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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1879
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2025
Abhijeet Pingale, Deepak Vani
In traditional manufacturing processes a lot of material is wasted in hidden ways. These can be identified through Lean Manufacturing systems. It is proven that the Lean Approach eliminates waste and improves value. This reduces excessive investment in working capital and improves Return on Invested Capital (RoIC). As a result, the shareholder's value is maximized through simultaneously reducing costs and increasing capital efficiency. To demonstrate this we analyzed the production process of the Upper Output Shaft , a key component in a typical drive train assembly like a Four Wheel Drive transfer case, used in a pickup truck or SUV. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is used to identify and reduce non value-added activities.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2031
Robert Hupfer, Georg Habbel
The heavy-duty truck industry has adopted various methods and technologies to provide comfort in sleeper cabins during rest periods. For heating a sleeper cabin the fuel-operated heating technology has been used already industry wide, due to performance, ecological, and economical reasons. The same criteria apply to the comfort requirements in the summer or in warmer climate. One of the most common methods is still the idling of the main truck engine. While engine idling increases both fuel consumption and emissions, it is also having a negative effect on the engine and exhaust system maintenance, especially with the latest changes of the emission regulation and the application of active and passive Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration strategies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0269
Adam Bryant, Joseph Beno, Damon Weeks
Battlefield reconnaissance is an integral part of today's integrated battlefield management system. Current reconnaissance technology typically requires land based vehicle systems to observe while stationary or, at best, significantly limits travel speeds while collecting data. By combining current Canadian Light Armored Vehicle based reconnaissance systems with the Center for Electromechanics (CEM) electronically controlled active Electromechanical Suspension System (EMS), opportunities exist to substantially increase cross-country speeds at which useful reconnaissance data may be collected. This report documents a study performed by The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics with funding from L3-ES to use existing modeling and simulation tools to explore potential benefits provided by EMS for reconnaissance on the move.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0266
J.Y. Wong
With growing globalization of the economy, to gain a competitive edge in world markets shortening the product development cycle is crucial. Virtual product development is, therefore, being actively pursued in the off-road vehicle industry. To implement this process successfully, the development of comprehensive and realistic computer-aided methods for performance and design evaluation of off-road vehicles is of vital importance. To be useful to the engineer in industry for the development and design of new products, the computer-aided methods should take into account all major vehicle design parameters and pertinent terrain characteristics. They should be based on the understanding of the physical nature and the mechanics of vehicle-terrain interaction. Their capabilities should be substantiated by test data.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0459
Chee Yap, Ronald Stapleton, Ronald Smolinski
The drive to incorporate renewable resources continues to gain momentum within the automotive industry. FXI has developed a grade of low (1.7 pcf) density slabstock foam which uses a natural oil polyol in place of a petroleum-based polyol. This foam grade, trademarked GreenBlend\St, has been developed specifically to produce foam-fabric/vinyl laminates for automotive seating, and interior trim applications such as headrests, armrests, visors and door panels. This new foam grade satisfies all of the OEM specifications for physical properties, including fogging and flammability, and yields satisfactory bond strengths when flame-laminated to cover stock. It is also s cost competitive technology compared to conventional slabstock foam using petroleum-based polyols.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0656
Jason A. Lustbader, John P. Rugh, Brianna R. Rister, Travis S. Venson
In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs per year primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on solutions to this challenge through the CoolCab project. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. To help assess and improve idle reduction solutions, the CoolCalc software tool was developed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0191
Edoardo Sabbioni, Silvia Negrini, Francesco Braghin, Stefano Melzi lng
The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0692
Hamid R. Rahai, Ehsan Shamloo, Jeremy Ralph Bonifacio
