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Viewing 1 to 11 of 11
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2440
Zhigang Wei
Numerous test data have been generated in many testing institutions over the years and the historical information from previous similar designs and operating conditions can shed light on the current and future designs since they would share some common features when the changes are not drastic. To effectively utilize the historical information for current and future designs, two steps are necessary: (1) finding an approach to consistently correlate the test data; (2) utilizing Bayesian statistics, which can provide a rigorous mathematical tool for extracting useful information from the historical data. In this paper, a procedure for test sample size reduction is proposed based on historical fatigue S-N test data and Bayesian statistics. First, the statistical information is extracted from a large amount of fatigue test data collected over the years.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2420
Zhigang Wei
Corrosion resistance is an extremely important technical issue for long-term durability and reliability performance of exhaust components and systems. Failure mechanisms, such as corrosion, fatigue, corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking, have long been recognized as the principal degradation and failure mechanisms of vehicle components and systems under combined mechanical and corrosive environmental conditions. The combination of fluid flow, introduced by components such as advanced injectors, and corrosive environment leads to corrosion-erosion failure mechanism. These failure mechanisms are strongly material, environment, and loading dependent. How to characterize, screen, rank and select the materials in corrosion resistance is a big challenge posed to materials scientists and engineers. In this paper, the common corrosion related failure mechanisms appearing in auto exhaust systems are reviewed first.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2379
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson, Bala Gurusamy
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2058
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Dmitri Konson
Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2759
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, Litang Gao, Fulun Yang
This study presents a probabilistic life (failure) and damage assessment approach for components under general fatigue loadings, including constant amplitude loading, step-stress loading, and variable amplitude loading. The approach consists of two parts: (1) an empirical probabilistic distribution obtained by fitting the fatigue failure data at various stress range levels, and (2) an inverse technique, which transforms the probabilistic life distribution to the probabilistic damage distribution at any applied cycle. With this approach, closed-form solutions of damage as function of the applied cycle can be obtained for constant amplitude loading. Under step-stress and variable amplitude loadings, the damage distribution at any cycle can be calculated based on the accumulative damage model in a cycle-by-cycle manner. For Gaussian-type random loading, a cycle-by-cycle equivalent, but a much simpler closed-form solution can be derived.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-1951
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns of a recently developed Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust (T.R.U.E-Clean®) for exhaust emission control. Like other ground vehicle systems, the T.R.U.E-Clean® system experiences cyclic loadings due to road vibrations leading to fatigue failure over time. Creep and oxidation cause damage at high temperature conditions which further shortens the life of the system and makes fatigue life assessment even more complex. Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly assess the durability/reliability of the system in the early development stage. However, reliable and validated simplified engineering methods with rigorous mathematical and physical bases are still urgently needed to accurately manage the margin of safety and decrease the cost, whereas iterative testing is expensive and time consuming.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2308
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Litang Gao
Road vibrations cause fatigue failures in vehicle components and systems. Therefore, reliable and accurate damage and life assessment is crucial to the durability and reliability performances of vehicles, especially at early design stages. However, durability and reliability assessment is difficult not only because of the unknown underlying damage mechanisms, such as crack initiation and crack growth, but also due to the large uncertainties introduced by many factors during operation. How to effectively and accurately assess the damage status and quantitatively measure the uncertainties in a damage evolution process is an important but still unsolved task in engineering probabilistic analysis. In this paper, a new procedure is developed to assess the durability and reliability performance, and characterize the uncertainties of damage evolution of components under constant amplitude loadings.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2307
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
This paper reviews the correlation concepts and tools available, with the emphasis on their historical origins, mathematical properties and applications. Two of the most commonly used statistical correlation indicators, i.e., modal assurance criterion (MAC) for structural deformation pattern identification/correlation and the coefficient of determination (R2) for data correlation are investigated. The mathematical structure of R2 is critically examined, and the physical meanings and their implications are discussed. Based on the insights gained from these analyses, a data scatter measure and a dependency measure are proposed. The applications of the measures for both linear and nonlinear data are also discussed. Finally, several worked examples in vehicle dynamics analysis and statistical data analyses are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of these concepts.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2305
Zhigang Wei, Yunfei Qu, Yanping Zhang, Fulun Yang, Matthew Yule, Kay Ellinghaus, Markus Pieszkalla, Figen Lacin
Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) resistance characterization and life assessment are extremely important in the durability/reliability design and validation of vehicle exhaust components/systems, which are subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loadings during operation. The current thermal-fatigue related design and validation for exhaust products are essentially based on testing and the interpretation of test results. However, thermal-fatigue testing are costly and time consuming, therefore, computer aided engineering (CAE) based virtual thermal-fatigue life assessment tools with predictive powers are strongly desired. Many thermal-fatigue methods have been developed and eventually implemented into the CAE tools; however, most of them are based on deterministic life assessment approach, which cannot provide satisfactory explanation for the observed uncertainties introduced in thermal-fatigue failure data.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2758
Zhigang Wei, Robert Rebandt, Michael Start, Litang Gao, Jason Hamilton, Limin Luo
In product design and development stage, validation assessment methods that can provide very high reliability and confidence levels are becoming highly demanded. High reliability and confidence can generally be achieved and demonstrated by conducting a large number of tests with the traditional approaches. However, budget constraints, test timing, and many other factors significantly limit test sample sizes. How to achieve high reliability and confidence levels with limited sample sizes is of significant importance in engineering applications. In this paper, such approaches are developed for two fundamental and widely used methods, i.e. the test-to-failure method and the Binomial test method. The concept of RxxCyy (e.g. R90C90 indicates 90% in reliability and 90% in confidence) is used as a criterion to measure the reliability and confidence in both the test-to-failure and the Binomial test methods.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2357
Zhigang Wei, Jason Hamilton, Fulun Yang, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, HongTae Kang, Pingsha Dong
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
Viewing 1 to 11 of 11