reach this goal it is absolutely necessary to check all possibilities and bring to bear measures with beneficial potential. Pedestrian protection is one such key point. With a voluntary agreement the European auto makers intend to comply with component safety tests similar to an EEVC proposal for the year 2005 and on. Beginning in 2010 the entire EEVC test procedure, or similar, will become obligatory. This paper lays down the requirements now arising for pedestrian protection and spells out the consequences for headlamp design.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0688
Ryan Craig, Yijung Chen, Tau Tyan, Jeff Laya, James Cheng
For a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle, the frame is the major structural subsystem to absorb the impact energy in a frontal vehicle impact. It is also a major contributor to energy absorption in rear impact events as well. Thus, the accuracy of the finite element frame model has significant influence on the quality of the BOF vehicle impact predictability. This study presents the latest development of the frame modeling methodology on the simulation of BOF vehicle impact performance. The development is divided into subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). This paper presents the first phase, subsystem testing and modeling, of the frame modeling development. Based on the major deformation modes in frontal impact, the frame is cut into several sections and put on the sled to conduct various tests. The success of the sled test highly depends on whether the sled results can replicate the deformation modes in the full vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0814
Y. J. Chao, Kangping Wang, Yih-Charng Deng
Inertia force during dynamic testing exists in any testing system. A generic system is analyzed using the principle of rigid body dynamics. It is shown that the load recorded by a load cell includes both the load experienced by the test specimen and the inertia force from the mass between the specimen and the load cell, when the load cell is placed on the fixed side of the test specimen. An impact fixture designed for spot weld strength test was then studied as an example. Test data were collected and analyzed to show the effect of inertia on the impact strength of the spot weld.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1607
Mark Meissner, Lex van Rooij, Kavi Bhalla, Jeff Crandall, Douglas Longhitano, Yukou Takahashi, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yuji Kikuchi
This research investigates the variation of pedestrian stance in pedestrian-automobile impact using a validated multi-body vehicle and human model. Detailed vehicle models of a small family car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are developed and validated for impact with a 50th percentile human male anthropometric ellipsoid model, and different pedestrian stances (struck limb forward, feet together, and struck limb backward) are investigated. The models calculate the physical trajectory of the multi-body models including head and torso accelerations, as well as pelvic force loads. This study shows that lower limb orientation during a pedestrian-automobile impact plays a dominant role in upper body kinematics of the pedestrian. Specifically, stance has a substantial effect on the subsequent impacts of the head and thorax with the vehicle. The variation in stance can change the severity of an injury incurred during an impact by changing the impact region.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1608
D. Bose, K. Bhalla, L. Rooij, S. Millington, A. Studley, J. Crandall
Isolated knee joints from Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) were tested in dynamic lateral-medial valgus loading that replicated a vehicle-pedestrian impact at 40 km/h. Eight specimens were tested in 4-point bending (pure bending) and eight specimens were tested in 3-point bending in configurations chosen to apply varying proportions of moment and shear at the knee joint. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) was the only major load bearing knee structure that was injured in the experiments. Applied loads (bending moment and shear force) and knee response (bending angle and shear displacement) are reported in order to provide information for determination of injury thresholds and for the validation of computational models and mechanical legform impactors.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1609
Atsuhiro Konosu, Masaaki Tanahashi
A biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor, called Flex-PLI, was developed by the Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc. (JAMA) and the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Its latest version is called Flex-PLI 2003. The Flex-PLI 2003 responses have been validated at the component level (thigh, leg, and knee independently) but not at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex). Furthermore, there was no FE Flex-PLI model. This research developed a FE Flex-PLI 2003R model (Flex-PLI 2003R means that the thigh and leg mass of Flex-PLI 2003 is adjusted to AM 50). The FE Flex-PLI 2003R model biofidelity has been evaluated at both the component level and the assembly level, where it demonstrated high biofidelity.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1610
Stephen Shuler, Frank Mooijman, Alok Nanda
This paper describes a bumper system designed to meet the current FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard) and ECE42 legislation as well as the European Enhanced Vehicle Safety Committee (EEVC) requirements for lower leg pedestrian impact protection [1] (The EEVC was founded in 1970 in response to the US Department of Transportation's initiative for an international program on Experimental Safety Vehicles. The EEVC steering committee, consisting of representatives from several European Nations, initiates research work in a number of automotive working areas. These research tasks are carried out by a number of specialist Working Groups who operate for over a period of several years giving advice to the Steering Committee who then, in collaboration with other governmental bodies, recommends future courses of action designed to lead to improved safety in vehicles).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1613
Ramiro Tarazona, Luis Castejon
An innovative concept of energy absorption system for vehicles is shown in this article. In this system, vehicle parts not directly affected by the impact are capable of absorbing energy. The numerical simulations based on the Finite Element Method, showed the advantages given by the system developed for its use in intercity buses. Full Frontal Crash tests showed empirically that the application of the system developed implies a smaller deformation of the vehicle, thus increasing the safety of passengers.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1615
H. Fred Chen, C. Brian Tanner, Nicholas J. Durisek, Dennis A. Guenther
Accident reconstructionists use several different approaches to determine vehicle equivalent impact speed from damage due to narrow object impacts. One method that is used relates maximum crush to equivalent impact speed with a bilinear curve. In the past, this model has been applied to several passenger cars with unibody construction. In this paper, the approach is applied to a body-on-frame vehicle. Several vehicle-to-rigid pole impact tests have been conducted on a full-size pickup at different speeds and impact locations: centrally located across the vehicle's front and outside the frame rail. A bilinear model relating vehicle equivalent impact speed to maximum crush is developed for the impact locations. These results are then compared to results obtained from other body-on-frame vehicles as well as unibody vehicles. Other tests such as impacts on the frame rail and barrier impacts are also presented. Limitations to this bilinear approach are discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1624
Yan Fu, Eung Lee, Stephen Kang
Computer modeling has played important roles and gained great momentum in product development as numerical methods, computer software and hardware technologies advance rapidly. Computer models (e.g. MADYMO) that simulate vehicle interior, restraint system and occupants in various crash modes have been widely used to improve occupant safety. However, to build good occupant models, engineers often have to spend tremendous time on model correlation. The challenge of model correlation for occupant safety is that it requires matching numerous injury curves with tests, for examples: head G, chest G, chest deflection, shoulder belt load, femur loads, neck load and moment. Traditionally, this model correlation task is done by a trial and error method. This paper attempts to solve the problem systematically by using a genetic algorithm. It demonstrates that the genetic algorithm is a valuable optimization tool to obtain a high quality MADYMO model.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1611

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: