Viewing 1 to 30 of 312
Technical Paper
Eldon Brasche
Since 1992, Caterpillar has invested millions of dollars to purchase CAD software, and spends nearly $2M per year keeping its engineers up-to-date, via instructor lead training (ILT), as new enhancements are introduced. Periodic upgrades to the software also require huge resource (people, costs) commitments for the planning and execution of the training requirements required for a large global workforce. This paper will examine gaps uncovered in the efficiency and effectiveness of the current training process, and the cultural change required as a result of switching from an instructor led environment to a completely web-based solution, which, once deployed, had promised to change the way Caterpillar approached training for the future. The proposed change promised to improve human resource capability by utilizing new technological capabilities, and resulted in improvements in organizational capabilities as well.
Technical Paper
Murali M. R. Krishna, Jun Yoshioka, Manish Sharma
A web based software program has been developed to do a Finite Element (FE) analysis of a simplified driveline system. In the past, an expert analyst had to make a Finite Element Model, analyze and then report results. It has been observed that this process is time consuming besides the difficulties of doing quick parametric studies, geographical location of designers, analysts, etc. The web-based software program aims to solve these issues. The designer could get analytical & Finite element results anywhere around the world (where the designer has access to the web) without any expertise in FE modeling. This software is a joint effort of Engineering and Information Technology (IT) software groups. It is based on Active Server Page (ASP) technology and MSC/NASTRAN technologies combined. Input data deck is prepared from user inputs and submitted over the internet to a remote system, solved and results are retrieved and plots shown in minutes, instead of days earlier.
Technical Paper
Timothy J. Milburn
Product development and manufacturing organizations are moving from the traditional, multiple and serial design-build-test cycle approach to an integrated, concurrent task and systems engineering paradigm, led by upfront planning, analysis and simulation, supported by credible product test data. This “paradigm shift” includes a move from a predominance of physical testing for product prototype validation to simulation-led problem solving and performance validation, using Computer Aided Engineering, and Design (CAE and CAD) tools. Supported by use of Computer Aided Testing (CAT), physical testing capabilities have comparably grown in accuracy and application range. The role of testing is moving from mostly pre-production validation to include support of product design decisions throughout the development process, including upfront planning.
Technical Paper
Ivan Lima, Geraldo Minoru Kato, Juan Carlos Parrilla
The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Technical Paper
Milind Khandare, Fongloon Peter Pan, Ronald Schoon
The need of upfront modeling, simulation and design optimization has been ever increasing during full vehicle product development process. The overall vehicle system and component subsystem performances remain critical considerations for making final product release decision. With these challenges in mind, the work of this paper discusses the development of feasible CAE methods, tools, and processes for multi-objective design optimization. A full integrated tractor trailer truck vehicle is used as an example to demonstrate this capability. The proposed approach allows several design objectives to be simultaneously optimized, which might otherwise be extremely difficult to achieve with experimental methods.
Technical Paper
N Suresh, John G. Argeropoulos, Craig Patterson, Del Schroeder
The automobile industry is seeing an increased need for the application of plastics and their derivatives in various forms such as fiber reinforced plastics, in the design and manufacture of various automotive structural components, to reduce weight, cost and improve fuel efficiency. A lot of effort is being directed at the development of structural plastics, to meet specific automotive requirements such as stiffness, safety, strength, durability and environmental standards and recyclability. This paper presents the concept of reinforcing large injection molded fiber reinforced body panels with structural uni-directional fibers (carbon, graphite, kevlar or fiber glass) wound in tension around the body panels by filament winding technique. Structural uni-directional fibers in tension wound around the fiber reinforced plastic inner body panels would place these body panels under compression.
Technical Paper
Jonathan L. Tolstedt
The objective of this paper is to identify patterns of behavior exhibited by successful software development teams working in the off-highway environment. Case studies of both successful and unsuccessful project teams were performed. Concepts that repeated themselves and appeared to contribute to the success of the overall project have been identified as patterns. Recurring concepts that appeared to have contributed to the ultimate failure of a project were identified as antipatterns.
