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Viewing 1 to 30 of 375
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0269
Adam Bryant, Joseph Beno, Damon Weeks
Battlefield reconnaissance is an integral part of today's integrated battlefield management system. Current reconnaissance technology typically requires land based vehicle systems to observe while stationary or, at best, significantly limits travel speeds while collecting data. By combining current Canadian Light Armored Vehicle based reconnaissance systems with the Center for Electromechanics (CEM) electronically controlled active Electromechanical Suspension System (EMS), opportunities exist to substantially increase cross-country speeds at which useful reconnaissance data may be collected. This report documents a study performed by The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics with funding from L3-ES to use existing modeling and simulation tools to explore potential benefits provided by EMS for reconnaissance on the move.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0117
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2453
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β).
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2344
Daniel Skelton, Shaoping Xiong, John Lumkes, Farid Breidi
This paper introduces a high performance actuation mechanism to enable new systems and improve the performance and efficiency of existing systems. The concept described is based on coupling energy storage mechanisms with translational movement to increase the speed and controllability of linear actuators. Initial development is a high speed linear actuator for hydraulic proportional valves, and the concept can be extended into other applications. With high speed proportional valves, the performance of existing cam phasing systems can be improved or the actuation mechanisms can be applied directly to IC engine valve actuation. Other applications include active suspension control valves, transmission control valves, industrial and commercial vehicle fluid power systems, and fuel injection systems. The stored actuation energy (such as a rotating mass) is intermittently coupled and decoupled to produce linear or rotary motion in the primary actuator.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1342
Luo Yan, Cheng Zhibin, Su Qingzu, Tian Xin, Cheng Xiaodong
In China, although overload phenomena are serious and effective transportation management is urgently demanded, equipment mainly used to check overloads is platform scales for static weighing. To develop an effective and economical Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system is imperative in China. With this awareness, we presented a new technology, using high-pressure oil pipe as the sensor of the WIM system. By acquiring and analyzing the pressure signals when vehicles run over the pipe, the wheel loads, axel loads and gross weight can be got. In this paper, the static characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the oil pipe have been researched, and the system's hardware and software were developed. Considering complicated characteristic of the oil pipe and other factors effecting WIM precision, we used neural networks to scale the WIM system dynamically. Test results showed that precision can satisfy the requirement of actual application.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1191
Marcus Hiemer, Sebastian Lehr, Uwe Kiencke, Takanori Matsunaga
The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0276
Milene A. Luciano, Vanessa F. C. Lins
In the last decade, industries have been concerned about the processes production sustainability and with the use of alternative energies forms, in order to minimize the amount of waste generated in the process, and to suit market requirements. With this view, one alternative for automotive industry is the use of organometallic coated automotive fuel tanks. These tanks are not permeable to hydrocarbons, they do not need to be painted after stamping and are 100% recyclable. The replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels is also a way to minimize the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, reducing global warming. In this work, corrosion resistance of organometallic coated and tin coated automotive tanks, in contact with hydrated ethyl alcohol, gasoline, and diesel and soybean biodiesel was evaluated and compared, using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0387
Milene Adriane Luciano, Erick Marsalha Garcia, Maria das Merces Reis de Castro, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha Lins
For metallic tanks in contact with aqueous solution, it is always observed the presence of electrochemical corrosion. This process can cause both economic and environmental damage. In the automotive industry, fuel tanks systems have been studied in order to propose new materials to replace the plastic tanks or tanks with metallic coatings. Plastic tanks have the disadvantage of not being recyclable. In the other hand, for metallic coated tanks, tin is used as a coat material and, for this reason, the external tank side must be painted, making its productive process more expensive and generating higher amount of waste. Nowadays, organic-metallic coated tanks, in which, nickel and aluminum are the metals present, can be found. These coatings show potential application; because they do not use heavy metals in their composition and they do not require external painting, allowing a lower production cost.
2012-10-29
Technical Paper
2012-22-0010
Philippe Beillas, François Alonzo, Marie-Christine Chevalier, Philippe Lesire, Franck Leopold, Xavier Trosseille, Heiko Johannsen
The Abdominal Pressure Twin Sensors (APTS) for Q3 and Q6 dummies are composed of soft polyurethane bladders filled with fluid and equipped with pressure sensors. Implanted within the abdominal insert of child dummies, they can be used to detect abdominal loading due to the belt during frontal collisions. In the present study - which is part of the EC funded CASPER project - two versions of APTS (V1 and V2) were evaluated in abdominal belt compression tests, torso flexion test (V1 only) and two series of sled tests with degraded restraint conditions. The results suggest that the two versions have similar responses, and that the pressure sensitivity to torso flexion is limited. The APTS ability to detect abdominal loading in sled tests was also confirmed, with peak pressures typically below 1 bar when the belt loaded only the pelvis and the thorax (appropriate restraint) and values above that level when the abdomen was loaded directly (inappropriate restraint).
