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Viewing 1 to 30 of 797
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0437
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Due to the importance of the fast transportation under every circumstance, the transportation process may require a high speed heavy vehicle from time to time, which may turn the transportation process more unsafe. Due to that fact the truck safety during braking and the ride comfort during long distance travelling with high speeds should be improved. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a control system which combines the suspension and braking systems. The control system consists of three controllers; the first one for the active suspension system of the truck body and cab, the second one for the ABS and, the third for the integrated control system between the active suspension system and the ABS. The control strategy is also separated into two strategies.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2477
Gergis W. William, Samir Shoukry, Jacky Prucz, Thomas Evans
This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9096
Kil Won Song, David Roehrich, Rani El-Hajjar
Fillet and plug weld are commonly used in structural applications in commercial heavy vehicles. This paper is primarily concerned with an investigation of the full field deformations fields in fillet and plug welds using three dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Two identical vehicle parts are constructed using a fillet weld for one specimen, and a plug weld for the other. The specimens are loaded under quasi-static conditions with simultaneous measurement of load, displacements and strain gage measurements. Strain gage locations are selected based on the results of a finite element analysis model. 3D-DIC measurements are constructed using a two camera setup. Thus, 3D-DIC measurements are compared to strain gage measurements and finite element predictions. The effectiveness of the non-contact full field method is evaluated for application to studying the weld details considered and potential for fatigue damage and durability.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2379
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson, Bala Gurusamy
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1690
Michael Temkin, David Santi, Lawrence Black, James Tindall
During the initial vehicle design phase and as the first prototypes are built, extensive on-board instrumentation and data acquisition is required at the proving grounds (PG). The data is used for various types of testing and analysis. During this phase of development very few parts and assembly components are available for physical test. The objective is to develop a component test for the truck box. This test can be run without suspension parts during the early stages of the vehicle development. A further objective is to correlate the test to FEA models and actual Proving Ground full vehicle test results.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2717
Wei Liang, Jure Medanic, Roland Ruhl
Control system design is one of the most critical issues for implementation of intelligent vehicle systems. Wide ranged fundamental research has been undertaken in this area and the safety issues of the fully automated vehicles are clearly recognized. Study of vehicle performance constrains is essential for a good understanding of this problem. This paper discusses safety issues of heavy-duty vehicles under automatic steering control. It focuses on the analysis of the effect of tire force saturation. Vehicle handling characteristics are also analyzed to improve understanding of the truck dynamics and control tasks. A simple differential brake control is formulated to show its effect of on reducing trailer swing.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2712
Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dennis Dauber
Traditional methods often lead to truck component designs that are overly conservative. The ever-increasing need to reduce operational costs demands innovative means for producing parts that are light, durable and capable of carrying more loads. This paper discusses the far-reaching advantages of shape-optimization, beyond the fundamental stipulation of weight reduction. A suspension link is considered to demonstrate the benefits of an optimally shaped component.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2714
Katrin Strandemar, Boris Thorvald
This paper presents the ride diagram, a new way of evaluating and presenting ride comfort Furthermore, a simplified methodology is suggested to test and correlate objective measures of vehicle ride with subjective driver impressions. The ride diagram is calculated from measured cab accelerations resulting from increased levels of excitation. The basic idea is to graphically visualize how ride comfort changes with excitation. Test drivers are then asked to pair the set of tested vehicles with corresponding curves in the ride diagram. This step assures that the selected measure captures how drivers apprehend changes in vehicle ride. The suggested methodology is illustrated on trucks with different cab suspension settings. For a given test track increased vehicle speed is used to increase the excitation level. The trucks are also placed in a road simulator to enable easy variation of both excitation type and level.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2724
Murali M. R. Krishna, Jun Yoshioka, Manish Sharma
