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Viewing 1 to 30 of 541
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0269
Adam Bryant, Joseph Beno, Damon Weeks
Battlefield reconnaissance is an integral part of today's integrated battlefield management system. Current reconnaissance technology typically requires land based vehicle systems to observe while stationary or, at best, significantly limits travel speeds while collecting data. By combining current Canadian Light Armored Vehicle based reconnaissance systems with the Center for Electromechanics (CEM) electronically controlled active Electromechanical Suspension System (EMS), opportunities exist to substantially increase cross-country speeds at which useful reconnaissance data may be collected. This report documents a study performed by The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics with funding from L3-ES to use existing modeling and simulation tools to explore potential benefits provided by EMS for reconnaissance on the move.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0437
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Due to the importance of the fast transportation under every circumstance, the transportation process may require a high speed heavy vehicle from time to time, which may turn the transportation process more unsafe. Due to that fact the truck safety during braking and the ride comfort during long distance travelling with high speeds should be improved. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a control system which combines the suspension and braking systems. The control system consists of three controllers; the first one for the active suspension system of the truck body and cab, the second one for the ABS and, the third for the integrated control system between the active suspension system and the ABS. The control strategy is also separated into two strategies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0090
Wei Liu, Wenku Shi Sr
In this paper, a Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid semi-active suspension system was tested on a commercial vehicle, a domestic light bus, to determine the performance improvements compared to passive suspensions. MR fluid is a material that responds to an applied magnetic field with a significant change in its rheological behavior. When the magnetic field is applied, the properties of such a fluid can change from a free-flowing, low viscosity fluid to a near solid, and this change in properties takes place in a few milliseconds and is fully reversible. A quarter suspension test rig was built out to test the nonlinear performance of MR damper. Based on a large number of experimental data, a phenomenological model of MR damper based on the Bouc-Wen hysteresis model was adopted to predict both the force-displacement behavior and the complex nonlinear force-velocity response.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2382
Venkatesh Narayanan, Karalmarx R, Sai Sankaranarayana, Kalyankumar Hatti
The Bogie suspensions ensure better stability at higher loads and also give the utmost reliability under extreme climatic conditions with minimum maintenance. Many vehicle manufactures have adopted for the bogie suspension at rear based on its advantages. The noises generated from the vehicle in the field includes engine noises and flow noises and hence it is very difficult to clearly discern the noise generated from suspension system of the vehicle [1]. Most suspension system noises do not come from a single part but they are caused by the coupling action between related parts, making it difficult to clearly identify the exact cases. This paper details the overall approach to identify the bogie suspension noise on a commercial vehicle and countermeasures to reduce the same.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2722
Klaus Steinel, Gerhard Tebbe
Comfort requirements have significantly increased in recent years, even in the commercial vehicle sector. Transmission noise, caused by higher engine excitation (due to emission changes), can be reduced with a new torsional damper in the clutch disc, with a special idle damper. Up until now, free play (sometimes referred to as backlash) in the clutch or transmission helped reduce idle rattle. In many cases this simple solution is no longer adequate. This paper explains dynamic behavior during idling and provides the background for understanding the causes of rattle noise.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2712
Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dennis Dauber
Traditional methods often lead to truck component designs that are overly conservative. The ever-increasing need to reduce operational costs demands innovative means for producing parts that are light, durable and capable of carrying more loads. This paper discusses the far-reaching advantages of shape-optimization, beyond the fundamental stipulation of weight reduction. A suspension link is considered to demonstrate the benefits of an optimally shaped component.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2694
Stefano J. Cassara, David C. Anderson, J. Magnus Olofsson