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8090
Sauhard Singh, Sumit Mishra, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh
Abstract One of the most promising solutions to address the twin problems of transport related pollution and energy security is to use alternative fuels. Compressed Natural gas (CNG) has been widely used in India to address the menace of pollution from commercial vehicles in cities like Delhi. Hydrogen blended compressed natural gas (HCNG) as a fuel has potential for further reducing harmful emissions and greenhouse gases. Enriching hydrogen in CNG improves combustion characteristic of CNG and reduces carbonyl emissions. Due to growing concerns over un-regulated emissions and their effect on human health, it is imperative to estimate un-regulated emissions from such alternatives for assessing overall impact of such fuels. Presently world over, emission legislations mainly addresses pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, CH4, NH3, PM etc. Relatively higher quantity in exhaust qualifies these pollutants to be monitored and controlled.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0128
Rafael Hilario Fonseca Mazzorana, Olício da Silva Junior, Roberson Assis de Oliveira
Abstract The proper technology selection, depending on the application environment, will be discussed and exemplified in this paper through the analysis of the fuel level sensor technology selection applied to the Latin America environment. Commercial vehicles have a very particular requirement when it comes to fuel tanks configuration, depending on usage (autonomy), road conditions, weight distribution and application. The most common layout is the dual tank configuration where two tanks are connected to each other by means of communication vessels. After the selection of the fuel tank layout, the challenge is to correctly select the level sensor system, which provides useful information to the vehicle driver. If this measurement is not correctly performed, a significant logistic issue is raised, as usually, a commercial vehicle with full load carries up to 1200 liters of diesel (it will depend on the desired range).
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0381
Daniel Mousinho Lago, Leonardo Chagas da Silva, Manoel Fernandes de Oliveira Filho, JoãoTelésforo Nóbrega de Medeiros
Abstract The internal combustion engines emit combustion gases which contain nano and micrometric particles that are harmful to human health, causing deleterious damages to the human's respiratory system. In Brazil, heavy vehicles, such as buses and trucks, have diesel engines that work under high loads and run through metropolitan areas or in intense traffic flow roads. They are considered, nowadays, the main solid particles emitter in several World's areas. There are already standard systems to analyze these particles quantitative and qualitatively at high prices collected from vehicle gases emissions in places such as bus stops. This paper presents a new method which retains solid micrometric particulate matter emitted by diesel engine. It is simple and has a relatively low cost. A sheet of textile element was encapsulated in a system for gripping micrometric particles emitted by diesel single-cylinder engine operating in a bench and coupled with a electrical generator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0097
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park, Jaekwon Kim
Abstract Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) has become a popular system due to regulation in many countries. TPMS consists of sensors that measure air pressure and temperature in the tires. Each sensor transmits tire information to TPMS central unit for display purpose via RF. Commercial trailers having bodies longer than 7 m require RF repeaters to increase the data transmission range. Located near to rear wheels, RF repeater receives sensor signal in the rear wheels and transmits the signal to TPMS central unit. In this paper, we discuss RF repeater which transmits at multiple frequencies in order to increase signal reception. On TPMS central unit, RF receiver is able to tune to receive frequencies used in sensors and RF repeater. Other method for improving reception is to transmit same payload multiple times at same frequency as that of sensor. In the paper, other important specifications are discussed as RF repeater design is concerned.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0469
Hyunkoo Kang, Wooyong Jung, Choon Lee
Abstract This paper presents payload estimation based on experimental friction coefficients identification. To estimate exact payload mass, dynamic mathematical model such as actuator dynamics and front linkage dynamics is derived by using Newton-Euler method. From the dynamic equation, nonlinear terms are analyzed and transformed. And a friction model is derived from the experiments with various conditions which have three states; boom joint angle, head and rod chamber pressures. It can identify friction coefficients and compensate friction forces. In addition, the accuracy of payload estimation system is verified through the field test.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2728
Paul C. Cain
Abstract OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety related sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by continuously monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair expenses in earthmoving equipment are cost prohibitive. Today, this technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature, avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and to improve field “up time” performance. Application challenge: to develop a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environment typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1503
Jared Johan Engelbrecht, Tony Russell Martin, Piyush M. Gulve, Nagarjun Chandrashekar, Amol Dwivedi, Peter Thomas Tkacik, Zachary Merrill