A web based software program has been developed to do a Finite Element (FE) analysis of a simplified driveline system. In the past, an expert analyst had to make a Finite Element Model, analyze and then report results. It has been observed that this process is time consuming besides the difficulties of doing quick parametric studies, geographical location of designers, analysts, etc. The web-based software program aims to solve these issues. The designer could get analytical & Finite element results anywhere around the world (where the designer has access to the web) without any expertise in FE modeling. This software is a joint effort of Engineering and Information Technology (IT) software groups. It is based on Active Server Page (ASP) technology and MSC/NASTRAN technologies combined. Input data deck is prepared from user inputs and submitted over the internet to a remote system, solved and results are retrieved and plots shown in minutes, instead of days earlier.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2697
Leonard Kuo-Liang Shih, Tien-Chou Hsu
In the past decades, the diesel engines are considered as the major power source, not only because of their high thermal efficiency, high torque output, and easy maintenance; but also due to the improved exhaust emissions reduction technology. In order to increase the thermal efficiency, the low heat rejection ceramic coating engine is one of the possible solutions for future engine manufacturing. Due to the thermal insulating effects of the ceramic material (low thermal conductivity), the cylinder charge and engine components' temperatures are substantially increased. However, the thermal impact problem and the possible high friction characteristics of the new coating material can be deadly to the engine's lifetime. Various non-ceramic and ceramic materials are tested in this research to decide their thermal insulating effects on the engine performance and their downside on the friction and thermal impact problems.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2709
Caner Demirdogen, Jim Ridge, Paul Pollock, Scott Anderson
Design of suspension systems for Heavy Trucks is always challenging due to the heavy loads the system is exposed to and the long life requirements for the total system. Historical solutions were over designed structures to get the needed life and reliability. This always meant heavier parts. In today's economy, the vehicle weight of commercial heavy trucks is a very important feature for our customers and the end user. Lighter, well-designed suspension components provide better ride quality to the drivers through lower un-sprung weight, lower initial costs and greater payloads. The latest available structural optimization techniques are a business requirement for tomorrow's products. This paper describes the developed methodology used by DANA Engineers to design a weight optimized upper control arm for Commercial Heavy Trucks in step by step fashion. The method starts with determining the loads on the component part.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2655
Robert Rahmfeld, Monika Ivantysynova, Bastian Eggers
This paper deals with the use of a displacement controlled linear actuator for active oscillation damping of off-road machine structure. Aim is the development of system solutions and control concepts for the simultaneous use of displacement controlled (valveless) hydraulic actuators basing on single rod cylinder for the active oscillation damping of off-road machine structure and for the control of the working hydraulics movement. Thereby, the productivity of the machine and the operator comfort will be improved.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2658
William Wangard, Aleksandra Egelja, Hossam Metwally
A transient, 3-dimensional, continuum CFD model of soot loading and regeneration has been developed for a single channel unit in a diesel particulate filter. The detailed model is used to predict the soot loading, velocity, temperature, and species distributions in both the air channels and porous walls of the filter. The simulation is performed in two phases: loading and regeneration. In the loading phase, soot profiles are estimated for a clean filter using a steady-state simulation. In the second phase, transient regeneration is modeled using a single-step, irreversible heterogeneous mechanism is used to predict the formation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide products during the regeneration process, incorporating a fractionization scheme. Reaction rates are predicted via an Arrhenius rate law, but may be tempered due to diffusion-limiting conditions in the porous reaction zone. Simulations are performed with a commercial CFD package and user-defined functions.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2707
Rosca Radu, Rakosi Edward, Manolache Gheorghe
The paper attempts to determine which traction model best fits with experimental data for a romanian lugged tractor tire. Different models for predicting net traction and traction efficiency for off-road conditions were considered. These models assume different tire-ground pressure distributions (constant, parabolic) over the undertread area and different contact patch length calculations. Experiments were conducted and the results were compared to the theoretical data. Two of the models are the best fit with the experimental data; both models assumed a parabolic pressure distribution over the undertread.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3411
Ivan Lima, Geraldo Minoru Kato, Juan Carlos Parrilla
The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3437
Paulo Pedro Kenedi, Leydervan de Souza Xavier, Ricardo A. Amar de Aguiar, Rafael de Oliveira Sampaio, Thiago Fontes Carvalho de Queiroz
