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Viewing 1 to 30 of 546
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2391
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Scott E. Bogard, Paul A. Green, Shan Bao
This paper explores the potential safety performance of “Future Generation” automated speed control crash avoidance systems for Commercial Vehicles. The technologies discussed in this paper include Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), second and third generation Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) comprised of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) with Collision Mitigation Braking (CMB) technology as applied to heavy trucks, including single unit and tractor semitrailers. The research [1[ discussed in this paper is from a study conducted by UMTRI which estimated the safety benefits of current and future F-CAM systems and the comparative efficacy of adaptive cruise control. The future generation systems which are the focus of this paper were evaluated at two separate levels of product refinement, “second generation” and “third generation” systems.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2385
N. Santosh Datta
With evolution of emission norms in diesel engines, NOx emission limits became more stringent and can be met only with specific NOx emission control systems. The NOx control systems in heavy duty diesel engines are monitored for OBD regulations in on-highway applications. Additionally driver warning and inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems are to be complied in both on-highway and off-highway applications. The driver inducement requirements are defined with intent to enforce and ensure correct operation of NOx control system. The NOx control systems and inducement measures are implemented in engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) software to be compliant to legislation. The paper focuses on driver inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems. The paper summarizes the inducement requirements with a system overview and software design to meet driver inducement requirements for EUVI legislation and CARB/EPA compliance.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2649
Dave Hansen, John Washeleski
The ClearFast™ heated fluid washer system provides 700% more heated fluid than other systems. The ClearFast’s unique dual heating elements provides instant (<12 seconds) and stored heated fluid. The efficient heating configuration uses the minimum electrical energy from the vehicles charging system. The first heated chamber (instant) quickly clears frost during initial vehicle start-up. The second heated chamber (stored fluid) provides quick windshield cleaning for snow/ice, dirt and bug residue while driving. The dual heating element allows the system to maintain a reservoir of heated fluid, but maximizes heating efficiency when the reservoir is depleted. The system requires only three simple electrical connections to the vehicle and is plumbed in-line between the washer pump and spray nozzles. The adaptive control software monitors not only the operating parameters of the system, but the health of the vehicle charging system to ensure undue strain is not placed upon it.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1648
Xubin Song, Mehdi Ahmadian
This paper presents a parametric study of two semiactive adaptive control algorithms through simulation: the non-model based skyhook control, and the newly developed model-based nonlinear adaptive vibration control. This study includes discussion of suspension model setup, dynamic analysis approach, and controller tuning. The simulation setup is from a heavy-duty truck seat suspension with a magneto-rheological (MR) damper. The dynamic analysis is performed in the time domain using sine sweep excitations without the need to linearize such a nonlinear semiactive system that is studied here. Through simulation, the effectiveness of both control algorithms is demonstrated for vibration isolation. The computation flops of the simulation in the SIMULINK environment are compared, and the adaptability is studied with respect to plant variations and different excitation profiles, both of which come across typically for vehicle suspension systems.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1768
Wolfram Hohmann
In this paper we will explore how 15 years after being introduced into avionics systems, “by-wire” technologies have entered the automotive world. The use of software within safety-relevant application areas like restraint systems, braking, steering and vehicle dynamics support and control systems, is requiring changes in the processes and methodologies used for embedded software development.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2267
Thomas Erkkinen, Anupam Gangopadhyay, Shobhit Shanker, Seshadri Shekar, Ziaudeen Mohamed
Rapid control prototyping (RCP) is a widely used technique for verifying a controller's functional behavior. Typically, RCP uses a target processor with ample processing power and memory, which makes the technique attractive for engineers exploring new concepts. However, a large gap often exists between the RCP target and the production ECU in terms of the available code generation technology, the supporting tool chain, and I/O hardware. Consequently, significant work is required when migrating a controller from RCP to production. Furthermore, due to cost constraints, RCP systems are difficult to deploy in large numbers for fleet testing or preproduction trials. In response to the challenges associated with RCP, automotive engineers are moving towards a technique called on-target rapid prototyping (OTRP).