The effects of humid air on the performance of a naturally aspired three-cylinder diesel engine with low sulfur diesel fuel have been investigated. The additions of the humidity to intake air were performed with a variable steam generator using distilled water, where the relative humidity levels of the intake air were changed from the ambient conditions of 65% to 75% and 95% levels. The tests were performed at two approximate engine output brake horse powers (BHP) of 5.9, and 8.9. Results showed approximately 3.7% and 22.5% reduction in NO x emissions when the relative humidity of the air was increased from 65% (the ambient relative humidity) to 75% and 95% respectively. The addition of the humidity results in increases in the CO, CO₂, and particulate matter (PM), by approximately 3.7, 3.55, 14.9 percents at 5.9 BHP and 22, 2.8, and 9.3 percents at 8.9 BHP. There was no change in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at 5.9 BHP and about 2.7 increase in the BSFC at 8.9 BHP.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2474
Helmut Theissl, Alois Danninger, Thomas Sacher, Herwig Ofner, Erwin Schalk
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2462
Reza Torbati, Marco Federico Pidria, Giovanni Cerciello, Davide Rodonò
Partial flow filters (PFF) are devices that can capture particulate matter (PM) for a period of time sufficient for its catalytic oxidation. The filter consists of alternating layers of corrugated metal foil and porous sintered metal fleece which captures the particulates. The captured particles are then re-generated passively by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) produced by the oxidation of NO on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) placed before the filter. The filter's robust design and the ability to operate without any maintenance, i.e. no vehicle downtime, have led to an increasing demand for both heavy duty (HD) and light duty (LD) retrofit applications worldwide. Unlike diesel particulate filter (DPF), the PFF will not plug once filled with soot to its maximum capacity in the absence of passive regeneration (low load and low exhaust temperature conditions). Instead, the PM conversion efficiency will gradually decrease, allowing PM emissions to pass through.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2466
Steffen Daum, Sadanand Bhosale, Gernot Graf, Dipankar Ray
The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. In parallel to transient test cycles, increased emission durability as well as real driving emissions must be fulfilled. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the specific operation requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits. The publication shows a cost efficient, reliable and durable approach based on the example of a tractor engine jointly developed by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. (M&M) and AVL. It was found that a naturally aspirated (NA) application equipped with common rail and combined with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is able to fulfill all legal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 requirements with a minimum effort on the exhaust aftertreatment side by using only a diesel oxidation catalyst.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2453
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β).
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2441
Xinyu Ge
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2424
Jyotirmoy Barman
Exhaust gas recirculation is one important measure to achieve the Bharat Stage IV, Bharat Stage V as well as the Euro V emissions legislation. EGR is one of the most promising solutions to reduce NOx to achieve Bharat Stage IV emission norms for any high specific power engine. An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of EGR and multiple injections on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. Recent work has shown that multiple injections are effective at reducing particulate. Thus, it was of interest to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing particulate and NOx with the combined use of EGR and multiple injections. The tests were conducted on a four cylinder four valve light duty truck engine. Tests were done at emission modes (A, B & C Modes) with EGR are variation along with different injection strategies. The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2430
James Smith, Justin Greuel, Brian Ratkos, Ethan Schauer
Implementation of EPA's heavy-duty engine NOx standard of 0.20 g/bhp-hr has resulted in the introduction of a new generation of emission control systems for on-highway heavy-duty diesel engines. These new control systems are predominantly based around aftertreatment systems utilizing urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) techniques, with only one manufacturer relying solely on in-cylinder NOx emission reduction techniques. As with any new technology, EPA is interested in evaluating whether these systems are delivering the expected emissions reductions under real-world conditions and where areas for improvement may lie. To accomplish these goals, an in-situ gaseous emissions measurement study was conducted using portable emissions measurement devices. The first stage of this study, and subject of this paper, focused on engines typically used in line-haul trucking applications (12-15L displacement).