The accurate prediction of commercial-vehicle ride and handling performance with computer simulation tools is dependent on the level of correlation between the computer model and experimental data. Correlating vehicle attributes to physical test data is often challenging due to the large number of degrees of freedom - and, correspondingly, the large number of tunable parameters - typically required to accurately model vehicle behavior. A high level of interaction between input parameters and vehicle attributes further complicates the task. As a result, this type of correlation is a multi-objective optimization exercise in which the judicious planning of supporting test activity is critical to achieving the right level of model accuracy with an acceptable amount of resource investment. This paper discusses the methodology implemented in the validation of a tractor-semitrailer ADAMS model for both ride and handling simulations and presents the results obtained.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2709
Caner Demirdogen, Jim Ridge, Paul Pollock, Scott Anderson
Design of suspension systems for Heavy Trucks is always challenging due to the heavy loads the system is exposed to and the long life requirements for the total system. Historical solutions were over designed structures to get the needed life and reliability. This always meant heavier parts. In today's economy, the vehicle weight of commercial heavy trucks is a very important feature for our customers and the end user. Lighter, well-designed suspension components provide better ride quality to the drivers through lower un-sprung weight, lower initial costs and greater payloads. The latest available structural optimization techniques are a business requirement for tomorrow's products. This paper describes the developed methodology used by DANA Engineers to design a weight optimized upper control arm for Commercial Heavy Trucks in step by step fashion. The method starts with determining the loads on the component part.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0145
S. Narayanan, S. Mithun, T. Sahul Hameed
A lift axle suspension system in a heavy commercial vehicle enables raising and lowering of the lift axle depending on the vehicle load condition. The states (raising and lowering) of the axle will be in logical sequence which depends on the vehicle load, ignition state, gear state and traction requirement. To arrive this complicate logic, the Lift Axle Control valve is designed. This LACV is an intricate assembly of pneumatic 3/2 valve, 5/2 valve, relay valve and solenoid valves. To predict the performance of this valve under various vehicle conditions, the entire valve is modeled in one of the commercially available multi-domain physical modeling software employing bond graph technique and lumped system and the performance is predicted. This paper deals with the modeling of LACV, simulation of misbehavior of LACV under certain condition, and the design analysis carried out to arrive design solution.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0148
Vyankatesh Madane, Akshay Baviskar, Anil Gaikwad, S. S. Sane
Light commercial vehicles are extension of three wheelers due to their need for simplicity and load carrying capacity. Smaller vehicle being simpler, have engine mounted at the rear. This give an added advantage in term of simple and light weight design and thus cost effective and have low engine noise and vibration in cabin. In many of the light commercial vehicles, which have been downsized from the bigger vehicles like trucks, have the aggregates designs similar to those of trucks like the drive line extending from the mid engine to rear axle having integral differential. The axle carries the leaf springs for giving robust look as well the load carrying capacity. In the new rear suspension design of the light commercial vehicle, advantage of the mid position engine concept and rear engine concept have been captured. This paper is discusses the design philosophy and the packaging of the same along with criteria for design.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0157
Bollishetty Sreedhar, Chandrakant Deshmukh
Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation software is used in product development cycle to reduce the lead time to market. These software have standard parametric templates for modeling metallic suspension systems, which can be quickly modified and used in full vehicle models for ride, handling analysis and the durability load predictions. Generally every Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) has unique air suspension arrangement and hence standard template is not available for air suspension modeling in commercial MBD software. Air suspension with self-leveling control mechanism is preferred over metallic suspension in the commercial passenger vehicle like bus for smooth ride comfort. Hence custom made templates for these systems need to be developed for use with MBD software. In this paper, a simplified model of air suspension is presented.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0418
Rogério Ribeiro, Fernando M. Sauer, Domingos da Silva, Luís Carlos C. Costa
New demands for the European Market claimed a new medium duty truck. Aim was not only to comply with new legislations, but also achieve better driving comfort and dynamic characteristics. The development of a new cab suspension was the answer given by means of an international project executed by the Technology Development Center of Mercedes-Benz do Brasil (CDT) with support of other technical divisions of our Development Center in Germany. High-level Teamwork Brazil/Germany at all levels from project coordination down to the plant assembly line was the key to reach an outstanding result with an extra achievement of weight reduction. Complete integration of all involved collaborators in Brazil and in Germany proved to be the main reason to get at the high efficiency shown during the development tasks. This article presents a brief overview of the undertaken development steps together with the challenges and the solutions given to assure the success of the international teamwork.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0471
