Viewing 1 to 30 of 366
Technical Paper
Rainer Neumann, Thorsten Warwel
Due to the general requirements in the automotive industry to reduce the power consumption, fuel consumption rate and CO2 emission a new HID (High Intensity Discharge) bulb with only 25W is under development for front lighting systems. A first headlamp integrated in a hybrid vehicle is now launched as a first application in the market. The current regulation in ECE allows to get rid of the mandatory headlamp cleaning system and the automatic leveling requirement once the 25W HID bulb is applied. The reason for this is the objective luminous flux of the 25W HID bulb, which emits less than 2000 lm, a boundary defined in the regulation, where a headlamp cleaning and an automatic leveling is requested. That simplifies especially the integration in smaller vehicles and electric and hybrid vehicles. The paper describes the special design of the headlamp, the projector unit, the light performance, packaging advantages and future outlook of further applications in the near future.
Technical Paper
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency.
Technical Paper
Josef Schug
Today, LED automotive exterior lighting is already widely used on high end and upper middle class vehicles. We see already first examples of application as the standard lighting solution even in the mid class segment. A compact design and the feasibility of car life sealed solution is a strong argument to use LEDs for CHMSLs. Long lifetime and new styling opportunities speak for LEDS in front or rear position lights as well as in daytime running lamps;. Mainstream penetration of LED lighting solutions will first happen for functions where the benefits of LEDs have the highest positive impact and where this value can be realized in the most cost-effective way. During the different phases of the introduction of LEDs different requirements dominate the decision process. Providing unique styling opportunity and showing advanced technical functionality is leading for the early adopters.
Technical Paper
Lawrence M. Rice
Light emitting diode (LED) modules (standardized light sources) for use in automotive illumination design will soon become available in production volumes. Designing products with these devices is not the same as working with conventional tungsten halogen or high intensity discharge (HID or Xenon) light sources. There are a number of LED module characteristics which must be kept in mind when designing lighting systems.
Technical Paper
John D. Bullough
Photometric performance specifications for vehicle headlamp specifications in North America are given in terms of luminous intensity values at various angular locations with the objective of providing sufficient illumination for forward visibility while controlling for glare toward oncoming and preceding vehicle drivers. Abundant evidence suggests that luminous intensity is an appropriate metric for characterizing the degree to which a headlamp can produce disability glare through veiling luminances under a wide range of viewing conditions. Notwithstanding that discomfort glare exhibits a differential spectral sensitivity from the photopic luminous efficiency function used to characterize light, luminous intensity does not always predict discomfort glare. For example, the luminance of the luminous element(s) can be more predictive of discomfort when headlamps are viewed from relative close distances.
Technical Paper
Daniel Le Messurier, John S. Orisich
Monte Carlo simulations are shown to be a useful tool when determining the flux output of LED arrays during the design phase. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are able to show the statistical distribution of output flux based on multi-LED arrays, thus allowing engineers to optimise their design, rather than using worst case scenario design principles.
Technical Paper
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
Technical Paper
Robert E. Llaneras, M. Lucas Neurauter, Charles Quinn, Charles Green
Research was conducted to assess driver acceptance and performance associated with a spotter mirror feature intended to reduce the incidence of lane-change conflicts by enhancing drivers' ability to detect vehicles in their side blind zone. The spotter mirror consisted of an integrated spherical convex blind zone mirror inset within a larger planar mirror. The spotter mirror's field-of-view was designed to target the vehicle's side blind zone area and to help drivers quickly detect the presence or absence of a vehicle in the blind zone. The study captured normative lane-change behavior during an extended drive on public roadways, with and without access to the spotter mirror system, for a sample of familiar and unfamiliar supplemental mirror users. In order to capture more naturalistic lane-change behavior, drivers were informed that the purpose of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of existing road signs for navigating to a destination.
