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Viewing 1 to 30 of 234
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0449
Hiroyuki Matsumori, Kohei Kurachi
1 ABSTRACT ABS becomes popular standard equipment due to increased demand for vehicle safety from user. That trend requests to make ABS smaller in size and lower in cost. Electronic Control Unit of ABS (ABS/ECU) has to correspond to that request and, further, ABS/ECU should lead system development by integration of ECU with actuator in engine compartment. We have been promoting the above development positively as the developer of ECU. This paper describes the development of high temperature-proof and small sized ABS/ECU composed 2 chips with using ASIC (Application Specific of Integrated Circuit) design and the method of thermal design, suitable for integration with actuator.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0025
Latha Venkatakrishnan, K. Vasanthamani, V. Paquianadin, R. Ganesh, Seshadri Sekar, J. Lakshminarasimhan, S. Janani
Automotive Infotronics Private Limited (AIPL is a Joint Venture between Ashok Leyland, India and Continental AG, Germany) has been working on a body control solution for the commercial vehicle segment over the last few years. The units developed meet the stringent IP66 ingress protection requirement (dust and water) for Indian market applications. Due to the “closed” nature of the enclosure, thermal design for the device is done in such a way so that heat can be dissipated through the metallic enclosure. The electronic design is modular so that a variety of applications can be handled with the same basic design. Finally, a big step is taken in the creation of the application software that is fully model-based and “auto-coded” [6]. With the adoption of model-based design, this unit makes itself completely flexible where a host of customer specific (and/or customer owned) strategies can be seamlessly integrated with the basic application software.
2011-01-19
Technical Paper
2011-26-0048
Aymeric Rousseau, Ram Vijayagopal
Other than in Japan, medium and heavy duty vehicles (MHDVs) are not regulated despite accounting for a significant portion of the fuel consumed (about 26% in the US in 2008). Government agencies worldwide are currently evaluating options to address that issue. Due to the large number of vehicle applications, some of them being “one of a kind”, vehicle modelling and simulation offers an attractive solution to medium and heavy duty regulations. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of vehicle simulation to support regulations.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0306
Poliana de Moraes, Irany de Andrade Azevedo, Osamu Saotome, Max Mauro Dias Santos
The automotive system domain are in increasing motivation with benefits by using the x-by-wire technologies, which employ new electronic devices to provide for automobile system more facilities during processes at development, production, usability and maintenance. Considering at automobile user domain point of view, the next generation of automobiles can give users more comfort, safety and flexibility. However, for the safety critical applications at automobiles have as requirements the use of distributed embedded systems and fault tolerance methodologies where in communication infrastructure need to offer fault-tolerance communication services. Several researches regards fault tolerance communication systems for automotive domain are now in progress and a strong convergence in use of the Flexray technology is noted for the automotive community. The Flexray is one of the communication systems that had been proposed and available at AUTOSAR standard.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0308
Poliana de Moraes, Osamu Saotome, Max Mauro Dias Santos
Safety critical systems are taking demands on automotive systems where the distributed embedded system needs a communication system with properties of fault tolerant real-time communication. In order to increase reliability of systems with serial communication, a device called bus guardian can be added on physical layer to perform management of schedules and data independently from the communication controller, monitoring timing and sending signals of bus status notifying error occurrences to the host. The goal of this paper is to present and perform a comparative analysis of different strategies of bus guardian used in CAN, TTP/C and Flexray protocols, applied in safety critical system in automobile domain. A comparison was carried out to describe the properties and application for each protocol.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2034
Xiaopeng Fang, Jim Wild
Embedded software development has been dramatically improved with model based design and auto code generation tools. However, the development process of complicated embedded control systems still faces great challenges. Modern embedded control becomes so complicated due to sophistical control hardware and control optimization driven by competitive pressure and regulations. For example, engine embedded control development has to consider global emissions and On Board Diagnostics (OBD) regulations besides various vehicle platforms for the global market. This paper presents several design aspects for complex embedded control software architecture including component based design, component management, and software validation. The paper discusses several software architecture design ideas and analyzes their design benefits and disadvantages. Finally, the paper proposes a software architecture design and provides a design example.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8009
Michael Brown, Purser Sturgeon
Abstract While initial Connected Vehicle research in the United States was focusing almost exclusively on passenger vehicles, a program was envisioned that would enhance highway safety, mobility, and operational efficiencies through the application of the technology to commercial vehicles. This program was realized in 2009 by funding from the I-95 Corridor Coalition, led by the New York State Department of Transportation, and called the Commercial Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (CVII) program. The CVII program focuses on developing, testing and deploying Connected Vehicle technology for heavy vehicles. Since its inception, the CVII program has developed numerous Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure applications for trucks that leverage communication with roadside infrastructure and other light and heavy duty vehicles to meet the objectives of the program.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2849