Technical Paper
M. Scott Buck
In the past, all machines were designed and developed by mechanical engineers. To the ‘gear head’, ‘metal bending’ engineers the onset of the electronics to their machines was sacrilegious. The electrical engineers knew how to contain the sleeping giant of electricity and put its power to work for the betterment of the machines. Now there is a mystical beast that has seen its way into almost everything that controls our everyday life. It even threatens to basically kill our current lifestyle in less than a year. The only one that knows how to corral the beast is the software engineer. In less than 20 years, software has become the glue that binds everyday life together into a seamless process. If we do not contain and develop software through strict processes that are followed and enforced, the year 2000 bug will seem like a minor hiccup in the world of tomorrow.
Technical Paper
Michael C. H. Lee, Sangpil Yoon1, Jiun-Shyan Chen2
A robust nonlinear meshfree computer-aided-engineering (CAE) analysis algorithm based on the Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) is employed for simulating the installation and sealing performance of a truck-based radiator hose/fitting/clamp system assembly. The formulation of the present nonlinear meshfree CAE simulation comprises the geometric and material nonlinearities, a Lagrangian material based reproducing kernel shape function, a pressure projection method for nearly incompressible rubber hose material, and a direct transformation method for frictional contact boundary conditions. This simulation, which defines a radiator hose/fitting operating process series as insertion, clamping, pressurization and pull-off, provides a parametric investigation on the effect of clamping depth, clamping width, clamping location, and fluid pressure load on the hose-fitting contact seal width, contact pressure distribution, and the maximum pull-off force properties.
Technical Paper
Désirée Baron
Re-use of FMEA data and associated QS-9000 and APQP documentation is not only appropriate, but also efficient. Computerized document management systems allow for making changes quickly and easily throughout all affected documents and facilitate the recycling of documentation for future generations of design. Using IQ-FMEA quality software, this paper will demonstrate effective and efficient techniques for structured data re-use by means of a strategy of functionally-motivated generic structure templates.
Technical Paper
Ankit Shrivastava, Rao G. Srinivasa, T. Vijay, Niraj Bhatt, John Wesley
An automated tool to enable users effectively select compatible loaders specific to tractors, virtually simulate all the possible positions loader could take while on work and to verify its load performance and stability through a user friendly interface. This can also give a competitive comparison between various tractor-loader-tire combinations. This automated tool, utilizes tool kit provided by commercially available CAD software. It gives a systematic step by step approach of selecting the compatible combinations of Tractor-Loader-Tires. The compatibility is defined through a pre-defined database having all the parameters of the existing tractors, Loaders and Tires. Then it calculates the loader performance characteristics and stability based on the commercially available software's calculation. The output report is generated as a PDF file with all the data, characteristic curves, and calculation results and assembled diagram of the complete assembly.
Technical Paper
Helio Kitagawa, Thiago B. Negretti, Juliana P. da Silva, Karina C. Malavazi
This paper presents a technique that reconstructs the geometry, using a known surface finite element mesh, starting from a finite element mesh previously modified by the structural optimization process. It is intended, through the geometry generated by the routine, to make it compatible with the CAD system, presenting sufficient results to reduce or even eliminate the reconstruction of the geometry, usually required by means of a CAE preprocessor.
Technical Paper
Amir Ghasemi
Cyclic firing loading conditions coupled with high thermal loads are the main causes for failure of the cylinder head. A complete thermo-mechanical fatigue analysis of a cast aluminum cylinder head should include both high and low cycle fatigue. Reliable nonlinear material behavior, accurate thermo-mechanical stress analysis, and dependable failure criterion are the keys to successful life prediction. The low cycle fatigue is primarily due to thermal stress resulted from repeated start-up and shut-down cycle of the engines. The high cycle fatigue is mainly due to the firing loads, as amplitude stress, accumulated to the mean stress due to the thermal load. In this paper the required CAE simulations for high/low cycle fatigue of cylinder head will be discussed.
Technical Paper
Srinivas Kurna, Ruchik Tank
Abstract The job of a suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road surface, to provide steering stability with good handling and to act as a cushioning device to ensure the comfort of the driver and passengers. The suspension system also protects the vehicle and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. Commonly the strength of these suspension systems is evaluated by endurance trials on field or Rig testing which are time consuming and costly. On the other hand, virtual testing methods for strength and stiffness evaluation provide useful information early in the design cycle and save significant time and cost. However, the virtual method also needs validation, which can be achieved by physical co-relations (via rig tests). A study has been done to predict the behavior of Leaf Spring Suspensions entirely through the FEA (Finite Element Analysis) route and correlating those results with physical test.