José Eduardo D'Elboux, Marcus Kliewer, Camilo A. Adas, Fernando C. Dusi, Marco A. Fogaça Accurso, Eraldo de J. Soares, Alan M. Oliva
Due to the growing necessity to reduce time for new products development, or even to evaluate the reliability of them, a rationalization tendency of the tests has been observed in the field through more and more representative bench tests in a shorter time and with smaller costs. In the automotive industry, the amount of simulated parameters is always increasing; therefore it is necessary to collect a great number of sign measurements in suspension systems (accelerations, temperatures, strokes and deformations), using prototype vehicles. In the present paper we will present the measurements made in a representative track, where it was possible to analyze the measured signs. In a second step they were compiled and compacted, and finally applied in a one-axial bench test. This procedure permits to get a correlation between field and laboratory results.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2162
Ross K Brown, Jason Pusey, Muthuvel Murugan, Dy Le
This paper discusses the research conducted by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) - Vehicle Technology Directorate (VTD) on advanced suspension control. ARL-VTD has conducted research on advanced suspension systems that will reduce the chassis vibration of ground vehicles while maintaining tire contact with the road surface. The purpose of this research is to reduce vibration-induced fatigue to the Warfighter as well as to improve the target aiming precision in theater. The objective of this paper was to explore the performance effectiveness of various formulations of the Generalized Predictive Control algorithm in a simulation environment. Each version of the control algorithm was applied to an identical model subjected to the same disturbance input and compared to a baseline passive suspension system. The control algorithms considered include a Generalized Predictive Controller (GPC) with Implicit Disturbances, GPC with Explicit Disturbances, and GPC with Preview Control.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2161
Shuang Chen, Changfu Zong, Lei He, Gang Yin
An integrated control strategy for vehicle active suspension system which combines linear quadratic optimum control law with fuzzy control algorithm is designed to improve both ride and handling. The performance of this control strategy is then examined and assessed in an open-loop J-turn driving scenario on a random-rough road by means of computer simulation. Comparisons to a passive suspension system in terms of vehicle sprung mass vertical acceleration, body roll angle and yaw rate is conducted. Simulation results indicate that the integrated control strategy proposed in this paper could effectively enhance vehicle ride comfort meanwhile benefit handling quality and driving safety.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0962
Noor-u-Zaman Laghari
This paper presents a simulation based analysis of the effect of various non-linearities on vehicle handling of rigid and articulated vehicles. First a description of a non-linear vehicle model is presented and non-linearities, including tires, suspension elasto-kinematics, springing and damping are discussed. Later sections present the simulations results for the effects of each non-linearity. Simulation analyses are carried out for the case of step steering maneuvers, which permit to deduce the overall vehicle model response variation in steady-state and dynamic conditions.
1999-12-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-2990
Eraldo Jesus Soares, Daniel Maretti De Carvalho, Hélcio Onusic, Júlio Antônio Barreiro, Luiz Carlos Ferraro
SUMMARY Because of the increasing need to reduce the time of development of new products, or even to evaluate the reliability of products, one has been noticing a trend to rationalize field tests through essays in ever more representative test benches, within a shorter period of time at a lower cost. In the automotive industry, the trend is to increase the reliability of tests in benches. The quantity of simulated parameters is increasing, what demands an ever increasing survey of data based on measurements of signals of deformation of leaves of spring leaf and courses of suspension in experimental vehicles.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2807
Russell D. Taylor
Application of an 8-bit microcontroller and electro-hydraulic valves to replace existing mechanical linkages and valves is proposed for a compact utility tractor with power shift forward and reverse clutches. Details of the system are discussed which includes projected costs, function, and performance of the individual components. An evaluation is made of the resulting shift quality and featherability.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3781
Ragnar Ledesma, Shan Shih
