Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
Technical Paper
Nigel Clark, David L. McKain, W Wayne, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Technical Paper
David L. Nussear, Mridul Gautam, Gao Hong-Guang, Nigel Clark, William E. Wallace
Results of a research effort directed towards identifying and measuring the genotoxic properties of respirable particulate matter involved in mining exposures, especially those which may synergistically affect genotoxic hazard, are presented. Particulate matter emissions from a direct injection diesel engine have been sampled and assayed to determine the genotoxic potential as a function of engine operating conditions. Diesel exhaust from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine, representative of the ones found in underground mines, rated 100 hp at 2200 rpm is diluted in a multi-tube mini-dilution tunnel and the particulate matter is collected on 70 mm fluorocarbon coated glass fiber filters as well as on 8″ x 10″ hi-volume filters. A six mode steady state duty cycle was used to relate engine operating conditions to the genotoxic potential.
Technical Paper
Mridul Gautam, Brian Kelly, Deepak Gupta, Nigel Clark, Richard Atkinson, Laila El-Gazzar, Donald W. Lyons
Techniques have been developed to sample and speciate dilute heavy duty diesel exhaust to determine the specific reactivities and the ozone forming potential. While the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) has conducted a comprehensive investigation to develop data on potential improvements in vehicle emissions and air quality from reformulated gasoline and various other alternative fuels. However, the development of sampling protocols and speciation of heavy duty diesel exhaust is still in its infancy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6]. This paper focuses on the first phase of the heavy duty diesel speciation program, that involves the development of a unique set of sampling protocols for the gas phase, semi-volatile and particulate matter from the exhaust of engines operating on different types of diesel fuel. Effects of sampling trains, sampling temperatures, semi-volatile adsorbents and driving cycles are being investigated.
Technical Paper
Wenguang Wang, Xiaobo Sun, Reda Bata, Mridul Gautam, Nigel Clark, G. Michael Palmer, Donald Lyons
The West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory was employed to conduct chassis dynamometer tests in the field to measure the exhaust emissions from heavy-duty buses and trucks. This laboratory began operation in the field in January, 1992. During the period January, 1992 through June, 1993, over 150 city buses, trucks, and tractors operated by 18 different authorities in 11 states were tested by the facility. The tested vehicles were powered by 14 different types of engines fueled with natural gas (CNG or LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), #2 diesel, and low sulfur diesel (#1 diesel or Jet A). Some of the tested vehicles were equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems. In this paper, a total of 12 CNG-fueled and #2 diesel-fueled transit buses equipped with Cummins L-10 engines, were chosen for investigation.
Technical Paper
Wenguang Wang, Mridul Gautam, Xiaobo Sun, Reda Bata, Nigel Clark, G. Michael Palmer, Donald Lyons
Gaseous and particulate emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are affected by fuel types, vehicle/engine parameters, driving characteristics, and environmental conditions. Transient chassis tests were conducted on twenty-six heavy-duty vehicles fueled with methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), #1 diesel, and #2 diesel, using West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory. The vehicles were operated on the central business district (CBD) testing cycle, and regulated emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. Comparisons of regulated emissions results revealed that the vehicles powered on methanol and CNG produced much lower particulate emissions than the conventionally fueled vehicles.
Technical Paper
Nigel Clark, James E. Boyce, Wenwei Xie, Mridul Gautam, Donald W. Lyons, Keith Vertin, Chuck A. LeTavec, Timothy C. Coburn
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles may be reduced through the introduction of clean diesel formulations, and through the use of catalyzed particulate matter filters that can enjoy increased longevity and performance if ultra-low sulfur diesel is used. Twenty over-the-road tractors with Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines were selected for this study. Five trucks were operated on California (CA) specification diesel (CARB), five were operated on ARCO (now BP Amoco) EC diesel (ECD), five were operated on ARCO ECD with a Johnson-Matthey Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT) filter and five were operated on ARCO ECD with an Engelhard Diesel Particulate Filter (DPX). The truck emissions were characterized using a transportable chassis dynamometer, full-scale dilution tunnel, research grade gas analyzers and filters for particulate matter (PM) mass collection. Two test schedules, the 5 mile route and the city-suburban (heavy vehicle) route (CSR), were employed.