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2754
Suramya Naik, David Johnson, John Koszewnik, Laurence Fromm, Fabien Redon, Gerhard Regner, Kevin Fuqua
Opposed-piston (OP) engines have attracted the interest of the automotive industry in recent years because of their potential for significantly improved fuel economy. Opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engine technology amplifies this fuel efficiency advantage and offers lower cost and weight due to fewer parts. While OP engines can help automotive manufacturers comply with current, and future, efficiency standards, there is still work required to prepare the engines for production. This work is mainly related to packaging and durability. At Achates Power, the OP2S technology is being developed for various applications such as commercial vehicles (heavy-and medium-duty), SUVs, pick-up trucks and passenger cars (i.e. light-duty), military vehicles, large ships and stationary power (generator sets).
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2757
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Prasanna Vasudevan
Technology is one of the key determinants of the outcome in today's wars. Many targeting systems today use infra-red imaging as a means of acquiring targets when ambient light is insufficient for optical systems. Reducing thermal signatures offers an obvious tactical advantage in such a scenario. One way to reduce thermal emission of combat vehicles is to adopt highly efficient electrical power trains instead of internal combustion engines that tend to reject a sizeable amount of the input energy as heat. The tractor is one of the most versatile vehicles that are used in the theatre of combat for various operations such as haulage, clearing terrain, deploying bridges, digging trenches etc due to its excellent abilities in handling difficult terrain. A tractor powered by an all-electric power train was developed for civilian applications. The traction characteristics are identical to that of a conventional diesel powered tractor of comparable size.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2759
Pedro Manuel Barroso Guzman, Xavier Ribas, José María García Sr, Mario Pita Sr
The objective of this study is to describe the results on Particle Matter and CO2 emissions when an existing Heavy-Duty diesel engine for on-highway truck applications is converted to a Dual-fuel engine (diesel + Natural Gas) during the freeway part of transient worldwide emission tests. A Dual-fuel engine with Homogeneous Gas Charge Injection in the intake line before turbocharger was considered. The results showed the feasibility of this kind of technology for transient operation reaching a significant reduction of Particle Matter plus a decrement in CO2 emissions compared to diesel baseline engine. The results of gas energy replacement ratio, brake fuel conversion efficiency, CO and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases are also shown.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0170
Hemanth Kappanna, Marc Besch, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Oscar Delgado, Alessandro Cozzolini, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam, Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Alberto Ayala, Adewale Oshinuga, Randall Pasek
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0150
Georgios Fontaras, Martin Rexeis, Panagiota Dilara, Stefan Hausberger, Konstantinos Anagnostopoulos
Following its commitment to reduce CO2 emissions from road transport in Europe, the European Commission has launched the development of a new methodology for monitoring CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Due to the diversity and particular characteristics of the HDV sector it was decided that the core of the proposed methodology will be based on a combination of component testing and vehicle simulation. A detailed methodology for the measurement of each individual vehicle component of relevance and a corresponding vehicle simulation is being elaborated in close collaboration with the European HDV manufacturers, component suppliers and other stakeholders. Similar approaches have been already adopted in other major HDV markets such as the US, Japan and China.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0177
Philipp Vögelin, Peter Obrecht, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Future engine emission legislation regulates soot from Diesel engines strictly and requires improvements in engine calibration, fast response sensor equipment and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The in-cylinder phenomena of soot formation and oxidation can be analysed using a pyrometer with optical access to the combustion chamber. The pyrometer collects the radiation of soot particles during diffusion combustion, and allows the calculation of soot temperature and a proportional value for the in-cylinder soot density (KL). A four-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine was equipped in all cylinders with prototype pyrometers and state of the art pressure transducers. The cylinder specific data was recorded crank angle-resolved for a set of steady-state and transient operating conditions, as well as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) addition and over a wide range of soot emissions.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0016
Daniele Farrace, Michele Bolla, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia National Laboratories have been performed with the multidimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) model using a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. Simulation results are compared to the high-fidelity experimental data by means of pressure traces, apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and time-resolved in-cylinder soot mass derived from optical soot luminosity and multiple wavelength pyrometry in conjunction with high speed soot cloud imaging. In addition, spatial distributions of soot relevant quantities are given for several operating conditions.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2385
