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Viewing 1 to 30 of 258
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2423
Rishikesh Venugopal, Neerav Abani, Ryan MacKenzie
This paper presents analytical and measured results on the effects of injection pattern design on piston thermal management in an Opposed-Piston, Two-Stroke (OP2S) diesel engine. The OP2S architecture investigated in this work comprises two opposing pistons forming an asymmetric combustion chamber with two opposing injectors mounted on the cylinder wall. This unique configuration offers opportunities to tailor the injection pattern to control the combustion heat flux and resulting temperatures on the piston surfaces while optimizing combustion simultaneously. This study utilizes three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with state-of-the-art spray, turbulence and combustion models that include detailed chemistry to simulate the in-cylinder combustion and the associated flame/wall interactions. In addition, the measurements comprise a real-time thermocouple system, which allows for up to 14 locations to be monitored and recorded on the intake and exhaust pistons.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2679
Richard L. Wurst
This paper describes equipment developed to measure engine output torque. Several vehicle flexplates were modified and strain gauges were applied to measure torque. Special attention was paid to minimize or eliminate any changes in flexplate torsional stiffness. Torque signals are transmitted from the rotating flexplate to a stationary receiver via RF telemetry. The electronics on the rotating flexplate are powered using an induction power technique. This method was developed as a less invasive and less costly alternative to strain gauging a crankshaft.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2724
Murali M. R. Krishna, Jun Yoshioka, Manish Sharma
A web based software program has been developed to do a Finite Element (FE) analysis of a simplified driveline system. In the past, an expert analyst had to make a Finite Element Model, analyze and then report results. It has been observed that this process is time consuming besides the difficulties of doing quick parametric studies, geographical location of designers, analysts, etc. The web-based software program aims to solve these issues. The designer could get analytical & Finite element results anywhere around the world (where the designer has access to the web) without any expertise in FE modeling. This software is a joint effort of Engineering and Information Technology (IT) software groups. It is based on Active Server Page (ASP) technology and MSC/NASTRAN technologies combined. Input data deck is prepared from user inputs and submitted over the internet to a remote system, solved and results are retrieved and plots shown in minutes, instead of days earlier.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3752
Alain L. Kornhauser
This paper documents the current realities of in-vehicle navigation systems in terms of their functionality, scope and responsiveness. It discusses the evolution of these systems with the advent of wireless communications. Addressed are the issues associated with delivery and utilization of real-time traffic, incident, and weather information to and by in-vehicle navigation systems. Also discussed are other High-level in-vehicle decisions that can be supported by the marriage of wireless communications with in-vehicle navigation. Applications considered range from the choosing of alternate waypoints and destinations (where to get gas, where to park), to the host of nRouteCommerce transactions that can be more efficiently achieved with the support of in-vehicle navigation (reserving a parking space, resetting household thermostats as you approach home). Implications on driver workload, in-vehicle processing, wireless bandwidth and Internet traffic are discussed.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0306
Poliana de Moraes, Irany de Andrade Azevedo, Osamu Saotome, Max Mauro Dias Santos
The automotive system domain are in increasing motivation with benefits by using the x-by-wire technologies, which employ new electronic devices to provide for automobile system more facilities during processes at development, production, usability and maintenance. Considering at automobile user domain point of view, the next generation of automobiles can give users more comfort, safety and flexibility. However, for the safety critical applications at automobiles have as requirements the use of distributed embedded systems and fault tolerance methodologies where in communication infrastructure need to offer fault-tolerance communication services. Several researches regards fault tolerance communication systems for automotive domain are now in progress and a strong convergence in use of the Flexray technology is noted for the automotive community. The Flexray is one of the communication systems that had been proposed and available at AUTOSAR standard.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0308
Poliana de Moraes, Osamu Saotome, Max Mauro Dias Santos
Safety critical systems are taking demands on automotive systems where the distributed embedded system needs a communication system with properties of fault tolerant real-time communication. In order to increase reliability of systems with serial communication, a device called bus guardian can be added on physical layer to perform management of schedules and data independently from the communication controller, monitoring timing and sending signals of bus status notifying error occurrences to the host. The goal of this paper is to present and perform a comparative analysis of different strategies of bus guardian used in CAN, TTP/C and Flexray protocols, applied in safety critical system in automobile domain. A comparison was carried out to describe the properties and application for each protocol.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1988