Abstract Most commercial heavy-duty truck trailers are equipped with either a two sensor, one modulator (2S1M) or four sensors, two modulator (4S2M) anti-lock braking system (ABS). Previous research has been performed comparing the performance of different ABS modules, in areas such as longitudinal and lateral stability, and stopping distance. This study focuses on relating ABS module type and wheel speed sensor placement to trailer wheel lock-up and subsequent impact to tire wear for tandem axle trailers with the Hendrickson air-ride suspension. Prior to tire wear inspection, functionality of the ABS system was testing using an ABS scan tool communicating with the SAE J1587 plug access port on the trailer. Observations were documented on trailers using the 2S1M system with the wheel speed sensor placed on either the front or rear axle of a tandem pair.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3522
Kevin Hubert, Abhinav Kumar
All suspension systems have a common goal, which is to improve the ride in terms of comfort, handling, and safety. This is accomplished by influencing the motions afflicted by road irregularities to the wheels and axles while minimizing their affect on the vehicle body and frame. A successful design would therefore incorporate (1) a high Sprung-To-Unsprung-Mass-Ratio, (2) a Mass-Spring-Damper System between the vehicle body and the wheels, and (3) an anti-roll bar. Consequently, the wheels and axles endure the most of the motions caused by road irregularities while their affect is minimized on the vehicle body as desired. The objective of the Anti-Roll Stability Suspension Technology (ARSST) is to become an industry standard active suspension system for all vehicles while simultaneously offering cost-effective and performance-enhancing control to improve vehicle handling, safety, and comfort.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3521
Sun Tao, Yu Fan
An investigation is made to the multiobjective suspension control problem for a heavy off-road vehicle based on mixed H2/H ∞ optimal control synthesis. A design procedure is explained based on a performance trade-off curve in order to solve this problem. In comparison with other control synthesis results we have obtained, it is shown that by combining both techniques into one mixed norm optimization framework, it is possible to exploit the strengths of each norm to provide better performance for the given hydropneumatic suspensions.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3514
Frédéric Holzmann, Armin Sulzmann, Gernot Spiegelberg, Roland Siegwart, Heiner Bubb
This paper introduces a concept of predictive active safety by means of a full redundant architecture with the driver, from the perception of the environment to the vehicle controllers. The bottleneck of the current driver-vehicle association will be analyzed first. Then a virtual driver and the safety envelope of the different maneuvers will be described. A decision control will be presented that it matches the driver's command in this safety envelope. It is designed to give adequate feedback to the driver and can safely perform the command to the optimum of the chosen maneuver.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3497
Markus Plankensteiner, Kjeld Buus-Jensen, Finn Visgaard-Nielsen, Tomislav Lovric, Wolfgang Mickisch, Peter Rech, Christiana Seethaler
The development of Steer-by-Wire (SbW) systems for on-road use is a challenging task. In a joint industry effort several companies have teamed up in the TTA-Group SbW Working Group to develop an architectural cookbook for SbW. The working group started with the development of a concept document. It adopts IEC 61508 for the development of a reference SbW architecture for on-road use. The main focus of the working group will be achieved in a second step where common parts of the electronic architecture will be developed.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3639
Keith A. Tabor
A revolution in mobile hydraulic equipment is occurring. Conventional hydraulic spool valves with hydromechanical pressure compensators are being replaced by valve assemblies with four valve independent metering with electronically-controlled pressure compensation. In the system described here, two of the four independent valves are active during metering. This new topology offers significant advantages due to the two degrees of freedom provided. In this paper, the theory behind a new method of flow control based upon load feedback is presented for two of the five distinct metering modes. In addition, a new algorithm for setting the supply pressure is presented which is also based upon load feedback.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3631
M. Borghi, M. Milani, F. Conrad
The paper deals with the simulation and the experimental verification of the dynamic behaviour of a linear actuator equipped with different configurations of mechanical cushion. A numerical model, developed and tailored to describe the influence of different modulation of the discharged flow-rate (and of the correspondent discharging orifice design) on the cushioning characteristics variation is firstly introduced. Then, with respect to the case of the cylindrical cushioning engagement, both the reliability and the limits of the numerical approach are highlighted through a numerical vs. experimental comparison, involving the piston velocity and the cylinder chambers pressure. After, with the aim of highlighting the effect of mechanical cushions design on a two effect linear actuator dynamic performances, the characteristics modulation of four alternative cushioning systems are determined and deeply analyzed.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3632
Amir Shenouda, Wayne Book
The field of earth moving equipment is experiencing a transformation due to the introduction of more electronic control capability and advanced control concepts. Conventional hydraulic control systems are controlled by proportional directional spool valve. The construction of the spool valve is such that a given position of the spool determines the flow in and the flow out restriction sizes. Thus, metering in and metering out are dependent or coupled. A certain restriction size on the inlet corresponds to a certain restriction size on the outlet. Therefore, we have one degree of freedom. It can provide for good motion control but it cannot achieve energy saving potential at the same time. In this paper, the concept of ‘independent meter in / meter out’ will be emphasized. Decoupling of meter in from meter out provides for more controllability and potential for energy saving in overrunning load cases when compared with a conventional spool valve controlled hydraulic system.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3618
