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Viewing 1 to 30 of 376
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2354
Gediz Kulac, Berzah Ozan, Yahya Oz
Steering performance as a vehicle dynamics attribute of a heavy commercial vehicle is dependent on series of design and tunable steering system parameters. The driver steering input as angle and torque is transmitted through steering column to the steering box with a combined function created by the steering column angles and orientations. In case the angle and torque transmission from steering wheel to steering box through steering column cannot be linearized because of the design constraints, the steering column input and output torque, angle and angular speed relations should be optimized for a good vehicle dynamics performance and in compliance with the OEM brand DNA This paper represents series of CAE analyses, optimization studies, verification tests and subjective evaluations related to the tunable parameters of the steering column.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2351
Vijay Antony John Britto, Ekambaram Loganathan, Sivasankaran Sadasivam, Kalyankumar Hatti, Sai Sankaranarayana
Driver fatigue is one among the important factors for accidents, causing loss of precious life and property. Apart from long driving hours, driver fatigue can be due to poor ride quality, cabin noise, high vibration levels and poor ergonomics. In last few years, there has been enough emphasis to improve the noise and vibration comfort of commercial vehicles, which is governed by vibration levels at tactile points such as steering wheel, gear lever, pedal and seat. Steering wheel vibration is an important element which driver uses to express about the vehicle vibration quality. Design of steering system is driven by ergonomics, packaging, durability, safety, vibration & ride and handling requirements. This paper discusses about methodology of steering assembly development for Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of commercial vehicle.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2349
Naseem A. Daher, Monika Ivantysynova
Modern on-road vehicles have been making steady strides when it comes to employing technological advances featuring active safety systems. However, off-highway machines are lagging in this area and are in dire need for modernization. One chassis system that has been receiving much attention in the automotive field is the steering system, where several electric and electrohydraulic steering architectures have been implemented and steer-by-wire technologies are under current research and development activities. On the other hand, off-highway articulated steering vehicles have not adequately evolved to meet the needs of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as well as their end customers. Present-day hydrostatic steering systems are plagued with poor energy efficiency due to valve throttling losses and are considered passive systems relative to safety, adjustability, and comfort.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2712
Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dennis Dauber
Traditional methods often lead to truck component designs that are overly conservative. The ever-increasing need to reduce operational costs demands innovative means for producing parts that are light, durable and capable of carrying more loads. This paper discusses the far-reaching advantages of shape-optimization, beyond the fundamental stipulation of weight reduction. A suspension link is considered to demonstrate the benefits of an optimally shaped component.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2145
Jin Huang, Qingmin Huang, Aiguo Cheng
Uncertainties present a large concern in actual vehicle motion and have a large effect on vehicle system control. We attempt a new robust control design approach for braking/driving force distribution and active front steering of vehicle system with uncertain parameters. The braking/driving force distribution control is equivalently studied as the integral direct yaw moment control. Then the control design is carried out by using a state-space vehicle model with embedded fuzzy uncertainties. By taking the compensated front wheel steering angle and the direct yaw moment as the control inputs, a feedback control that aims to compensate the system uncertainty is proposed. In a quite different angle, we employ fuzzy descriptions of the uncertain parameters. The controlled system performance is deterministic, and the control is not if-then rules-based. Fuzzy descriptions of the uncertain parameters are used to find an optimal control gain.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0983
Md Manjurul Islam, Yuping He
An optimal preview controller is designed for active trailer steering (ATS) systems to improve high-speed stability of articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs). AHVs' unstable motion modes, including jack-knifing and rollover, are the leading course of highway accidents. To prevent these unstable motion modes, the optimal controller, namely the compound lateral position deviation preview (CLPDP) controller, is proposed to control the steering of the front and rear axle wheels of the trailing unit of a truck/full-trailer combination. The corrective steering angle of the trailer front axle wheels is determined using the preview information of the lateral position deviation of the trajectory of the axle center from that of the truck front axle center. In turn, the steering angle of the trailer rear axle wheels is calculated considering the lateral position deviation of the trajectory of the axle center from that of the trailer front axle.