Technical Paper
Aravindan V, Rejith Raj, Prashanth Moni, Gopisankar T, Vinamra Jain
The present invention relates to automobile headlamps, to be more precise static bending lamps. It is well experienced that driving at night times can be quite hectic as the ordinary headlamps do not trace the trajectory of the vehicle. This brought the idea of bending lamps; two different approaches have evolved for the same functionality, either to turn the light source or a projector, called dynamic bending and the second approach is to provide a secondary lamp at the corner focusing location for fulfilling the purpose. The present systems rely on the steering wheel sensor and the vehicle speed data for control. This requires the system to have a CAN transceiver module adding to the cost. In this paper, we will be focusing on static bending lamp in which the fixed-focus positioned lamp will be used for lighting the required area, moreover this gives design a more robustness and cost beneficial control system for the static bending lamp.
Technical Paper
Luciano Lukacs, Mahendra Dassanayake, Iuri Pepe
Abstract Nighttime driving behavior differs from that during the day because of unique scenarios presented in a driver's field of vision. At night drivers have to rely on their vehicle headlamps to illuminate the road to be able to see the environment and road conditions in front of him. In recent decades car illumination systems have undergone considerable technological advances such as the use of a Light Emitting Diode (LED) in Adaptive Front-lighting Systems (AFS), a breakthrough in lighting technology. This is rapidly becoming one of the most important innovative technologies around the world within the lighting community. This paper discusses driver's needs given the environment and road conditions using a survey applied to compare the needs of both truck and car drivers under different road conditions. The results show the potential and suitability of the methodology proposed for controlling truck-related lighting in any emergent market.
Technical Paper
Al Bolander, Timothy Brooks, Peter Thompson
In support of the Department of Energy ( DOE) "SuperTruck" program, a group of low energy, high output light emitting diode (LED) lamps were developed for forward lighting. Reduction of the energy needs of the truck by saving fuel and reducing CO₂ emissions are two of the goals of this program. In support of the energy reduction, a retrofit LED headlamp was designed, built and tested. The retrofit headlamp was switched from a halogen bulb to an LED-based system. The LED headlamp requires a new approach in heat management. The use of the LED, which is a 2π source, requires a different strategy in the optics from those used with a 4π source, like a traditional incandescent, halogen, or High Intensity Discharge (HID) light source. A thermal management system is necessary to facilitate the long life of the LED source. A unique method for removing the heat of the LED and maintaining an acceptable temperature was tested and reported.
Technical Paper
Milind Khandare, Fongloon Peter Pan, Ronald Schoon
The need of upfront modeling, simulation and design optimization has been ever increasing during full vehicle product development process. The overall vehicle system and component subsystem performances remain critical considerations for making final product release decision. With these challenges in mind, the work of this paper discusses the development of feasible CAE methods, tools, and processes for multi-objective design optimization. A full integrated tractor trailer truck vehicle is used as an example to demonstrate this capability. The proposed approach allows several design objectives to be simultaneously optimized, which might otherwise be extremely difficult to achieve with experimental methods.
Technical Paper
Matthew L. Brumbelow, Laura Blanar
Current requirements for rear underride guards on large trucks are set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 223 and 224. The standards have been in place since 1998, but their adequacy has not been evaluated apart from two series of controlled crash tests. The current study used detailed reviews of real-world crashes from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study to assess the ability of guards that comply with certain aspects of the regulation to mitigate passenger vehicle underride. It also evaluated the dangers posed by underride of large trucks that are exempt from guard requirements. For the 115 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, coded data, case narratives, photographs, and measurements were used to examine the interaction between study vehicles. The presence and type of underride guard was determined, and its performance in mitigating underride was categorized.
Technical Paper
Denis Wood
An idealization of the elastic compression of the car on the basis of representing the car-body as a cylindrical shell with elastic wrinkles shows that three main factors govern the rebound velocity and hence the coefficient of restitution. These are the 3/2 power of acceleration at maximum dynamic crush, the square of the ratio of car-body mass to overall car mass and the half power of the position of the plastic/elastic crush interface. The model is applied to predict mean rebound characteristics for the car population. A comparison with published experimental data of the coefficient of restitution of the car population in frontal impacts with rigid barriers at impact speeds up to 100 km/h was made. The model predicted values of e similar in magnitude to those of the car population and also predicted a similar reduction in e with increasing impact speed.