N. Santosh Datta
With evolution of emission norms in diesel engines, NOx emission limits became more stringent and can be met only with specific NOx emission control systems. The NOx control systems in heavy duty diesel engines are monitored for OBD regulations in on-highway applications. Additionally driver warning and inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems are to be complied in both on-highway and off-highway applications. The driver inducement requirements are defined with intent to enforce and ensure correct operation of NOx control system. The NOx control systems and inducement measures are implemented in engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) software to be compliant to legislation. The paper focuses on driver inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems. The paper summarizes the inducement requirements with a system overview and software design to meet driver inducement requirements for EUVI legislation and CARB/EPA compliance.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2356
Boris Beloousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Vladimir Vantsevich, Dmitry Komissarov
Two characteristics of terrain mobility are essential in designing an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV): (i) the ability of a vehicle to move through terrain of a given trafficability and (ii) the obstacle performance, i.e., the ability to avoid, interact with and overcome obstacles encountered on a preset route of a vehicle. More attention has been given to the vehicle geometry including selection of the angles of approach and departure, radii of longitudinal and lateral terrain mobility, and the steering system configuration. An essential effect is exhibited by the tire properties in their interaction with the support surface; this, in turn, affects traction properties of the wheel and, thus, vehicle terrain mobility. However, the influence of power distribution between the driving wheels together with vehicle steering system on the two above-listed characteristics of terrain mobility has not been considered in depth.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2348
Yajun Liu, Wei Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Wei Wei, John Lumkes
Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1939
Paul Richards, B. Terry, J. Chadderton, M. W. Vincent
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0923
E. G. Pariotis, D. T. Hountalas
This work is a part of an extended investigation conducted by the authors to validate and improve a newly developed quasi-dimensional combustion model. The model has been initially applied on an old technology, naturally aspirated HSDI Diesel engine and the results were satisfying as far as performance and pollutant emissions (Soot and NO) are concerned. But since obviously further and more extended validation is required, in the present study the model is applied on a new technology, heavy-duty turbocharged DI Diesel engine equipped with a high pressure PLN fuel injection system. The main feature of the model is that it describes the air-fuel mixing mechanism in a more fundamental way compared to existing multi-zone phenomenological combustion models, while being less time consuming and complicated compared to the more accurate CFD models. The finite volume method is used to solve the conservation equations of mass, energy and species concentration.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2667
Timothy J. Milburn
Product development and manufacturing organizations are moving from the traditional, multiple and serial design-build-test cycle approach to an integrated, concurrent task and systems engineering paradigm, led by upfront planning, analysis and simulation, supported by credible product test data. This “paradigm shift” includes a move from a predominance of physical testing for product prototype validation to simulation-led problem solving and performance validation, using Computer Aided Engineering, and Design (CAE and CAD) tools. Supported by use of Computer Aided Testing (CAT), physical testing capabilities have comparably grown in accuracy and application range. The role of testing is moving from mostly pre-production validation to include support of product design decisions throughout the development process, including upfront planning.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2658
William Wangard, Aleksandra Egelja, Hossam Metwally
A transient, 3-dimensional, continuum CFD model of soot loading and regeneration has been developed for a single channel unit in a diesel particulate filter. The detailed model is used to predict the soot loading, velocity, temperature, and species distributions in both the air channels and porous walls of the filter. The simulation is performed in two phases: loading and regeneration. In the loading phase, soot profiles are estimated for a clean filter using a steady-state simulation. In the second phase, transient regeneration is modeled using a single-step, irreversible heterogeneous mechanism is used to predict the formation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide products during the regeneration process, incorporating a fractionization scheme. Reaction rates are predicted via an Arrhenius rate law, but may be tempered due to diffusion-limiting conditions in the porous reaction zone. Simulations are performed with a commercial CFD package and user-defined functions.
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