The uniqueness and challenge of heavy and medium duty vehicle manufacturing is that the vehicle&s subsystems and major components are procured from different suppliers. As a consequence, engineering task coordination for total vehicle performance optimization is required even if the intended design modification is only on one component. In the case of suspension design, related subsystems such as the drive axle, driveline, brake system, steering system, and engine mounts should all be included for review. The related potential problems for study fall into three categories, namely: function, durability, and NVH. The effective approach in addressing all these issues early in the design stage is through computer modeling and dynamic system simulation of the suspension system and related subsystems.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3727
I.M. Ibrahim, S.M. El-Demerdash
In this paper, an electronically controlled hydraulic semiactive system for the seat suspension of wheeled tractors is theoretically designed to improve the driver ride comfort. Using a three degrees of freedom mathematical model, the damping force controller is designed based on optimal control theory and Nelder / Mead Simplex minimization method to perform a limited state feedback information. The controller considers the damping constraint which adapts the actual damping between the prescribed limits. The model results are generated when excited by a statistically random road profile. The results are presented in time and frequency domains. The driver vertical acceleration for semi-active and conventional passive systems are compared at similar root mean square (r.m.s) value of suspension working space. The semiactive system achieved a significant improvement, 18 percent, over the passive system with no power requirement from the tractor engine.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0264
Alaor J. Vieira Neto, Claudio G. Fernandes, Rafael Pedroso, Eduardo Vianna
In order to improve the product development efficiency, nowadays, the usage of simulation tools has become almost mandatory. The number of different settings, tested during the suspension tuning, for example, can grow reasonably in the same amount of time. Such a situation would be impossible experimentally. In this context, this work presents a truck model carried out in a multi-body environment (Adams) in order to evaluate aspects of vehicle ride comfort. The model was created with all project information available. Typical tracks, used for ride subjective evaluation, are modeled as track profiles and added to the multi-body model. The model is then validated against experimental data. The measurement setup used as well as the test conditions are fully detailed, as well as the comparison of the data acquire with the simulation results. Once with the validated model, it can be explored in order to extract all information required for a robust project.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0814
Jeffrey Mossberg, Zack Anderson, Clive Tucker, Johannes Schneider
As commercial vehicles are propelled forward, their suspensions encounter road irregularities that deflect suspensions up and down. GenShock® was created to convert linear motion from suspension oscillations into usable electricity while actively controlling damping force. This paper investigates the available energy in the suspension of a Class 8 truck, characterizes the damper dynamics in a truck suspension system, and demonstrates the fuel efficiency gains from reducing electrical load on the alternator. Two generations of GenShock prototypes were built and tested, and the resulting power regeneration and adaptive damping control were demonstrated. By reducing alternator load on a Class 8 test truck, fuel consumption was correspondingly reduced. To investigate real-world benefits, suspension displacements were sampled during actual on-road travel to characterize a representative highway (I-75 between Detroit and Toledo) and were subsequently used as input for a system model.
2012-05-16
Technical Paper
2012-36-0020
Vinicius de Almeida Lima, Leandro Garbin, Carlos Rodrigues dos Santos Neto
Due to the practice of lifting the rear suspension of heavy trucks, adopted by some end-users in Brazil, and in order to supply theoretical propositions to the manufacturers of suspension components for product improvement, this work describes stability and lateral dynamics tests simulations of a 4×2 rigid truck with 15000 kg of gross vehicle weight (GVW) and with changes in its originals leaf springs, predicting its dynamics responses in cornering and safety against rollover when unloaded and loaded at its GVWR limit.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2037
Zhigang Fang, Xuexun Guo, Lin Xu
This paper presented a brief derivation of the energy dissipation by vehicle shock absorbers. Analysis between energy dissipation and damping coefficient, the road displacement power spectral density, the vehicle speed and the tire stiffness was carried out. Then an energy recovery scheme was put forward, and the bench test proved that the energy harvest scheme is feasible. In the end, this paper provided detailed derivation of the characteristics of the hydraulic electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber, which increases its feasibility and practicability.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1912
Alireza Farjoud, Florin Marcu, Eric Schumann