Technical Paper
Marella Vamsi Krishna, C. Vijay Ram
A roof fairing is a commonly used add-on for trucks or tractor-trailers, where a significant difference in height exists between the cabin and the container. A roof fairing reduces the aerodynamic drag on the vehicle by directing the onward wind flow smoothly onto the container and thus reducing flow separation in front of the container. Since standard containers are available in two different heights and there are cases when vehicles ply without load i.e. without a container, it is necessary to adjust the height of the fairing accordingly to maintain an optimum aerodynamic configuration. While adjustable fairings have been in use in the commercial vehicle industry, these fairings are usually shaped as flat plates, often with open sides for ease of folding. A highly curved and bulbous fairing helps in reducing drag better, especially in presence of side winds, although it makes adjustability difficult.
Technical Paper
Luiz Carlos Gertz, André Cervieri, Antônio Flávio Aires Rodrigues, Marilia Amaral Da Silveira, Claudio Júnior Ferreto, Tiago da Costa Pelzer
This paper presents a system developed for measurement of force, based on a load cell. The aim was to design a device capable of measuring the components of the force, drag and lift, which acted over automotive spoilers. In order to enable the system to measure the drag and the lift force, it was necessary to develop a system capable of measuring only the components of interest, uncoupling efforts, such as multiple solicitations and vibration. Measurements of force were carried out over an airfoil, employing the measuring system described in this paper. The results showed that the values of the forces that acted over the airfoil were in agreement to the expected. Airfoils are used mainly in automotive racing cars to increase adherence between the tires and ground. Car prepares have made use of theirs experience to determine the best type and angle of attack for the airfoils.
Technical Paper
Luciano P. Lukacs, Cristiano Fontes, Marcelo Embirucu, Iuri Muniz Pepe
Nighttime driving behavior differs from that during the day because of differences in the driver's field of view. At night, drivers must rely on their vehicle headlamps to illuminate the roadway. It is essential then that the driver is able to see the environment and road conditions in front of him. This paper presents the needs of the driver's (car and truck) due to the environment and road conditions from the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil). A survey has been done to compare the needs from the truck and car driver under different road conditions. The results show the necessity to tailor the beam pattern according to the driver needs, providing safer nighttime driving according to the driver's and market needs.
Technical Paper
Mandar Bhatkhande, Rahul Mahajan, Amol Joshi
Abstract Front windscreen wiping test is legal requirement for all motor vehicles as per standards like IS15802:2008 [1], IS15804:2008 [2] in India. This test requires windscreen mock-up/actual vehicle to be tested along with all wiping mechanisms such that minimum percentage areas to be wiped should meet the requirements specified in the IS standard. From manufacturer’s perspective this involves investment of lot of time and cost to arrive at the final design solution in order to meet the wiping requirements. The work scope in this paper is limited to bus category of vehicles. The methodology presented in this paper would enable quick design solutions for bus body builders or manufacturers to meet the wiping requirements specified in IS standard. The methodology presented in this paper was developed to carry out windscreen wiping test through commercially available simulation software.
Technical Paper
John D. Bullough
Abstract Warning lights and beacons on service vehicles such as maintenance trucks, tow trucks, utility service vehicles and delivery vehicles are an important line of defense for the workers who operate them. These flashing lights can also contribute to visual chaos making it difficult to navigate through a work zone location. Research on the flashing configuration and spatial and temporal coordination of warning lights that could adapt to ambient conditions and situations is described, leading to recommendations for preliminary performance specifications
Technical Paper
Subramanian Premananth, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Dharmar Ganesh
Abstract Overall in-vehicle visibility is considered as a key safety parameter essentially mandated due to the increasing traffic scenario as seen in developing countries. Driver side bottom corner visibility is one such parameter primarily defined by A-pillar bottom and outside rear-view mirror (OSRVM). While defining the OSRVM package requirements such as size, position and regulatory aspects, it is also vital to consider other influencing parameters such as position of pillars, waist-line height, and Instrument panel which affect the in-vehicle visibility. This study explains the various package considerations, methods to optimize OSRVM position, shape and housing design in order to maximize the in-vehicle visibility considering the road and traffic conditions. A detailed study on in-vehicle visibility impacted by OSRVM packaging explained and had been verified for the results.