1999-12-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-2990
Eraldo Jesus Soares, Daniel Maretti De Carvalho, Hélcio Onusic, Júlio Antônio Barreiro, Luiz Carlos Ferraro
SUMMARY Because of the increasing need to reduce the time of development of new products, or even to evaluate the reliability of products, one has been noticing a trend to rationalize field tests through essays in ever more representative test benches, within a shorter period of time at a lower cost. In the automotive industry, the trend is to increase the reliability of tests in benches. The quantity of simulated parameters is increasing, what demands an ever increasing survey of data based on measurements of signals of deformation of leaves of spring leaf and courses of suspension in experimental vehicles.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3781
Ragnar Ledesma, Shan Shih
The uniqueness and challenge of heavy and medium duty vehicle manufacturing is that the vehicle&s subsystems and major components are procured from different suppliers. As a consequence, engineering task coordination for total vehicle performance optimization is required even if the intended design modification is only on one component. In the case of suspension design, related subsystems such as the drive axle, driveline, brake system, steering system, and engine mounts should all be included for review. The related potential problems for study fall into three categories, namely: function, durability, and NVH. The effective approach in addressing all these issues early in the design stage is through computer modeling and dynamic system simulation of the suspension system and related subsystems.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3762
Ronald W. Friend, Timothy J. Frashure
An analysis of salt water effects and test methods to design Antilock Brake System (ABS) Electronic Control Units (ECUs) capable of withstanding the Heavy Vehicle frame mount environment. An examination of new and existing test methods and design techniques to ensure reliability over the life of the vehicle.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0405
Namir J. Zara
The four wheel steer system better known as the Quadra Steer system (QS4) is a system that provides steering control of the rear wheel of long based pickups and large sport utilities. Analysis was utilized to develop Rear/Front (R/F) steering algorithm with the vehicle in it's normal mode which is characterized as vehicle at curb + 2 passengers or GVW/RGAWR on dry surface. Analysis utilized BZ3 control response simulation model to conduct this study. This dynamic model was used to evaluate key vehicle handling parameters to validate and optimize the algorithm.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2057
Shaosong Li, Changfu Zong, Lei He
The EPS motor will be over-heated if large current lasts for a long time, which will decline the performance of EPS motor and even lead to irreparable damage. So the over-temperature protection control should be conducted in order to protect the components of EPS system, especially the durability of EPS motor. In this paper, the motor temperature was estimated according to the environmental temperature and the current of motor armature, and then the EPS assist current was limited based on the estimated temperature of motor to ensure that the EPS motor had a good working condition. So the over-temperature protection control for motor can be realized without increasing the EPS system components. Finally the control strategy for over-temperature protection was conducted in a vehicle with EPS system and its performance was verified.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2013
Azadeh Farazandeh, A. K.W. Ahmed, S. Rakheja
Technological developments in road vehicles over the last two decades have received considerable attention towards pushing the safe performance limits to their ultimate levels. Towards this goal, Active Front Steering (AFS) and Direct Yaw-moment Control (DYC) systems have been widely investigated. AFS systems introduce corrective steering angles to conventional system in order to realize target handling response for a given speed and steering input. It is thus expected that such an action under severe maneuvers may cause one tire to reach saturation while the other tire may be capable of developing more force. This study, therefore, proposes an Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) system capable of controlling a wheel independently. At low speeds, the proposed AIFS system will modify the steer angle with speeds while maintaining pro-ackerman geometry similar to an AFS system. In doing so, it will realize a target response defined as one provided by a neutral steer system.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1920
Seongil Lee, Eun Ho Roh
EPS has now become a compelling technology that nowadays rapidly replacing hydraulic power steering in world market because of its fuel efficiency, sophisticated assist control, additional safety and convenience features. There are various types of EPS such as Column assist type, Pinion assist type and Rack assist type. Small cars with less rack force are equipped with Column or Pinion assist type EPS but for full-sized vehicles with big rack power consumption need Rack assist EPS, what we call R-EPS. Each type of EPS has merits and demerits, but from the perspective of vehicle handling performance, R-EPS has some strong points. And this is why author started this study. Subjective handling evaluation has proven the superiority of R-EPS but objective evaluation was needed. So authors have tried to compare the on center handling characteristics of each EPS on the rig tests and proposed somewhat easy and reliable test method.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1916