This paper presents a novel 6-DOF multi-physics model of a cab suspension system. The model consists of a cab with six degrees of freedom supported by four fluid filled viscous mounts. In the literature, to the best of the authors' knowledge, all 6-DOF cab models have simplified fluid filled mounts as spring damper combinations. In its best case, a nonlinear stiffness relationship is allowed in the simplified models to capture the nonlinear behavior of the mounts and include geometric constraints and hard-stops. The novel model presented in this paper, however, includes a multi-physics model of the mounts. Each mount is represented by a molded assembly, two fluid chambers, a fluid track that connects the two chambers, and a gas chamber. Each mount can be pressurized or vented. A simple cavitation model is also used as an indicator of fluid cavitation in each mount.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1911
Ganesh Vijaykumar Kinagi, Syam Prasad Pitchuka, Dnyanesh Sonawane
In this paper hydropneumatic suspension system design methodology for light military tracked vehicle is discussed in detail. A guide to locate the major impact factor & its effect on the system level design is demonstrated. Spring & damping characteristics of hydropneumatic suspension have significant bearing on the tracked vehicle mobility characteristics. A methodology has been derived to optimize the kinematics of the suspension system by optimizing the load transferring leverage ratio resulting in enhanced system life. The paper also discusses the analytical method used for prediction of spring & damping characteristics and the factors affecting them.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1931
Hoda Yarmohamadi, Viktor Berbyuk
Semi-active suspension systems for ground vehicles have been the focus of research for several years as they offer improvements in vehicle comfort and handling. This kind of suspension has attracted more interest compared to active suspension systems especially due to lower cost and energy consumption. In this paper the capabilities of a semi-active front axle suspension are investigated for a commercial vehicle. A half-truck model of a 4x2 tractor and semitrailer combination is developed in Matlab/Simulink for this purpose. Also, a 2 DOF roll plane model is considered to capture the roll motion of the vehicle body mass. Employing the above-mentioned models, results from on-off and continuous variable semi-active damping systems are compared to the ones from the passive suspension system according to ride comfort and handling safety characteristics.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1932
Ross Brown, Marcus Mazza, Dy Le, Muthuvel Murugan
This paper discusses research conducted by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) - Vehicle Technology Directorate (VTD) on advanced suspension control. ARL-VTD has conducted research on advanced suspension systems that will reduce the chassis vibration of ground vehicles while maintaining tire contact with the road surface. The purpose of this research is to reduce vibration-induced fatigue to the Warfighter as well as to improve the target aiming precision in-theater. The objective of this paper was to explore the performance effectiveness of various formulations of the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) algorithm in a simulation environment. Each version of the control algorithm was applied to an identical model subjected to the same ground disturbance input and compared to a baseline passive suspension system. The control algorithms considered include a GPC with Implicit Disturbances, GPC with Explicit Disturbances, and GPC with Preview Control.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1934
Amol Prasad Sharma, Gopi Kannan N, Sudarsanam S
The automotive industry is heading towards introduction of newer and newer technology aimed at providing better comforts and value to the end user. The public/ private transport vehicles in urban/rural areas with FE has wide level of acceptance in South East Asian countries. The acceptance of FE buses is mainly because of the ram air cooling of the engine, lesser maintenance, higher fuel efficiency etc whereas rear engine buses with entry plus one step are deprived of these benefits. Hence, we have designed and developed a new Front Engine Semi -Low Floor bus having floor at E+1 step. The primary design challenge was to meet the uniform floor throughout the length of the vehicle. This uniqueness will help in easy ingress and egress of the passengers which helps in reducing the turn around rime of the vehicle. Other challenges includes, meeting the customer requirements in terms of application, load and duty cycle for this new design.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1935
Herbert Baumgartner, Nina Robson
The Articulated Suspension Exploratory Platform (ASEP) is developed in an effort to improve the characteristics and capabilities of the existing recently developed Surface Ground Mobility Platform SGMP. Special attention is placed on the design of the passive suspension mechanism in order for the platform to be suitable for operation in remote and challenging environments. To improve the capacity of the suspension and the overall quality, different designs have been analyzed based on a number of system requirements. The advantages of the final design are its linear motion, obstacle capacities, slope climbing and down-hill stability, as well as compact size and low cost.
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