Hariharan Venkitachalam, Axel Schlosser, Johannes Richenhagen, Mirco Küpper, Thomas Tasky
Abstract Electrification is a key enabler to reduce emissions levels and noise in commercial vehicles. With electrification, Batteries are being used in commercial hybrid vehicles like city buses and trucks for kinetic energy recovery, boosting and electric driving. A battery management system monitors and controls multiple components of a battery system like cells, relays, sensors, actuators and high voltage loads to optimize the performance of a battery system. This paper deals with the development of modular control architecture for battery management systems in commercial vehicles. The key technical challenges for software development in commercial vehicles are growing complexity, rising number of functional requirements, safety, variant diversity, software quality requirements and reduced development costs. Software architecture is critical to handle some of these challenges early in the development process.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0114
Siddharth Das, Sushil S Ramdasi, Rakesh Mulik, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract For zero tail pipe emission transportation, fuel cell technology is the best available option for replacing commercial IC engines. Worldwide lot of research work is going on in development of fuel cell vehicles. This work deals with the virtual development of system architecture for hybrid electric - fuel cell light commercial vehicle. The goal of this research work is to virtually design, model and convert an existing LCV model in to a hybrid electric fuel cell vehicle for the same performance and better efficiencies with zero tail pipe emissions. A unique fuel cell management system is developed and used for obtaining better efficiencies. A mathematical model of the vehicle is developed using GT-Drive which tracks the energy flow and fuel usage within the vehicle drivetrain. The vehicle is tested on chassis dynamometer to provide data for validation of the mathematical model. Model results and vehicle data show good correlation when validated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Abstract Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks. A research on megatrends affecting the Indian CV industry has identified more focus on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as one of the megatrend.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0199
Stefan Fuchs, Hans-Peter Schmidt
Abstract Real time data transfer over Ethernet, with an inhomogeneous physical layer is studied. Within the Ethernet network 100Base-TX and BroadR Reach© physical layers are used. Synchronization of devices via Ethernet is investigated and synchronized transfer of video streams is shown. Purpose-built Ethernet-Physical Layer Adapters (E-PLAs) are applied. It is demonstrated that an Ethernet network with different physical layers may be used for real time data transfer with just a little trade-off in synchronization and transfer delay.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
Abstract SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
Abstract In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of the heavy duty trucks systems. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, as the result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8130
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimiliano Ruggeri, Luca Dariz, Michele Selvatici
Abstract Automotive industry compartment is undertaking a massive technology revolution. ADAS systems and infotainment promise to change the way that customers mean travel and transportation radically, through several use cases. The key enabling technologies for this trend are Ethernet and its newly standardized physical layer, IEEE 802.3bw 100BASE-T1 (a.k.a. BroadR-Reach). From an architectural point of view, the evolution of the applications that rely on Automotive Ethernet resembles in many ways the evolution that the IT has had in the last decades. In the IT world, increased throughput and computational power to the end-user enabled technologies like multimedia streaming; scalability and availability requirements, together with the increased complexity of IT infrastructure, led to the “Anything as a Service” paradigm and Software Defined Networks.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2816
Lakshminarasimhan Jagannathan, Janani Sankaran
The rapid development of automotive electronics has increased the number of electronic control units in the vehicle and the complexity of overall wiring harness. Automotive Multiplexing system is being adopted and customized by all global automotive OEMs to address the growing electrical/electronic complexity in automobiles. Adopting globally available off-the-shelf multiplexing products for Indian market requires heavy customization to meet the functional requirements and the Indian environmental condition requirements. And, the cost factor is also significant. This has driven Ashok Leyland to develop a low cost Multiplexing solution that meets the global standards in terms of performance, regulation and quality to cater to the local and global market needs.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0035
Zach Bonefas, Stewart Moorehead
There are many unique aspects related to implementing unmanned agricultural vehicles. Automated navigation systems, drive by wire electronics and implement control are already widely available in the marketplace providing a firm foundation for unmanned vehicles. Variable environments, harsh weather conditions, large vehicles and implements and high costs present challenges to bringing unmanned systems to the agriculture marketplace. The lack of existing standards is another limiting factor that calls for a united effort from industry, academia and government. Despite these factors, unmanned vehicles will be part of the future of agriculture, providing increased productivity and helping to meet the world's growing food needs.