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2263
Thomas Bardelang
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. In addition to a multi-stage test process focusing on the functions of the driver assistance systems (software), the “electrical” aspects (hardware) also form part of holistic maturity level validation. The test process is supported by state-of-the-art, high-performance tools (e.g. automatable component test benches and overall vehicle HiL systems) which, in particular, allow quick and accurate configuration in line with different vehicle variants.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2261
Jace Allen, Amanjot Dhaliwal, Jeff Warra
Currently, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing is the defacto standard for ECU verification and validation at the majority of the Commercial Vehicle OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. HIL Testing is used to shorten development and testing time for both engine and machine control systems. In order to use this process, many of these companies have to develop and maintain expertise in the area of Model-based development (MBD). This paper introduces an approach which allows for the effective use of HIL systems without having to directly work in a MBD environment. Many HIL tests can be done with stimulus and response analysis of the ECUs, given core knowledge of the expected behavior of its control software and I/O subsystems. For hardware interface and diagnostics validation, this open-loop testing of the controller may suffice. It is important to provide the tester with capabilities to easily modify these stimuli and evaluate the responses.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0449
Hiroyuki Matsumori, Kohei Kurachi
1 ABSTRACT ABS becomes popular standard equipment due to increased demand for vehicle safety from user. That trend requests to make ABS smaller in size and lower in cost. Electronic Control Unit of ABS (ABS/ECU) has to correspond to that request and, further, ABS/ECU should lead system development by integration of ECU with actuator in engine compartment. We have been promoting the above development positively as the developer of ECU. This paper describes the development of high temperature-proof and small sized ABS/ECU composed 2 chips with using ASIC (Application Specific of Integrated Circuit) design and the method of thermal design, suitable for integration with actuator.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2811
Craig R. Eike, Guy T. Stoever
This paper will discuss the new Case MX Magnum® tractor transmission controls. They are electronically controlled, hydraulic valves that reduce transmission internal torque spikes, operator shift shock, complexity, and eliminated the need for periodic system calibration. The new system splits the controls into their simplest common denominators, and leverages commonality of parts and concepts to reduce both system and development costs. It maintains clutch pressure during low regulated pressure transients that occur during a shift, while compensating for clutch wear, to maintain the desired shift characteristics.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2807
Russell D. Taylor
Application of an 8-bit microcontroller and electro-hydraulic valves to replace existing mechanical linkages and valves is proposed for a compact utility tractor with power shift forward and reverse clutches. Details of the system are discussed which includes projected costs, function, and performance of the individual components. An evaluation is made of the resulting shift quality and featherability.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3778
Thomas Spoerl, Charles Nesser
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) networks should be tested as a system to ensure efficient and accurate results. Often, testing of ECU networks is performed with specially equipped test vehicles. In–vehicle testing is particularly costly, time–consuming, and inefficient with heavy–duty trucks. Also, complete code coverage is typically not achieved with in–vehicle testing. This incomplete testing can lead to numerous problems including an increase in warranty costs and the failure to meet regulatory requirements. A scalable Hardware–in–the–Loop (HiL) system can provide a means to test such large ECU networks in a laboratory environment.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3762
Ronald W. Friend, Timothy J. Frashure
An analysis of salt water effects and test methods to design Antilock Brake System (ABS) Electronic Control Units (ECUs) capable of withstanding the Heavy Vehicle frame mount environment. An examination of new and existing test methods and design techniques to ensure reliability over the life of the vehicle.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0025
Latha Venkatakrishnan, K. Vasanthamani, V. Paquianadin, R. Ganesh, Seshadri Sekar, J. Lakshminarasimhan, S. Janani
Automotive Infotronics Private Limited (AIPL is a Joint Venture between Ashok Leyland, India and Continental AG, Germany) has been working on a body control solution for the commercial vehicle segment over the last few years. The units developed meet the stringent IP66 ingress protection requirement (dust and water) for Indian market applications. Due to the “closed” nature of the enclosure, thermal design for the device is done in such a way so that heat can be dissipated through the metallic enclosure. The electronic design is modular so that a variety of applications can be handled with the same basic design. Finally, a big step is taken in the creation of the application software that is fully model-based and “auto-coded” [6]. With the adoption of model-based design, this unit makes itself completely flexible where a host of customer specific (and/or customer owned) strategies can be seamlessly integrated with the basic application software.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0405
Namir J. Zara
The four wheel steer system better known as the Quadra Steer system (QS4) is a system that provides steering control of the rear wheel of long based pickups and large sport utilities. Analysis was utilized to develop Rear/Front (R/F) steering algorithm with the vehicle in it's normal mode which is characterized as vehicle at curb + 2 passengers or GVW/RGAWR on dry surface. Analysis utilized BZ3 control response simulation model to conduct this study. This dynamic model was used to evaluate key vehicle handling parameters to validate and optimize the algorithm.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2615