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian
Heavy duty machines have become more electronically sophisticated and in-vehicle electronics are growing in number and complexity, keeping pace with technology advancements. New machines implements (both mounted or trailed) and machine automation, demand this evolution, and thus a new way of designing on-board Electronic Control Units (hereafter ECU) is required. Moreover, the connectivity between vehicles, often extended to World Wide Web, and machine control and Working Session Task Controllers demand to become really distributed and executed in real time. So, integrated control systems ask for more performing distributed controls over networks, in order to better manage the machine torque and power and in order to optimize the fuel consumption, as a function of power request.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2844
Majeed Nader, John Liu
Abstract The EU emergency call (eCall) system is used as a vehicle emergency telematic system to reduce the fatalities and save more lives in vehicular incidents. We have designed and implemented the CRC module for the in-vehicle system (IVS) of the EU eCall on an FPGA device. As the CRC is a crucial part of the system to detect bit errors during the transmission, this paper presents the hardware design procedures of the CRC module. The system reads the 1120 serial input bits of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD), calculates the 28-bits of the CRC parity bits, and generates the MSD appended with CRC as the output signal that is consisting of 1148 serial bits. The system is designed in Verilog HDL, compiled, synthesized, and simulated for different MSDs. The results are shown and analyzed for varied applied MSDs. The flowchart of the implemented algorithm is illustrated and discussed.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1931
Christian Ballarin, Martin Zeilinger
Due to the continuous increasing highway transport and the decreasing investments into infrastructure a better usage of the installed infrastructure is indispensable. Therefore the operation and interoperation of assistance and telematics systems become more and more necessary. Regarding these facts Highway Pilot was developed at Daimler Trucks. The Highway Pilot System moves the truck highly automated and independent from other road users within the allowed speed range and the required security distance. Daimler Trucks owns diverse permissions in Germany and the USA for testing these technologies on public roads. Next generation is the Highway Pilot Connect System that connects three highly automated driving trucks. The connection is established via Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication (V2V).
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0306
Haraldo Rehder, Gustavo P. Rehder
Abstract Durability tests of commercial vehicles are performed on road running uphill and downhill as well as on flat roads; these tests take very long time and have high costs. To lower test time and costs, it is proposed to accelerate the durability tests of commercial vehicles power trains by using a Towing Trailer with an electromagnetic (EM) brake, developed in Brazil, simulating uphill. This Trailer was already presented [1], [2] for cooling test simulation at 20 km/h on commercial vehicles up to 250 HP. In the cabin (cab) of the vehicle under test, there are the braking level control and a laptop, which receives wireless and registers the operational parameters of the Towing Trailer. The GPS in the truck cabin (cab) supply information such as time, speed, latitude and longitude allowing the control of the route.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0357
Bruno Scarano Paterlini, Ricardo Moreira Vaz, Kleber Nogueira Hodel, Paschoal Federico Neto, Armando Laganá, Leopoldo Rideki Yoshioka
Abstract The several problems and bottlenecks faced users public transport users in big cities are a common knowledge. Among them agencies responsible for public transport recognize the lack of centralized control, the under and over supply, the lack of information to users and the non-compliance of scheduled trips. In order to work identified problems improving cities like Recife and São Paulo are testing systems named as embedded technology that integrate the use of GPS, cameras, centralized monitoring among others, retarding a deeper coverage compared to systems previously used. The main objectives are the comfort and safety increase of users and the freight logistics improvement. This paper presents the technologies being tested in Brazil through successful models applied in countries as Spain and Colombia, as well as the scope of bids and proposals for improvement of public transport.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2779
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Vinod Easwaran
General insurance industry has been incurring losses due to their poor underwriting standards and fake third party motor insurance claims. Motor industry accounts for one third of the non-life industry premium. The problems associated with the motor insurance industry are being assessed here with the help of indicators claims ratio, solvency ratio. The steps taken by Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) have been in terms of declined risk pool and increase in Third party premium. Third party premium is calculated based on the past years claim data and a differential pricing mechanism have been adopted. Though different vehicle segments have been addressed by this approach, the individual customer needs are not addressed here. The next level of differentiation should be based on user behavior and insurance companies are now looking at rate differentiation using customer behavior.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4201