Technical Paper
Sanket Pawar
Abstract Work lights with high power rating consume high current. Since the battery voltage is fixed, high currents are needed to generate the necessary power (wattage). This makes it difficult to manage the load on the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) responsible for controlling the work lights and also on the entire electrical system of the vehicle. It is possible to prevent the system from getting over loaded by employing effective means of work light control techniques. These techniques differ based on the type of work lights connected on the vehicle. There are three types of work lights available in the market. Halogen work lights, High Intensity Discharge (HID) work lights and Light Emitting Diode (LED) work lights. HIDs are not preferred by most customers due to their high warm up times & cost/unit. The other two types of lights, i.e. LED & Halogen, are comparatively less expensive. They also need negligible warm up times which are not objectionable to the vehicle operators.
Technical Paper
Carlos A. Pereira, Max Morton, Claire Martin, Geert-Jan Schellekens
Abstract The current trend towards energy efficient commercial vehicles requires a substantial improvement in their aerodynamic performance. This paper describes the design methodology for a new roof fairing design with integrated ducts and the predicted effects of the final design on downstream flow. It also provides a baseline comparison with the fairing of a commercial platform and highlights the advantages of using rapid prototyping technologies to test aerodynamic improvements on commercial vehicles. By integrating into the design of a thermoplastic roof fairing ducts that divert and speed-up air flow it is possible to obtain reduction of drag in the trailer gap and alter the trailer wake favorably. The resulting decrease in yaw-averaged overall drag coefficient is of 5.8%. This translates into an improvement in fuel efficiency of 2.9% when compared to the baseline.
Technical Paper
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab
Abstract Similar to Passenger Vehicles (PV), Commercial Vehicles and Trucks (ComVecT) use standard rearview mirrors to improve the visibility of the surrounding environment and facilitate a safer maneuvering of large vehicles. Standard rearview mirrors used in ComVecT are large and flat to cover outside areas as specified in theFMVSS 111 standard, or other requirements like ECE-R46. In addition, ComVecT are also equipped with optional mirrors with different Field of View (FoV), such as wide angle, look-down cross proximity, and front mirrors. These optional mirrors cover wider or specific areas around the vehicle which might not be possible otherwise with standard mirrors only. While these mirrors tend to enhance the visibility around the truck, they create undesirable blind zones to the driver. These blind zones can be gaps between the direct vision through the windows and indirect vision provided by the mirror.
Technical Paper
Devaraj Dasarathan, Jonathan Jilesen, David Croteau, Ray Ayala
Abstract Side window clarity and its effect on side mirror visibility plays a major role in driver comfort. Driving in inclement weather conditions such as rain can be stressful, and having optimal visibility under these conditions is ideal. However, extreme conditions can overwhelm exterior water management devices, resulting in rivulets of water flowing over the a-pillar and onto the vehicle’s side glass. Once on the side glass, these rivulets and the pooling of water they feed, can significantly impair the driver’s ability to see the side mirror and to see outwardly when in situations such as changing lanes. Designing exterior water management features of a vehicle is a challenging exercise, as traditionally, physical testing methods first require a full-scale vehicle for evaluations to be possible. Additionally, common water management devices such as grooves and channels often have undesirable aesthetic, drag, and wind noise implications.