Michael Sevcovic, Jay Rotz
This paper describes the electrical system development for the headlight feature in an International High Performance Vehicle. Systems engineers developed several iterations of functional requirements, functional block diagrams, state diagrams, and body controller software requirements early in the development cycle at considerable engineering expense. The hardware design team found the functional block diagrams useful, however the software design team did not find the other artifacts useful. The software design teams chose to implement a design that was very similar to a current product offering and did not map to the system proposed by the systems engineering team. This paper provides examples of the Systems Engineering artifacts and shows when they were developed in the project timeline.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2031
Zhao Weiqiang, Changfu Zong, Hongyu Zheng, Huaji Wang, Shengnan Yang
The quality of the brake system is a significant safety factor in commercial vehicles on the roads. With the development of automobile technology, the single function ABS system didn't meet active safety requirements of the user. The Electronically Controlled Brake System (EBS) system will replace the ABS system to become the standard safety equipment of commercial vehicles in the near future. EBS can be said an enhanced ABS system, it contains load sensor, brake valve sensor and pressure sensor of chamber, etc, and it is more advantages than ABS. This paper describes a flexible integrated test bench for ABS/EBS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) based on Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation technique. It consists of most commercial vehicle pneumatic braking system components (from brake pedal valve, brake caliper to brake chambers), and uses the dSPACE real-time simulation system to communicate to the hardware I/O interface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0571
Guillaume Bernard, Mark Scaife, Amit Bhave, David Ooi, Julian Dizy
Abstract Internal combustion (IC) engines that meet Tier 4 Final emissions standards comprise of multiple engine operation and control parameters that are essential to achieve the low levels of NOx and soot emissions. Given the numerous degrees of freedom and the tight cost/time constraints related to the test bench, application of virtual engineering to IC engine development and emissions reduction programmes is increasingly gaining interest. In particular, system level simulations that account for multiple cycle simulations, incylinder turbulence, and chemical kinetics enable the analysis of combustion characteristics and emissions, i.e. beyond the conventional scope of focusing on engine performance only. Such a physico-chemical model can then be used to develop Electronic Control Unit in order to optimise the powertrain control strategy and/or the engine design parameters.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8033
Guoying Chen
Abstract According to the vehicle’s driving conditions, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems can actively adjust the height of vehicle body, so that better ride comfort and handling stability will be achieved, which can’t be realized by traditional passive suspension. This paper presents a design and implementation of ECAS controller for vehicle. The controller is aimed at adjusting the static and dynamic height of the vehicle. To exactly track the height of the vehicle and satisfy the control demand of air suspension, a height sensor decoding circuit based on the inductance sensor is designed. Based on it, a new height control algorithm is adopted to achieve rapid and precise control of vehicle height. To verify the function of the designed controller and the proposed height control algorithm, an air spring loading test bench and an ECU-in-loop simulation test bench are respectively established.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8080
Yanwu Ge, Ying Huang
Abstract The ever-growing number of interacting electronic vehicle control systems requires new control algorithms to manage the increasing system complexity. As a result, torque-based control architecture has been popular for its easy extension as the torque demand variable is the only interface between the engine control algorithms and other vehicle control systems. Under the torque-based control architecture, the engine and AT coordinated control for upshift process is investigated. Based on the dynamics analysis, quantitative relationship between the turbine torque of HTC and output shaft torque of AT has been obtained. Then the coordinated control strategy has been developed to smooth the torque trajectory of AT output shaft. The designed control strategy is tested on a powertrain simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink and a test bench. Through simulation, the shift time range in which the engine coordinated control strategy is effective is acquired.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0382
Eloy Martins de Oliveira Junior, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Abstract With the growing complexity and integration of systems as satellites, automobiles, aircrafts, turbines, power controls and traffic controls, as prescribed by SAE-ARP-4754A Standard, the time de-synchronization can cause serious or even catastrophic failures. Time synchronization is a very important aspect to achieve high performance, reliability and determinism in networked control systems. Such systems operate in a real time distributed environment which frequently requires a consistent time view among different devices, levels and granularities. So, to guarantee high performance, reliability and determinism it is required a performance evaluation of time synchronization of the overall system. This time synchronization performance evaluation can be done in different ways, as experiments and/or model and simulation.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2736
Dong Zhang, Changfu Zong, Shengnan Yang, Weiqiang Zhao
Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed from ABS to enhance the brake performance. Based on the early development of controller hardware, this paper starts with an analysis of the definition of EBS. It aims at the software design of electronic control unit, and makes it compiled into the controller in the form of C language by the in-depth study about control strategy of EBS in different braking conditions. Designed controller software is divided into two layers. The upper control strategy includes the recognition algorithm of driver's braking intention, estimation algorithm of the vehicle state, conventional braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of deceleration control and braking force distribution, and emergency braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of brake assist control and ABS control.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3514
Frédéric Holzmann, Armin Sulzmann, Gernot Spiegelberg, Roland Siegwart, Heiner Bubb
This paper introduces a concept of predictive active safety by means of a full redundant architecture with the driver, from the perception of the environment to the vehicle controllers. The bottleneck of the current driver-vehicle association will be analyzed first. Then a virtual driver and the safety envelope of the different maneuvers will be described. A decision control will be presented that it matches the driver's command in this safety envelope. It is designed to give adequate feedback to the driver and can safely perform the command to the optimum of the chosen maneuver.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3495
Dejun Zhuang, Fan Yu, Daofei Li
For the purposes of on-line control, e.g., in an automatic driving system, or of closed-loop directional control simulation, an optimal preview artificial neural network (ANN) driver model based on error elimination algorithm(EEA) is built. Then the optimal preview times are discussed in high frequency range in this system. The simulation results of optimal preview ANN driver model and Error Elimination Algorithm driver model are compared under the condition of different vehicle speeds and paths, which shows that the proposed approach is efficient and reliable enough, particularly for driver-vehicle closed-loop system.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3638
Stéphane Bilodeau
In severe - hot and humid - climates, Vehicles Air Conditioning Systems (AC systems) in use today suffers from a lack of performance and on a difficulty to efficiently meet the cooling load without causing a significant reduction in the performance of the internal combustion engine. This is especially true in applications where vehicles have long idling period and a lot of passengers, such as buses and passenger shuttles. An integrated cooling system has been implemented and tested in an Airport Passenger shuttle in order to improve fuel economy and cooling effectiveness in severe environment (up to 120 °F). The cooling system integrates a high-efficiency thermal storage technology (based on phase change materials) coupled to high performance compressors. Comprehensive performance analyses and testing of the high-performance system have highlighted many benefits of using the technology in such applications.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3639
Keith A. Tabor
A revolution in mobile hydraulic equipment is occurring. Conventional hydraulic spool valves with hydromechanical pressure compensators are being replaced by valve assemblies with four valve independent metering with electronically-controlled pressure compensation. In the system described here, two of the four independent valves are active during metering. This new topology offers significant advantages due to the two degrees of freedom provided. In this paper, the theory behind a new method of flow control based upon load feedback is presented for two of the five distinct metering modes. In addition, a new algorithm for setting the supply pressure is presented which is also based upon load feedback.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3632
Amir Shenouda, Wayne Book
The field of earth moving equipment is experiencing a transformation due to the introduction of more electronic control capability and advanced control concepts. Conventional hydraulic control systems are controlled by proportional directional spool valve. The construction of the spool valve is such that a given position of the spool determines the flow in and the flow out restriction sizes. Thus, metering in and metering out are dependent or coupled. A certain restriction size on the inlet corresponds to a certain restriction size on the outlet. Therefore, we have one degree of freedom. It can provide for good motion control but it cannot achieve energy saving potential at the same time. In this paper, the concept of ‘independent meter in / meter out’ will be emphasized. Decoupling of meter in from meter out provides for more controllability and potential for energy saving in overrunning load cases when compared with a conventional spool valve controlled hydraulic system.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3633
Manohari D. Ramesh, Yan A. Tan, XueKui Lan
The design of a pressure compensated hydraulic valve is optimized using CFD analysis. The valve is used in a hydraulic system to control implement movement. High flow rates through the valve resulted in unacceptably high pressure drops, leading to an effort to optimize the valve design. Redesign of the valve had to be achieved under the constraint of minimal manufacturing cost. The flow path of hydraulic oil through the valve, the spool design, and various components of the valve that caused the high pressure drops were targeted in this analysis. A commercially available CFD package was used for the 3D analysis. The hydraulic oil flow was assumed to be turbulent, isothermal and incompressible. The steady-state results were validated by comparison with experimental data.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3618
M. Borghi, M. Milani, F. Paltrinieri, B. Zardin
This paper studies the proportional directional control valves design influence on the energetic behavior of a mid-power compact excavator. In particular, with reference to the hydraulic circuit actuating the primary workgroup, in the paper the hydraulic power metering performed with the boom cylinder proportional control valve is studied, and some design solution useful in reducing both the hydraulic power dissipation, and the power absorption from the machinery prime mover are highlighted. The analysis, experimentally performed for different operating conditions, is carried out highlighting the influence of a metering configuration both on the supply pressure modulation and on the flow-rate supplied to the actuator.
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