Kevin Robertson
The growth of wireless-enabled transportation continues at a high rate as the pervasive use of technology grows. Also, more importantly, the users must understand the advantages of asset management using real time data. Wireless technology will allow simplified service, maintenance, and vehicle management. Value will be generated from the application of the wireless technology to solve vehicle management problems, whether service, operation, or diagnostic related. Unfortunately, for the vehicle system developers, manufacturers and the end customer, it is increasingly difficult to select which method of mobile connectivity is best for a given industry. This paper presents an outline for helping managers answer this question and how they can best use wireless technology for their given situation.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4154
Stefan Byttner, Thorsteinn Rögnvaldsson, Magnus Svensson
Abstract Quality and up-time management of vehicles is today receiving much attention from vehicle manufacturers. One of the reasons is that there is a desire to avoiding on-road failures to addressing potential issues during routine maintenance intervals or at times more convenient to the operator. Forthcoming telematic platforms and advanced diagnostic algorithms can enable the possibility to proactively handle problems and minimize stops. The platforms bring the possibility of increasing knowledge of fault characteristics and making diagnostic decisions by using a population of vehicles. However, this requires real-time diagnostic algorithms that process data both onboard and offboard at a central server. The paper presents a self organizing approach for failure and deviation detection on a fleet of vehicles. The approach builds on using parametric models for encoding the characteristical relations between different sensor readings for a vehicle sub-system or component.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0293
Luciano P. Lukacs, João Vitor Batisti, Luiz Carlos Simões Soares Júnior, Iuri Muniz Pepe
The cargo transportation in Brazil is predominantly done by road, instead of any other means of transportation. It represented more than 35% of the total amount of money spent on goods transportation on that South American country during 2005. Several factors should be taken in consideration in the final cost of this service. We can highlight, for example: poor road quality, cargo robbery, theft of tires, fuel stealing, road accidents, etc. These costs are always reassigned to the final customers. Among that list, one of main factors for increasing transport costs in Brazil is the illicit fuel deviation. In order to reduce this problem, entrepreneurs have adopted several strategies; so far, none of them could come up with an efficient proposal. This paper presents a new tool to assist preventing the fuel stealing issue. It can detect the tank violation, notifying the company when it happened and how much fuel was diverted.
2009-05-13
Technical Paper
2009-01-1607
Demetrio Cortese
The implementation of CAN messages has been a critical aspect of the ECU development process in recent years. The traditional approach generates more inconsistencies between the specification and the software coding (implementation), probably coding errors, and variable reproducibility of the implementation, depending on the ECU platform. Therefore in order to achieve an efficient development, the use of a high abstraction level of the CAN protocol is essential. The IVECO Electronics (IE) approach places emphasis on integrating various phases of the traditional Sw development process for the CAN Interface, hence leading to faster production of quality code and minimizing the cost associated with fixing the problems.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2652
Jeremy Wolstan
In 2006, the Federal Government, in cooperation with the State of Michigan built an expansive Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) and Wi-Fi network for the purpose of evaluating the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) network. This developed the need to use safety and mobility oriented applications to test and understand that network. NAVTEQ and Delphi partnered to develop off-board navigation and in-vehicle signage applications, aimed at serving the traveling public, to utilize these networks. As time has progressed, these applications have continued to develop, as one case the market is demanding is Connected Navigation.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2650
Chris Hedges, Frank Perry
The FCC allocated the 5.9 GHz spectrum to enhance the safety and productivity of the nations transportation system. Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is a medium range wireless communication protocol that supports vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-roadside, and roadside-to-vehicle communication. It enables both public safety and licensed private transactions. DSRC contrasts cellular and Wi-Fi by providing fast acquisition, low latency communication in a relatively close communication range. IEEE is developing the Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) communication standards to provide the groundwork for DSRC and enable seamless, interoperable services. The WAVE architecture includes IEEE P1609.1 (Application layer), IEEE P1609.2 (Security layer), IEEE P1609.3 (Network layer), IEEE P1609.4 (Upper MAC Layer), and IEEE 802.11p (Lower MAC and Physical layers).