Technical Paper
Ralph D. Nine, Nigel Clark, Paul Norton
Chassis based emissions characterization of heavy-duty vehicles has advanced over the last decade, but the understanding of the effect of test schedule on measured emissions is still poor. However, this is an important issue because the test schedule should closely mimic actual vehicle operation or vocation. A wide variety of test schedules was reviewed and these cycles were classified as cycles or routes and as geometric or realistic. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT), a GMC box truck with a Caterpillar 3116 engine and a Peterbilt over the road tractor-trailer with a Caterpillar 3406 engine were exercised through a large number of cycles and routes. Test weight for the GMC was 9,980 kg and for the Peterbilt was 19,050 kg. Emissions characterization was performed using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, with a full-scale dilution tunnel, analyzers for gaseous emissions, and filters for PM emissions.
Technical Paper
Nigel Clark, Jacky C. Prucz, Mridul Gautam, Donald W. Lyons
Inventory approaches for truck and bus emissions rely heavily on certification data, and no comprehensive results have been published to date. Two transportable chassis dynamometer laboratories developed and operated by West Virginia University (WVU) have been used extensively to gather realistic emission data from heavy-duty vehicles tested in the field, in controlled, simulated driving conditions. By default, a comprehensive database has been assembled, that comprises a wide variety of vehicles, engines, fuels, and driving scenarios. A subset of these data is analyzed in this paper for an illustration of practical utilization of such information, either for inventory assessments, or for comparative and correlation studies. General guidelines for data screening and analysis approaches are provided, along with examples of specific results and discussions for a selected cross-section of samples.
Technical Paper
Nigel Clark, Mridul Gautam, W. Scott Wayne, Ralph D. Nine, Gregory J. Thompson, Donald W. Lyons, Hector Maldonado, Mark Carlock, Archana Agrawal
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) developed a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck (MHDT) schedule by selecting and joining microtrips from real-world MHDT. The MHDT consisted of three modes; namely, a Lower Speed Transient, a Higher Speed Transient, and a Cruise mode. The maximum speeds of these modes were 28.9, 58.2 and 66.0 mph, respectively. Each mode represented statistically selected truck behavior patterns in California. The MHDT is intended to be applied to emissions characterization of trucks (14,001 to 33,000lb gross vehicle weight) exercised on a chassis dynamometer. This paper presents the creation of the MHDT and an examination of repeatability of emissions data from MHDT driven through this schedule. Two trucks were procured to acquire data using the MHDT schedule. The first, a GMC truck with an 8.2-liter Isuzu engine and a standard transmission, was tested at laden weight (90% GVW, 17,550lb) and at unladen weight (50% GVW, 9,750lb).
Technical Paper
Mridul Gautam, Nigel Clark, Wesley Riddle, Ralph Nine, W. Scott Wayne, Hector Maldonado, Archana Agrawal, Mark Carlock
In characterizing the emissions from mobile sources, it is essential that the vehicle be exercised in a way that reasonably represents typical in-use behavior. A heavy-heavy duty diesel truck (HHDDT) test schedule was developed from speed-time data gathered during two Air Resources Board-sponsored truck activity programs. The data were divided into four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise Modes, in order of increasing speed. For the last three modes, speed-time schedules were created that represented all the data in that mode. Statistical parameters such as average speed, stops per unit distance, kinetic energy, maximum speed and acceleration and deceleration values were considered in arriving at these schedules. The schedules were evaluated using two Class 8 over-the-road tractors on a chassis dynamometer. Emissions were measured using a full-scale dilution tunnel, filtration for particulate matter (PM), and research grade analyzers for the gases.
Technical Paper
Mridul Gautam, Wesley C. Riddle, Gregory J. Thompson, Daniel K. Carder, Nigel Clark, Donald W. Lyons
Emissions tests for heavy -duty diesel-fueled engines and vehicles are normally performed using engine dynamometers and chassis dynamometers, respectively, with laboratory grade gaseous concentration measurement analyzers and supporting test equipment. However, a considerable effort has been recently expended on developing in-use, on-board tools to measure brake-specific emissions from heavy -duty vehicles with the highest degree of accuracy and precision. This alternative testing methodology would supplement the emissions data that is collected from engine and chassis dynamometer tests. The on-board emissions testing methodology entails actively recording emissions and vehicle operating parameters (engine speed and load, vehicle speed etc.) from vehicles while they are operating on the road. This paper focuses on in-use measurements of NOX with zirconium oxide sensors and other portable NOX detectors.
Technical Paper
Nigel Clark, Akunor Azu, Ronald Jarrett, Thomas Balon, Paul Moynihan, Sheila Lynch, Thomas Webb
Recent chassis testing of hybrid buses demonstrated the potential of hybrid technology to reduce emissions and raise fuel economy relative to conventional buses. However, hybrid buses represent a certification quandary because the engines must be certified using the accepted Federal Test Procedure (FTP), without regard for benefits that may arise from less transient engine operation. Actual engine operating data from series configuration hybrid buses were analyzed to determine the envelopes of torque and speeds covered by the engine. Transient engine operation was also considered in terms of rates of change of torque, power and speed. These measures did not compare closely with similar measures computed from the FTP because the series hybrid engines explored a more structured zone of operation than the FTP implied and because the FTP represented more transient operation.