In order to resist impact loadings that usually occurs in an off-road circuit an integrated approach of mechanical design is developed to obtain an optimized vehicle suspension. Efforts were made to model a front suspension, type double A of an off-road vehicle Mini-Baja. The focus was stressed in the transmissibility of mechanical forces through front suspension. A simple analytic model was done to esteem the reactions generated at points of linkage of suspension and structure of Mini-Baja, during a transient impact load. Numerical simulation softwares were also used to visualize dynamic behavior of different front suspension configurations. Finally experimental test was done with data acquisition system, with the use of load cells, to generate a reference data to compare analytic and numerical models.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0104
Rohit Ravindran, Vijay Antony, Saisankaranarayana K, Kalyan S. Hatti
In recent years NVH has gained a lot of importance in the commercial vehicle industry as it contributes significantly towards user comfort and also towards the quality perception associated with a vehicle. The in-cabin noise of vehicles is critical towards the comfort and usability for the end user and the sound package installed on the vehicle plays a vital role in determining the levels associated with this attribute, especially the high frequency content. The paper discusses a methodology for optimizing the sound package for performance, cost and mass, for a truck. The approach uses a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) based optimization. A virtual SEA model is developed, which is correlated with actual test data. After establishing the correlation, an optimization study is carried out to identify the effectiveness of different materials and material combinations towards in-cabin noise.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0256
Taboada Gonzalo
This paper is to for determine, using a simulation model (equation) and graphic, each of the faults that may occur in a systems, mechanical / electrical / hydraulic / pneumatic. In this case I have taken the rear axle of a truck as a component to analyze. Was sampled over 34,000 units in warranty, from 2004 to 2012 The next steps for the project are: Search specific data (manufacturers, companies, dealers) on the different types of failures and their respective analysis, in order to model and interpret correctly my analysis and simulation. Take a drive current park representative to mount the rear axle and are within one standard warranty period for a truck plant (1 to 2 years or 100,000 km. 200,000 km. respectively). Analyze data obtained in point 2 (number of faults, fractures) to have a database, with respect to reliability, unreliability and hazard rate.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1018
Robert V. Petrach, David Schall, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Randy Gu, Laila Guessous
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0359
C.C. Scozzafave, L.G.S Ericsson, U. Wildmann, D.M. Spinelli
The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for approval of component that is applied when the first version is tested on a durability track with closed circuit and fails without meeting the approval criteria previously established. This approach was applied in suspension support on commercial vehicles. The full commercial vehicle was modeled in finite element for stress analysis in frame torsional loading. By presenting stress regions near the material's limit, tests were made on durability track with deformation measurement at the main critical spots. The component has failed in one of the measured spot without reaching the established number of laps for component approval on track. With the deformation measurement signal for one lap at the failure spot, a fatigue analysis using the software FEMFAT strain ® has been made, correlating the obtained damage with the number of laps on track until component failure.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0595
Wiliam Tean Su
In the past few years, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has become an almost essential engineering tool in product development. In addition to that, structural optimization, which is almost as old as the finite element method, is a widely used tool in engineering product design definition. One vastly used method is the shape optimization, which has as an objective the minimization of stress concentration on determined regions. In this work, a 6 cylinder diesel engine crankshaft was analyzed and a structural optimization was performed, more specifically at the web region. The interpretation of the shape optimization results led to a slightly modified geometry of the crankshaft, with the mass of the crankshaft throw only 0.5% higher than the original model. Also, the fatigue safety factor evaluation was performed for both reference and optimized crankshafts as a comparison criterion. The same boundary condition used in the shape optimization was employed for the fatigue factor evaluation.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2302
Jude Liu, Benjamin Kemmerer
Methods of estimating tractor performance including power efficiency and fuel consumption under field operational conditions were discussed based on a tractor and a large square baler. Methods recommended by ASAE standards were used and results indicated that ASAE standards predicted 15% higher fuel consumption compared to that tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Field trials were conducted in switchgrass fields to verify and demonstrate these methods. Fuel consumption and the material capacity of the tractor-baler system were measured and also estimated using ASAE standards and Nebraska tractor test results. Field test results indicated that the fuel consumption of baling switchgrass was approximately 60% of the fuel consumption estimated with ASAE standards and tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Measured material capacity of the large square baler was approximately 40% of its theoretical capacity.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2287
Gergis William, Mark S. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz
Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2231
Khalil Dilawar Nadaf, Milind V. Kulkarni, Vijay M. Mahangade, Dr.(Prof.) S. G. Joshi
The conventional methods of connecting rod design consider the centre of gravity (CG) position at 2/3rd distance from connecting rod small end. The connecting rod CG position decides the reciprocating and rotating mass distribution. The reciprocating force impacts inertia stresses at the connecting rod small end while rotating force impacts the inertial stresses, minimum oil film thickness (MOFT) and peak oil film pressure (POFP) at the connecting rod big end. This paper work has analyzed connecting rod design in view of three probable causes of CG position variation as due to dimensional changes to sustain higher loading, manufacturing process variation and high speed of turbocharged (TC) engine. Total nine load cases have been considered for study of these causes. As well, CG variation impact is analyzed at big end bearings for MOFT and POFP.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2184
Asma Al Tamimi, Mohammad Salah, Ahmad Al-Jarrah PhD
Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. The proposed optimization algorithm introduces a cost function of a predefined temperature error and a control input that is developed to minimize the introduced cost function. The main objective of the proposed optimal control design is to minimize the temperature error and power consumption of the system actuators. The development of the optimal controller utilizes a multi-layer neural network to approximate the proposed cost function. A representative numerical simulation is introduced in this paper to demonstrate the performance of the developed optimal controller.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1604
Zhi-yong Chen, Guang-ming Wu, Wen-ku Shi, Qing-guo Wang, Teng Teng
Hyperelastic model constants of rubber material are predicted based on test date. The fluid-structure interaction model of light vehicle cab's hydraulic mount is established. Static characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed by quasi-static method. In dynamic characteristics analysis, the flow model of fluid is set to turbulent K-Epsilon RNG. The dynamic stiffness and loss angle of the hydraulic mount are presented via the finite element model. The simulations of static and dynamic characteristics agree well with corresponding test results. The effects of main structure parameters to the dynamic characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed based on the finite element model.
1999-12-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-3062
L. C. Ferraro, M. A. Fogaça, M. Ururahy, M. A. Argentino, A. Costa Neto, T. Adelmann, O.T. Perseguim
1 ABSTRACT The present work describes the modeling and analysis processes of a medium sized truck manufactured in Brazil with regard to comfort behavior. The vehicle model includes Hotchkiss suspensions front and rear with shackle and with a double stage with bump stops at the rear. It is also included frame flexibility in ADAMS, the frame characteristics were imported from a Finite Element Analysis model. Nonlinear shock absorber curves are also represented for the vehicle and cab suspensions. Viscoelastic bushings for cab and powertrain suspension are also included. Random track profile is generated as input and vehicle comfort is described in terms of the ISO 2631-85 Standard. The effect on vehicle comfort of changing a design parameter can be predicted in the model and verified experimentally.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2841
Jonathan L. Tolstedt
The objective of this paper is to identify patterns of behavior exhibited by successful software development teams working in the off-highway environment. Case studies of both successful and unsuccessful project teams were performed. Concepts that repeated themselves and appeared to contribute to the success of the overall project have been identified as patterns. Recurring concepts that appeared to have contributed to the ultimate failure of a project were identified as antipatterns.
1999-09-13
Technical Paper
1999-01-2861
Paul Erich Robinson, O. Geoffrey Okogbaa
This paper presents a proposed new statistical distribution which models product reliability in those situations where obsolescence is built in. Typically products in this class are designed so that very few failures occur prior to a predetermined point, after which the majority of units fail within a short timespan. From the reliability point of view automobiles are manufactured for a life span of five years, after which purchase of a new vehicle or a costly major overhaul is required. Examples are discussed which show that the Post-Warranty Distribution is the best fit for this situation.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3757
Konghui Guo, Qing Liu
One of the most essential factors causing automobile and aircraft shimmy is energy import from road to tires due to tire hysteresis characteristic. The magnitudes and direction of the energy import are close to frequency responses of tire cornering properties (TCP), which can be calculated directly according to the presented non-steady state TCP theoretical model. Selfexcited shimmy is the main type of wheel shimmy and behaves as negative equivalent damping characteristic of the tire-road vibration subsystem. The values of energy import or equivalent damping determine the tendency of wheel shimmy. Tire structural parameters have certain effects on frequency response of TCP and thereby result in influences on wheel shimmy. Based on the tire model, some valid ways to decrease shimmy tendency are concluded through proper variations of carcass stiffness, tire-width, kingpin caster, tire pneumatic trail, tire cornering stiffness and so on.
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