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2649
Chris Hedges, Doug Welk
Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) is an initiative of the US Department of Transportation to provide communications among vehicles and between vehicles and roadside infrastructure in order to increase the safety and productivity of transportation systems. It makes use of but is not restricted to the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) spectrum. There are 3 major categories of applications for VII - Highway Safety, Vehicular Mobility, and Consumer & Commercial Services. There are currently approximately 42,000 traffic fatalities a year in the United States. Reducing deaths, injuries and property damage is of the highest priority in the development of VII applications. Electronic Brake Warning, Signal Phase and Timing, and Collision Detection are among the applications dedicated to improving highway safety. Increasing traffic volume is outpacing the addition of new roadway capacity, resulting in increasing delays, congestion and frustration.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0035
Zach Bonefas, Stewart Moorehead
There are many unique aspects related to implementing unmanned agricultural vehicles. Automated navigation systems, drive by wire electronics and implement control are already widely available in the marketplace providing a firm foundation for unmanned vehicles. Variable environments, harsh weather conditions, large vehicles and implements and high costs present challenges to bringing unmanned systems to the agriculture marketplace. The lack of existing standards is another limiting factor that calls for a united effort from industry, academia and government. Despite these factors, unmanned vehicles will be part of the future of agriculture, providing increased productivity and helping to meet the world's growing food needs.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3582
Liang Chu, Jiayun Gu, Jun Zhang, Li Liu, Minghui Liu, Wenruo Wei
In the performance evaluating of Electronic Brake System, conventional test methods have some inconvenience in existence. For example, the fixing of pressure sensors and wheel speed sensors is restrained by the installation position, and the precision of measuring is prone to be affected by the environment conditions. Since Electronic Brake System is featured by CAN (Controller Area Network) communication, special testing instrument can be connected with CAN bus, monitoring signals transmitting on the bus. This paper outlines the results of the study performed to analyze the application of CAN communication in the way of performance evaluation of Electronic Braking System.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3604
Mark Jensen
As regulations for on-board diagnostics head toward the heavy-duty trucking industry, there are a variety of new communication concepts that will directly impact J1939 systems. ECUs on J1939 networks must support new standard diagnostic protocols and data. Vehicles must provide single-point access for concise OBD data sets that represent multiple ECUs. New technologies, such as wireless communication links, present completely new and different scenarios for diagnostic testing. Understanding these concepts and their implications is essential to designing a J1939 system that will integrate into the coming global OBD infrastructure.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3500
Roy McCann, John Daily, Glenn Addo
This paper reviews the basics of radio frequency identification technology and the existing uses in commercial vehicle systems. The specific engineering design challenges associated with the metallic environments encountered in commercial applications are discussed. An empirical design method using a variable dielectric thickness is given. Experimental results for the use of RFID in the metallic environment encountered in a commercial vehicle demonstrate the validity of the design method.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3494
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Bharathi Krishnamoorthy
Automotive electronics penetration in commercial vehicle segment, in India and other developing countries is in a primitive stage. Introducing a new technology into automobile applications may involve unpredictable failure modes, imposing several risks on the OEM (acronyms are mentioned in the last section) and causing financial losses. Low failure rates can only be achieved by rigorous testing before the product launch. This will help to achieve the required safety and reliability at the system level. The conventional method of testing has some drawbacks. This paper briefs on an advanced testing methodology, as well as a low cost system using telemetry for a trip-information computing unit. It also brings out the merits and demerits on using this system compared to conventional testing as well as other sophisticated testing systems. Towards the end, the paper proposes an alternate testing method and also relevant future works in this domain.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941789
Steven C. Young
The CAN multiplexed network used on the new GENESIS™ 70 Series tractors allows for integrated control and monitoring of the engine, transmission, and hydraulic subsystems on this series of vehicles. Basic design philosophies for successful multiplexed networks, and experiences and conclusions concerning the use of CAN on the GENESIS 70 Series tractors are discussed.
1995-11-01
Technical Paper
952588
Donald L. Thoma
Low-Earth orbiting (LEO) satellite communications technology offers a new alternative to track and monitor transportation assets to increase operating efficiency and enhance cargo security. The affordable, low-power VHF communications equipment and the global coverage of LEO satellites provide a solution for tracking and communicating with mobile assets such as trailers and cargo containers. With the successful launch of the first two satellites in April 1995, the ORBCOMM Network is the first commercial LEO system and will begin trailer tracking and vehicle monitoring services in 1996. This paper will describe the ORBCOMM satellite communications system and will discuss the tracking and monitoring services ORBCOMM will offer to the transportation industry.
1995-11-01
Technical Paper
952681
Richard J. Schoenian, Deborah L. Cameron
Applications of Vehicle to Roadside Communications are examined as they apply to Commercial Vehicle Operations. The roadside infrastructure, in-vehicle electronics and the need for industry standards are explored. A macro view discusses federally funded projects that are seeding the infrastructure required to rapidly deploy this emerging technology. From a micro view, individual fleet, operator and governmental advantages are discussed. Weigh station preclearance and electronic toll collection are discussed, as well as future applications such as data exchange, automated border crossings and in-vehicle signing. The requirement for an open and expandable architecture to meet current and future needs is concluded.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941662
Marvin L. Stone
Abstract Standardized Class C communication networks are being developed for use in construction and agricultural equipment. Both an ISO and SAE standards are being developed. This paper attempts to summarize both standards and to discuss potential application of the standards.
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