1992-04-01
Technical Paper
920910
Truls K. Henriksen
Abstract This paper describes in detail the development and the technology of multi-channel, high scan rate, and high accuracy pressure measurement instrumentation. The discussion is chronologically ordered and begins with the development of the Electronic Pressure Scanning (ESP) technology. The paper will detail this technology which is used to achieve high end results in many demanding applications. During this section, the paper will address the single crystal silicon diaphragm pressure transducers. The temperature and time characteristics as well as other properties of this transducer type will be evaluated. Other features of the ESP, such as multiplexing internal amplification, and full calibration ability will be described. The focus is then on the systems approach to solving the measurement need from the transducers to the host computer. The systems discussion emphasizes the unique in-situ, fully pneumatic, transducer and system calibration.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941789
Steven C. Young
The CAN multiplexed network used on the new GENESIS™ 70 Series tractors allows for integrated control and monitoring of the engine, transmission, and hydraulic subsystems on this series of vehicles. Basic design philosophies for successful multiplexed networks, and experiences and conclusions concerning the use of CAN on the GENESIS 70 Series tractors are discussed.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941662
Marvin L. Stone
Abstract Standardized Class C communication networks are being developed for use in construction and agricultural equipment. Both an ISO and SAE standards are being developed. This paper attempts to summarize both standards and to discuss potential application of the standards.
1993-08-01
Technical Paper
931809
Mark R. Stepper
Data link interfaces are a very important part of the heavy duty vehicle industry; sharing information between subsystems is vital. SAE Recommended Practices J1708, J1587 and J1922 were developed to provide standards for proprietary communications, general information sharing, diagnostic definition and early powertrain controls. The industry realized, however, that these standards would not accomplish the ultimate goal-that of a high speed control and communications network. The development of more capable serial data communications for the heavy duty vehicle industry was prompted by the following: the desire of component suppliers to integrate subsystems for improved performance; the advancement of technology; customer expectations; and government regulations.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962141
Christopher A Abrams
Multiplexing electrical systems for vehicles have traditionally utilized components installed within engine and transmission compartments and drive train subsystems and therefore, have principally been designed in accordance with SAE Guidelines. Recently, standard control components designed for industrial environments have been applied successfully in multiplexing systems on board transit buses. This paradigm shift offers significant benefits to vehicle suppliers and property owners. This paper will review this trend and present examples of multiplexing systems employing several of these standard commercial control components.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962140
George H Ayer
Increases in the quantity and sophistication of the equipment used on transit vehicles have made extreme demands on the electrical system A solution to this problem is the use of Global Multiplexing (MUX) technology This paper presents the reasons for replacing the existing relay based system with a multiplex network the technical challenges and considerations in selection of a system the production implementation of the system and a brief outline of future expectations Application of this emerging technology will produce benefits for the OEM Transit Operator and the Ridership
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962143
Kimball Williams
Truck J1939 Multiplexer Cables were tested for radio frequency (RF) emissions. The emission levels found were significant. But, conventional suppression methods were able to provide adequate resolutions.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962142
Klaus Skabrond, Wolfgang Hauschild