M. Borghi, M. Milani, F. Paltrinieri, B. Zardin
This paper studies the proportional directional control valves design influence on the energetic behavior of a mid-power compact excavator. In particular, with reference to the hydraulic circuit actuating the primary workgroup, in the paper the hydraulic power metering performed with the boom cylinder proportional control valve is studied, and some design solution useful in reducing both the hydraulic power dissipation, and the power absorption from the machinery prime mover are highlighted. The analysis, experimentally performed for different operating conditions, is carried out highlighting the influence of a metering configuration both on the supply pressure modulation and on the flow-rate supplied to the actuator.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3620
Keith A. Tabor
A revolution in mobile hydraulic equipment is occurring. Conventional hydraulic spool valves with hydromechanical pressure compensators are being replaced by valve assemblies with four valve independent metering with electronically-controlled pressure compensation. In the system described here, two of the four independent valves are active during metering. This new topology offers significant advantages due to the two degrees of freedom provided. One of these degrees of freedom used to control velocity is more fully described in a related paper. In this paper, it is shown how the second degree of freedom can be used to control pressure in an actuator workport or minimize velocity errors due to valve coefficient errors. Workport pressure control can be used to limit maximum or minimum workport pressures (e.g. prevent cavitation). Given certain criteria, an optimal solution can be obtained.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4279
Rene Sosa, Gerardo Velazquez
Improvements in safety have reduced fatalities in vehicle collisions, systems as airbags and ABS has reduced accidents even their severity. Lately Active Safety Systems as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Predictive Emergency Brake, Lane Change Assist and Blind Spot Detection Systems has been developed searching for avoiding accidents. Reductions on collision speeds by at least 5 km/h helps to reduce the severity of injuries in frontal collisions. This paper will focus on four main subjects. In the first time a comparison of sensors available in the present market is presented. Secondly, an idealized time responses during braking will be shown as a development platform for this project. Following, a vehicle model, which includes sub-models for the tires and a passive suspension, will be presented. Finally, an integrated model for dangerous obstacles detection [1] will be shown.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4236
Matthias Liermann, Christian Stammer, Hubertus Murrenhoff
Abstract A new hydraulic brake utilizing a self-energizing effect is developed at the Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS). In addition to a conventional hydraulic braking actuator, it features a supporting cylinder conducting the braking forces into the vehicle undercarriage. The braking force pressurizes the fluid in the supporting cylinder and is the power source for pressure control of the actuator. The new brake needs no external hydraulic power supply. The only input is an electrical braking force reference signal from a superior control unit. One major advantage of the SEHB concept is the direct control of the actual braking torque despite friction coefficient changes. The prototype design, presented in this paper, is done in two phases. The first prototype is based on an automotive brake caliper. It is set up to gain practical experience about the hydraulic self-energisation and to prepare the laboratory automation environment.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4222
Gianluca Vitale, Patrick Siebenbrunner, Holger Hülser, Johann Bachler, Ulrich Pfahl
The OBD II and EOBD legislation have significantly increased the number of system components that have to be monitored in order to avoid emissions degradation. Consequently, the algorithm design and the related calibration effort is becoming more and more challenging. Because of decreasing OBD thresholds, the monitoring strategy accuracy, which is tightly related with the components tolerances and the calibration quality, has to be improved. A model-based offline simulation of the monitoring strategies allows consideration of component and sensor tolerances as well as a first calibration optimization in the early development phase. AVL applied and improved a methodology that takes into account this information, which would require a big effort using testbed or vehicle measurements. In many cases a component influence analysis is possible before hardware is available for testbed measurements.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4189
H Rabibunnisa, Swarna Ramesh
The Suspension systems of Armoured Fighting Vehicles demand non-linear spring characteristics, variable damping, good ride cum handling characteristics and excellent crew comfort. Mechanical System Laboratory of CVRDE has carried out extensive performance evaluation and endurance testing activity of the Hydro gas Suspension Systems in the existing test rig. The tests involve measurement of spring characteristics and damping behavior. The stringent design requirement of futuristic combat vehicles has called for severe test conditions, accurate simulation of terrain and extensive fatigue testing for design validation. Hence MSL has taken up the design of state of the art Suspension Test Facility to meet the test protocol. This facility is capable of conventional testing of components using constant frequency - constant amplitude, simulation of service loads, acceptance testing, durability and endurance testing with fixed end configuration.
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