Technical Paper
Cherdsak Chuaymung, Chi-na Benyajati, Sutee Olarnrithinun
Abstract A vehicle of interest in this paper was a light agriculture truck. In order to obtain reliable predictions of stress generated in the frame under loads, a combination of experimental tests and computer simulations was arranged. Since the focused deformations were bending and torsion modes, the truck driven up one-wheel ramp and two-wheel ramp was investigated. Strains results obtained from both tests and simulations were compared. The discussions and conclusions were made regarding the accuracy and further improvements of the simulations.
Technical Paper
Mathialgan Balaji, B. Jaiganesh, Selvakumar Palani, K. Somasundaram, Srinivasa Rao
Abstract Tractors are the self-propelled vehicle which finds its major application in agriculture, haulage and construction equipment. The product development cycle time of a tractor is more as compared to automobiles since it has to undergo rigorous field testing. Bringing more realistic component and system level validation in the test lab will drastically reduce the product development cycle time. Non-availability of standard usage pattern and customer-correlated proving ground pose a bigger challenge for bringing the field conditions to the lab. As a result, the tractor has to be instrumented with sensors and load-time history needs to be acquired as per real world usage pattern. Raw data from the field cannot be used directly for lab testing since the number of load cycles will be very high. Raw data have to be edited based on damage calculation and fatigue sensitivity analysis technique.
Journal Article
Andrej Ivanco, Kan Zhou, Heath Hofmann, Zoran S. Filipi
Abstract Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles.
Technical Paper
P Selvakumar, Arun Mahajan, R Murasolimaran, C Elango
Abstract Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to shorten the time and reduce the cost of new product development, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. By correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS. The Abaqus version 6.12 finite element software is used in the analysis, which includes the geometric, contact and material nonlinear options.
Technical Paper
Vinod Verma, V Saravanan, Dinesh Redkar, Arun Mahajan, R Raja, Pankaj Pawar, Ashok Kumar
Abstract A hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to lift the heavy implements during field operations and transportation. As it is a crucial member of the tractor for its usage, so the power train assembly needs a properly designed lift arm, rocker arm assembly with better strength and stiffness. There are a standard like IS12224, IS4468 which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of tractor and the layout of hydraulic three point linkage. Computer aided engineering techniques followed by laboratory testing have been deployed in the earlier stages of the product design & development itself to deliver the first time right products to the customer. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor hydraulic lift arm to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.
Technical Paper
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
Technical Paper
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Abstract Body in white (BIW) forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible for safety and structural rigidity of the vehicle. Also, this frame supports the power plant, auxiliary equipments and all body parts of the vehicle. When it comes to judging the performance of the vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also the weight. Light weight BIW structures have grown rapidly in order to fulfill the requirements of the best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into computer-aided engineering (CAE), materials research, advanced manufacturing processes and joining methods. Each of them play a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with scope of improvement. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for BIW weight reduction.
Technical Paper
Lei Peng, Zhuo Wang, Jiantao Gu
Abstract Body structure design needs to meet multi-attributes requirements such as global bend stiffness/modal, torsion stiffness/modal, Noise and velocity transfer functions (NTF/VTF), and others. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a significant way to enhance the accuracy of design results. However, it also brings computation burden for optimization. In order to improve the performance and reduce the weight of automobile body structure, this paper presents a novel process of body CAE multi-attributes optimization. Four significant phases are described: 1) Sensitivity analysis for each body CAE performance, 2) MDO process, 3) Non-sensitive gauges reducing, and 4) Slightly optimization. Considering the mixed variables in the MDO process including continuous geometry shapes and discrete gauges, the developed continuous relaxation method was employed to deal with such situation.
Technical Paper
Joseph Philip
CAE based methodologies for structural analysis has improved considerably and is now commonly used for product development. This methodology can also be used effectively for certification of products against safety standards requiring structural performance. Use of CAE can address the issue of certifying a large number of product variants without the need of expensive and destructive physical tests. The probability and variation in rollover accident varies with different bus application. This paper discuss on the major change in the requirement between flat rollover with the convention rollover over 800mm ditch. It also discusses on the severity of rollover in both rollover scenarios for intercity applications using simulation techniques.