Vijay Kumar Ojha, Jitendra Bhalerao, Prajakta Paluskar
The vehicle pull (sideways) is a complex outcome of many parameters in an automobile vehicle. This is mainly due to steering, suspension, brake, wheels and chassis parameters. The road conditions like road camber also plays an important role in vehicle pull behavior. All efforts are put in design and manufacturing processes to maintain controlled vehicle pull in normal driving condition. Even though normal vehicle pull seems to be in acceptance limit (subjectively), its intensity increases many folds at the time of harsh braking. In these kind of panic situations where driver firmly holds on the steering wheel, it is expected that the vehicle should stop without deviating too much sideways from its intended straight line path to avoid any kinds of accidents. This work is an outcome of systematic study carried out to understand the root cause of brake pull as a field complaint on current production vehicles and adopting best possible solutions to minimize the brake pull.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1909
Saurabh Kumar Singh, Vijay Hiremath, Vijay Kumar Ojha, Narayan Jadhav
Subject paper focuses primarily on non uniform tire wear problem of front steered wheels in a pickup model. Cause and effect analysis complemented with field vehicle investigations helped to identify some of the critical design areas. Investigation revealed that steering geometry of the vehicle is undergoing huge variations in dynamic condition as compared to initial static setting. Factors contributing to this behavior are identified and subsequently worked upon followed by a detailed simulation study in order to reproduce the field failures on test vehicles. Similar evaluation with modified steering design package is conducted and results are compared for assessing the improvements achieved. In usual practice, it is considered enough if Steering Geometry parameters are set in static condition and ensured to lie within design specifications.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1936
Hiromichi Nozaki, Kensho Mizuno, Takahiko Yoshino
In a new technology called “in wheel motor,” in which the motor is installed in the wheel, the electric vehicle can become more compact, which leads to a new type of mobility. Moreover, the front wheel steering is controlled by an electrical unit instead of the traditional mechanical unit of a steering wheel inside the car. In such a “steer-by-wire” method, the motor uses an electric signal. Because the degrees-of-freedom of this steer control are increased and a variety of steer controls based on the electric signal are possible, further improvement of the control stability is needed. In other words, the steer control technique can pose a problem for drivers, and so further research in this area is needed. That is, proportional derivative steering assistance can improve emergency evasion performance and the steering delay upon counter steering. Moreover, rear-wheel active steering can improve vehicle response during emergency evasion maneuvers.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1937
Yahya Oz, Berzah Ozan, Eren Uyanik
The basic scope of heavy-commercial vehicle (HCV) development which was just concentrated on fuel-economy, durability and performance feel is not capable of fulfilling the increasing customer expectations anymore. HCV developers concentrate on additional vehicle attributes such as steering, ride comfort, NVH, braking, ergonomics and exterior-interior design in order to provide the passenger-car like perception to HCV drivers during long distance drives. The objective of this paper is to present the model validation methodology and the optimization study on suspension & steering hard points of a HCV. The results of the optimization study on suspension kinematics and steering performance of the vehicle is verified using both full vehicle simulations and vehicle testing. A full vehicle ADAMS/Car model is used for the validation and optimization study which has beam-element leaf springs on solid axle and air springs on drive axle for front and rear, respectively.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1938
Manish Dhanraj Ranawat, Narayan Jadhav, Mangesh Deshmukh
Recent infrastructural developments and emerging automotive market in India has given an impetus to the transportation industry and has led to high end research activities in synchronization with growing customer demands and competition especially in last decade. Since average speeds in India has gone up from 50 kmph in the year 2000 to almost 100 kmph in 2011, even the Light Commercial Vehicles (5 to 9.6T) are gradually experiencing a shift from low speed to high speed goods carrier. These new age vehicles are developed with a driver centric outlook towards safety and comfort. They are better optimized and equipped to the changing needs of the consumer and road conditions. Increase in vehicle speed poses many challenges in terms of occupant safety and control. In view of this, refinement of different vehicle handling parameters with respect to steering system compliance becomes far more critical.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8012
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila, Kenneth Sherwin