Technical Paper
Lev M. Vozchikov
Determining vehicle mirrors effectiveness is the present novel ergonomic method in this research about how its performance affects School Bus safety. The unique impact classification system developed in advance achieves unique mathematic algorithm count for vehicle impact structure in a 3-dimensional vehicle model. The paper discusses principle experimental data-base language conversion in an Excel algorithm and with a, - factor plan observation diagram. Given the definition of accident in commercial motor vehicle applications, the study conducts a field collision follow-up record. The study based on factual data of a 50 fleet units, in observation between 2007 and 2009. This study classified the statistical spreading impact zones analysis in a 3-dimensional vehicle model calculation. Results are there discussed in paper in the ergonomic concept of hygienic operator performance responsibility.
Technical Paper
J. M. Ortega, K. Salari
The drag reduction capability of a trailer underbody fairing is investigated using steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of a full-scale heavy vehicle traveling at highway speed within a crosswind. The flow field about the vehicle is modeled for two different fairing designs of varying length that yield reductions in the drag coefficient ranging from 0.013 to 0.042. Analysis of the trailer underbody flow field indicates that the fairings decrease the size of a recirculation zone that exists immediately downstream of the tractor drive wheels by providing a surface to which the separated underbody flow can reattach. A comparison of the pressure coefficients across the surface of the fairings demonstrates that the longer fairings produce greater pressure coefficients, hence resulting in a larger reduction in drag than the shorter fairings. One of the fairings is shown to outperform traditional trailer side skirts, which yield a reduction in the drag coefficient of 0.035.
Technical Paper
Ralph A. Ehrhardt
In the past, the heavy duty truckers have been able to purchase sealed beam headlamps for the trucks using either a 2 round system or the 4 round system, with longer design life low beam filaments. In the '80's, many of the new truck models use rectangular sealed beams, however, these sealed beams were only available in the standard automobile life design. Truck operators noted the increase in replacement frequency and the additional costs related to the rectangular sealed beams. This paper covers the research, development and testing of the long life halogen sealed beam headlamps in the last several years. The final results of field testing are not yet completed, as only two filament failures have been reported after 19 months of use on heavy duty trucks.*
Technical Paper
P. K. Dellock, T. A. Sweder
A new bumper system which provides 8 kph (5 mph) vehicle protection with superior quality, outstanding durability and high value is in production. The system includes five new technologies: Hot stamped, ultra high strength front beam, 970 N/mm2 (160 KSI) which also is the #1 body structure crossmember. Ultra high strength roll formed rear beam 1150 N/mm2 (190 KSI). polypropylene foam isolators designed for controlled energy management Thermoplastic olefin (TPO), injection molded fascias Two component urethane paint for long term color, gloss and scratch resistance. This bumper system, installed on over 100,000 vehicles so far, meets both MPV and passenger car 8 kph standards. Consumer and insurance industry trends indicate increasing demand for Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV) bumper systems which meet 8 kph criteria. The major competitors in the MPV market (Aerostar, Grand Caravan, Toyota Previa, GM APV's, and Mazda MPV) have either 0 kph or at best 4 kph systems.
Technical Paper
Robert G. Dubensky, Donald E. Jay, Ralph K. Salansky
The manufacturing analysis of molded plastic parts is described in detail. A PC based program is presented to analyze the material and capital cost. The program listing is included.
Technical Paper
Allan E. McIntyre, Robert McCord, George Dalby
Spherical convex auxiliary mirrors are commonly used on commercial vehicles to expand the field of view (FOV) beyond the limited FOV (approximately 10 degrees lefl and 4 degrees right) available in flat mirrors commonly referred to as “West Coast Mirrors”. Unfortunately the tradeoff with the short radius spherical convex mirrors used to obtain the desired FOV is a dramatic reduction (95% or greater) in apparent image size. This much reduced image size provides the vehicle operator with information sufficient to detect the presence or absence of adjacent vehicles, but is of limited use in making the relative speed and relative distance judgements required for lane changes. Considerable efforts are being expended to develop relatively high cost electronics based object detection and warning systems.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 366


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