Technical Paper
Baskaran Ganesan, Nigel Clark
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), using urea injection, is being examined as a method for substantial reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for diesel engines, but the urea injection rates must be controlled to match the NOx production which may need to be predicted during open loop control. Unfortunately NOx is usually measured in the laboratory using a full-scale dilution tunnel and chemiluminescent analyzer, which cause delay and diffusion (in time) of the true manifold NOx concentration. Similarly, delay and diffusion of measurements of all emissions cause the task of creating instantaneous emissions models for vehicle simulations more difficult. Data were obtained to relate injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a tunnel with analyzer measurements. The analyzer response was found to match a gamma distribution of the input pulse, so that the analyzer output could be modeled from the tunnel CO2 input.
Technical Paper
Ronald P. Jarrett, Nigel Clark
The historical lack of continuous data for PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines hampers advanced inventory approaches and hampers second-by-second engine control optimization. Continuos PM data can be obtained using a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), but moisture correction of data is needed to remove unwanted transient components of the mass. Reasonable correlation can be found between TEOM data integrated over the cycle and conventional PM filter data. Considerable scatter was evident when continuous TEOM data were plotted against instantaneous power, but by dispersing the power in time a clearer relationship was evident. Continuous TEOM data showed the same gross trends as PM filter mass distributed over a cycle in proportion to instantaneous CO, but it was evident that this CO proportioning technique is at best approximate. Binning of PM mass rate as a function of vehicle speed and acceleration were also evaluated for inventory purposes.
Technical Paper
Nigel Clark, Jason Conley, Ronald P. Jarrett, Anjali Nennelli, Csaba Tóth-Nagy
Today's computer-based vehicle operation simulators use engine speed, engine torque, and lookup tables to predict emissions during a driving simulation [1]. This approach is used primarily for light and medium-duty vehicles, with large discrepancies inherently due to the lack of transient engine emissions data and inaccurate emissions prediction methods [2]. West Virginia University (WVU) has developed an artificial neural network (ANN) based emissions model for incorporation into the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) software package developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Transient engine dynamometer tests were conducted to obtain training data for the ANN. The ANN was trained to predict carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions based on engine speed, torque, and their representative first and second derivatives over various time ranges.
Technical Paper
Kevin Chandler, Paul Norton, Nigel Clark
The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. This paper summarizes the design of the project and early results from the first two sites. Data collection is planned for operations, maintenance, truck system descriptions, emissions, duty cycle, safety incidents, and capital costs and operating costs associated with the use of alternative fuels in trucking.
Technical Paper
Bharadwaj Sathiamoorthy, Matthew C. Robinson, Evan Fedorko, Nigel Clark
Abstract Heavy duty tractor-trailers under freeway operations consume about 65% of the total engine shaft energy to overcome aerodynamic drag force. Vehicles are exposed to on-road crosswinds which cause change in pressure distribution with a relative wind speed and yaw angle. The objective of this study was to analyze the drag losses as a function of on-road wind conditions, on-road vehicle position and trajectory. Using coefficient of drag (CD) data available from a study conducted at NASA Ames, Geographical Information Systems model, time-varying weather data and road data, a generic model was built to identify the yaw angles and the relative magnitude of wind speed on a given route over a given time period. A region-based analysis was conducted for a study on interstate trucking operation by employing I-79 running through West Virginia as a case study by initiating a run starting at 12am, 03/03/2012 out to 12am, 03/05/2012.
Journal Article
Benjamin Rodriguez Sharpe, Nigel Clark, Dana Lowell
This paper reviews fuel-saving technologies for commercial trailers, provides an overview of the trailer market in the U.S., and explores options for policy measures at the federal level that can promote the development and deployment of trailers with improved efficiency. For trailer aerodynamics, there are many technologies that exist and are in development to target each of the three primary areas where drag occurs: 1) the tractor-trailer gap, 2) the side and underbody of the trailer, and 3) the rear end of the trailer. In addition, there are tire technologies and weight reduction opportunities for trailers, which can lead to reduced rolling resistance and inertial loss. As with the commercial vehicle sector, the trailer market is diverse, and there are a variety of sizes and configurations that are employed to meet a wide range of freight demands.
Viewing 1 to 18 of 18


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