Abstract A large percentage of commercial vehicles transport freight on our interstate highway system. These vehicles spend the vast majority of their duty cycle at high speed maintaining a lane. As steering is integrated into ADAS, objective performance measures of this most common mode of commercial vehicle operation will be required. Unfortunately in the past this predominant portion of the commercial vehicle duty cycle was overlooked in evaluating vehicle handling. This lanekeeping mode of operation is also an important, although less significant portion of the light vehicle duty cycle. Historically on-center handling was compromised to achieve acceptable low speed efforts. With the advent of advanced active steering systems, this compromise can be relaxed. Objective measures of lanekeeping are developed and performance of various advanced steering systems is quantified in this important operating mode.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8034
Hao Sun, Guoying Chen
Abstract Distributed steering vehicle uses four steering motors to achieve four wheel independent steering. The steering angle of each wheel can be distributed respectively. The tire cornering characteristics are added to traditional steering model to study the angle allocation control algorithm. Using the constraint relation between tire slip angle, vehicle speed, yaw rate and front steering angle, and connecting with the ideal ackermann steering relationship, steering angle allocation of front wheel independent steering and four wheel independent steering is derived. Then simulated analysis is carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm. Improvements in tire wear condition are determined by evaluating the optimization in tire lateral force, and the vehicle stability is determined by vehicle slip angle. The simulation results show that the angle allocation control algorithm has a good effect on improving tire wear condition and enhancing the stability of vehicle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1670
Qian Wang, Beshah Ayalew, Amandeep Singh
Abstract This paper outlines a real-time hierarchical control allocation algorithm for multi-axle land vehicles with independent hub motor wheel drives. At the top level, the driver’s input such as pedal position or steering wheel position are interpreted into desired global state responses based on a reference model. Then, a locally linearized rigid body model is used to design a linear quadratic regulator that generates the desired global control efforts, i.e., the total tire forces and moments required track the desired state responses. At the lower level, an optimal control allocation algorithm coordinates the motor torques in such a manner that the forces generated at tire-road contacts produce the desired global control efforts under some physical constraints of the actuation and the tire/wheel dynamics. The performance of the proposed control system design is verified via simulation analysis of a 3-axle heavy vehicle with independent hub-motor drives.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0345
Bharat Kushwaha, Sanjay Chaudhuri, Sujatha Chandramohan
Abstract This paper investigates the yaw dynamic behaviour of a seven axle tractor semitrailer combination vehicle developed by VRDE (Vehicle Research & Development). The semitrailer has four steerable axles which follow command steering law i.e. all axles of semitrailer are steered in a particular relation with articulation of tractor. A 4 dof (degree of freedom) linear yaw plane model was developed for this combination vehicle. Yaw response characteristics such as lateral acceleration, yaw rate and articulation angle for step and sine steer is obtained from this model. Effects of speed on the above parameters are also studied to the same steering inputs. Lateral tyre forces due to semitrailer steering at various speeds are estimated to understand its distribution on each axle. Steady state yaw rate and articulation angle gain are obtained to predict the understeer / oversteer behaviour of combination vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2729
Guoying Chen, Lei He, Hongyu Zheng, Yaohua Guo
Abstract For the vehicles equipped with Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, the friction and damping effect brought by assisted motor and worm gear mechanism influence the return ability and handing stability. In order to eliminate the impacts, it is necessary to add return-to-center control in EPS control strategy. This paper proposes a practical active return-to-center control strategy with steering wheel angle signals based on return state identification. In the strategy, the return state of the steering system is identified quickly according to the two signals steering wheel angle velocity and steering wheel torque. Only under return state, a double closed-loop PID control strategy is carried out to calculate a compensation current to improve the return ability. For validating the proposed strategy, a fine EPS model including BLDC assisted motor is built based on carsim and simulink co-simulation platform.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2734
Anand Deshpande, Himanshu Gambhir, Kshitiz Raj, Satish Kumar
Abstract Low steering effort is the basic requisite to proffer driver with drive comfort and easy maneuverability on turns. Various components in steering and suspension system play a vital role in determining the steering effort of vehicle. The discussion has been emphasized on static steering effort i.e. when vehicle is stationary and wheels are turned from lock to lock position. There are various factors which affect the steering effort of a vehicle. Following are the high priority factors: 1 Steering Geometry.2 Tyre static friction torque.3 Friction among the steering linkages. In this paper, the crucial factors which lead to difference in steering effort of RH and LH turn have been discussed in detail.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2722
Sundarram Arunachalam, Ramprabhu Kannan, Nagarajan Gopikannan, Jayaramareddy Sekar