1. Abstract In today's commercial vehicles the electrical and electronic systems are segmented into two different areas, the chassis and the body. The technical interface and achievable level of standardization and integration between these areas is often quite varied and difficult between vehicle manufacturers and component suppliers. Stand alone electronic modules and subsystems with the ability of processing and controlling a reasonable amount of functions (ECM, EDC, FMC, ABS, TCS…) are state of the art applications on the chassis. They are linked together by controller area networks (CAN-Bus Systems). All these individual modules are quite similar for the various applications and highly standardized (SAE J1939). However, things have developed quite differently on the body electrical system side, where a multitude of operational functions with drastic differences in complexity are linked together by dedicated wiring.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0067
Yongxi Ni, Christopher Nwagboso, Jim Samuel
The demands for effective and efficient management of commercial vehicles and freight transport have led to the increasing needs for sophisticated fleet management systems (FMS) for reducing the operation cost of commercial vehicle operation, improving custom service and asset management as well as maintaining the safety and security. The availability and declining costs of telecommunications and information technologies afford opportunities for using real-time information to achieve these targets and the emergence of internet technology make it possible to transfer updated real-time information through more widely available communication media. This paper introduces the web-based remote-access concept for the real-time information acquisition, which has been used to enhance functionality of a dynamic fleet management system.
2001-11-12
Technical Paper
2001-01-2739
Gary Pomeroy
The increase in the number of electronics in Trucks, and the resultant increasing in wiring, has led to an inevitable emphasis on reducing wiring harness size and complexity. The use of Multiplexing allows the application of additional electronics without proportional increases in wiring. Multiplexing also adds the benefits of increasing the flexibility in electronics placement (modularity) and thereby reducing incorrect wiring. By utilizing the J1587/J1708 SAE standards in modular switches, these capabilities can be achieved, but with many challenges not normally seen in these traditionally simple devices. The keys to acceptance are to keep the capabilities of present control switches, reduce the wiring complexity in manufacturing, provide flexibility for bodybuilders, and to gain the acceptance of truck operators.
2001-11-12
Technical Paper
2001-01-2770
Michael Holloway, Cheryl Graff, Eric T. Swenson
The system level requirements for the Electronics Integration Test Station (EITS) are reviewed. EITS provides capabilities for system level testing of a variety of heavy-duty vehicle electronic control module configurations. EITS provides a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test facility at the system level, permitting the development of integration experiments as individual control system modules are added to the complement of modules being tested. The evaluation needs, which drive system-level testing of control system performance for systems of heavy-duty vehicle electronic control modules, are discussed. Implementation issues leading to system level requirements are also discussed.
2001-11-12
Technical Paper
2001-01-2767
Jacob Thomas, Mike Roeth, Mark Stasell
International Truck and Engine Corporation introduced a new line of High Performance trucks based on its next generation medium duty platform in February 2001. The new 4000 series that reached full production in April 2001 was the first in a series of models based on this platform to be introduced over the next two years. The new platform will replace all but the heaviest trucks in International's lineup. Even though the primary focus of International's next generation product is addressing the needs of the owners, drivers and maintainers of the truck, the new product is also a key enabler for the execution of International's business strategies of cost and complexity reduction. Integral to the attainment of internal objectives was International's ability to develop products on a common platform to serve across fairly diverse markets.
2000-12-04
Technical Paper
2000-01-3505
Mike Klaus
There have been some new developments in wireless diagnostic tools for the Transit Bus and the Transit Industry. These tools are being developed at I/O Controls for use by mechanics and technicians. It is expected that the use of these tools will bring about some improvements in the amount of time that is spent during troubleshooting on the transit bus. The I/O Controls Dinex Link incorporates a suite of these tools in the form of software on a hand-held PC, along with the RF wireless link and a security protocol. This paper describes the Dinex Link System.
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