Technical Paper
Bharani Dharan R, Raghu Ram Goud, Rajkamal manoharan, Vikas Dhiman
Engine Block, being the most vital component requires serving various functions all together. Design of block for higher power densities and BMEP levels, needs a complete change in the design strategy compared to the existing design approach. Also, balancing other factors like engine cooling efficiency, blow by targets, weight, and manufacturing cost becomes a huge challenge upfront in designing an engine block. Design of block is carried out within several design, assembly and manufacturing constraints such as to maintain a specific cylinder centre distance, Block NVH, Better cooling jacket, controlled bore deformation and incorporation of various accessories viz. CRDI System, Fuel Filter, Oil Filters, Fuel Injection System, steering pump, Air Compressor etc. This paper portrays the complete perspective and design methodology used during design process. Integration of classical methods, and FE analysis is presented.
Technical Paper
Vijay Antony John Britto, Sadasivam Sivasankaran, Ekambaram Loganathan, Saisankaranarayana Kupplili Saisankaranarayana, Kalyankumar Sidram Hatti
The cost incurred to make design modifications to solve NVH problems increases with maturity of design in the development process. Hence NVH issues should be addressed in the initial phase to avoid any significant changes in structure and subsequent changes in overall performance of the vehicle. Hybrid methodology with application of advanced testing and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools to achieve full vehicle NVH attribute targets is nowadays a must for this reason. This paper represents a case study on low frequency NVH performance evaluation and refinement for heavy commercial vehicle truck using Hybrid Test-CAE methodology. To achieve better NVH performance, it is important to set competitive overall vehicle level NVH targets and cascade it down to system and sub-system targets. Test-CAE correlation has been carried out to validate Finite element (FE) modeling procedure and methodology.
Technical Paper
Manfred Bäcker, Riccardo Möller, Michael Kienert, Bertan Bayram, Mert Umut Özkaynak, Hakan Yaman
Whereas for passenger cars CAE methods in the durability development process are meanwhile standard, for lower volume production vehicle types CAE methods have not really penetrated the durability oriented development process. Special buses like coaches can be seen in this category. This presentation is based on a common project of TEMSA and LMS International and describes the load identification process for a CAE based fatigue life prediction for a new bus type.
Technical Paper
Andrew Dyer, Sylvain Pagerit, Makarand Datar, Daniel Mehr, Dan Negrut
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper
M. Narkhede, S. Lale, S. Menon, P. Kamath, D. S. Shashidhar, P. R. Sajanpawar
New product development process in tractor industry has immense challenges. Market forces are driving tractor manufacturers, to explore innovative technology, to shorten the product development time. At present, most of the tractor components are evaluated in laboratory, as per customer usage pattern. Even though these lab tests are accelerated, high development time of prototype is a severe constraint. Hence, there is more emphasis on application of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) for validating the design, in lieu of lab test i.e. ‘Bringing LAB to CAE. There are many challenges to achieve this particularly in tractor evaluation, due to scattered usage patterns, varied field conditions and unexpected customer habits. In addition, fatigue behaviour of tractor chassis, comprising of mainly castings is not only sensitive to design but also to process and assembly.
Technical Paper
Kurt Rottier, Edward Uebelher, Rod Huisinga
An important segment of power system design often left to the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is the engine exhaust system. The requirement of exhaust after treatment has increased the importance of exhaust systems to be impermeable and still retain their physical flexibility. To achieve the necessary flexibility, OEMs will often choose to incorporate an available expansion joint(s) into the exhaust system. Often, conversations with expansion joint suppliers result in the OEM having to supply vital information about the application or a vehicle to record acceleration and vibration information. Unfortunately, the cost of building low volume vehicles does not always afford the OEM with enough resources to develop a custom expansion joint for the exhaust system. As a result, it is important to understand what the proper inputs are, make a sound engineering judgment as to what the worst case magnitude may be and provide that information to different suppliers.
Technical Paper
Tom Erkkinen, Mirko Conrad
Model-Based Design with automatic code generation has long been employed for rapid prototyping and is increasing being used for mass production deployment. With the focus on production usage, comes the need to implement a comprehensive V&V strategy involving models and resulting code. A main principal of Model-Based Design is that generated code should behave like the simulation model. It should also be possible to verify that the model or design was fully implemented in the code. As a result, the transformation of models into generated code must be done in a way that facilitates traceability between the model and code. Also automated tests should be performed to determine that the code executes properly in its final software and hardware environments. For example in a typical commercial vehicle application, the control algorithm and plant model are simulated together in a system simulation environment.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 312


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