Abstract With advancement of technology, better safety and higher vehicle reliability is primary requirement of end customer especially in public transportation. Hence there exist challenges in design and development of steering system for long haulage and tipper application. In the steering system, track rod is used to steer both the front tyre under different operating condition assisted by power steering system. This paper deals with the failures observed on track rod in long haulage and tipper application with loading conditions. Also the methodology adapted to resolve the field failures.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2721
Balaji Lomada, R. Jayaganthan, V. Vijaykumar
Abstract Commercial vehicle industry is presently striving towards development of buses with enhanced passenger safety and comfort. This calls for additional components and aggregates that eventually lead to increase in the overall length and gross vehicle weight (GVW) of the bus for the same passenger capacity. Usually, steering system of longer front overhang (FOH) vehicles have multiple linkages such as bevel box arrangement or intermediate pivot arm arrangement instead of single direct draglink because of packaging and design constraints. In this work, an attempt has been made to design the steering system for one of the longer FOH bus with single direct draglink arrangement. Here, single draglink was packaged and designed with commercially available higher strength tube material. Design optimisation of steering geometry was carried such that the steering performance was atleast on par with existing performance.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2720
Sundarram Arunachalam, Ramprabhu Kannan, Jayaramareddy Sekar
Abstract Steering gear box function is one of the important requirements in heavy vehicles in order to reduce driver fatigue. Improper functioning of steering gear box not only increases the driver fatigue, also concerns the safety of the vehicle. In this present investigation, the engine oil mixing up with steering oil has been identified and steering gear box failure has been observed in the customer vehicle. The root cause of failure has been analyzed. Based on the investigations, in particular design of steering pump has been failed at customer end. The same design of steering pump were segregated and analyzed. Initial pressure mapping study has been conducted. The pressure mapping results revealed that the cavity pressure obstructs the flow of suction pressure. It indicates that obstacle at suction port due to the existence of internal leakage that causes back pressure in the internal cavity of steering pump which sucks engine oil.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2726
Balaji Lomada, N G Rajakumar, V Vijaykumar
Abstract Commercial vehicles have steering systems with one or more steering links connecting the steering gear box pitman arm and front axle steering arm. In case of twin steer vehicles, intermediate pivot arm is used to transfer the motion proportionately between the two front axles. Intermediate pivot arm is also used in some longer front over-hang vehicles to overcome their packaging constraints and to optimize the mechanical leverage. The pivot shaft is a mechanical part of the intermediate pivot arm assembly upon which pivot arm can swivel in one axis. Steering forces transferred through the drag links generates resultant forces and bending moments on the pivot shaft. In this work, study has been carried out on premature failure of the pivot shaft in city bus application model (Entry + 1 step). Metallurgical analysis of failed part indicated the failure to be due to fatigue. Pivot shaft was tested in rig with similar load conditions in order to replicate the failure.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2725
Amine Nhila, Daniel E. Williams
Abstract Today's hydraulic steering systems suffer from poor efficiency due to their use of throttling valves to build pressure inside the steering gear. In this work, we propose a novel way to build and control pressure by controlling the flow from the pump and without throttling. As a result, such a system will be more energy efficient. Moreover, the ability to control pressure inside a steering gear, and thus assistance torque, allows the steering system to become an active closed-loop system rather than a passive open-loop system. Specifically, by controlling pressure, one can closely control the hand wheel torque the operator feels. Consequently, the new pressure control concept has the potential to not only significantly improve the efficiency of steering systems, but also offers the numerous benefits of torque overlay without the use of an electric motor.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2724
Peiwen Mi, Guoying Chen
Abstract Electric Power Steering System (EPS) can directly provide auxiliary steering torque via a motor. The motor and the reducer in mechanical system will make the friction torque in steering system larger, as a result, the ability of steering returning will be reduced. Therefore, during the design of EPS system control strategy, an extra active return-to-middle control strategy is needed. For the fact that most of the low-end vehicles equipped with EPS system do not have a steering wheel angle sensor, a control strategy has to work without the datum of steering wheel angle. This paper proposes an active return-to-middle control method without steering wheel angle sensor, based on the estimated aligning torque which is converted to the pinion, and expounds how to determine the steering system current motion state in detail. This control method will work just during the turning condition, so it has no effect on the EPS basic assist characteristics.
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