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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1137
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0692
Hamid R. Rahai, Ehsan Shamloo, Jeremy Ralph Bonifacio
The effects of humid air on the performance of a naturally aspired three-cylinder diesel engine with low sulfur diesel fuel have been investigated. The additions of the humidity to intake air were performed with a variable steam generator using distilled water, where the relative humidity levels of the intake air were changed from the ambient conditions of 65% to 75% and 95% levels. The tests were performed at two approximate engine output brake horse powers (BHP) of 5.9, and 8.9. Results showed approximately 3.7% and 22.5% reduction in NO x emissions when the relative humidity of the air was increased from 65% (the ambient relative humidity) to 75% and 95% respectively. The addition of the humidity results in increases in the CO, CO₂, and particulate matter (PM), by approximately 3.7, 3.55, 14.9 percents at 5.9 BHP and 22, 2.8, and 9.3 percents at 8.9 BHP. There was no change in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at 5.9 BHP and about 2.7 increase in the BSFC at 8.9 BHP.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2474
Helmut Theissl, Alois Danninger, Thomas Sacher, Herwig Ofner, Erwin Schalk
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2462
Reza Torbati, Marco Federico Pidria, Giovanni Cerciello, Davide Rodonò
Partial flow filters (PFF) are devices that can capture particulate matter (PM) for a period of time sufficient for its catalytic oxidation. The filter consists of alternating layers of corrugated metal foil and porous sintered metal fleece which captures the particulates. The captured particles are then re-generated passively by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) produced by the oxidation of NO on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) placed before the filter. The filter's robust design and the ability to operate without any maintenance, i.e. no vehicle downtime, have led to an increasing demand for both heavy duty (HD) and light duty (LD) retrofit applications worldwide. Unlike diesel particulate filter (DPF), the PFF will not plug once filled with soot to its maximum capacity in the absence of passive regeneration (low load and low exhaust temperature conditions). Instead, the PM conversion efficiency will gradually decrease, allowing PM emissions to pass through.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2466
Steffen Daum, Sadanand Bhosale, Gernot Graf, Dipankar Ray
The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. In parallel to transient test cycles, increased emission durability as well as real driving emissions must be fulfilled. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the specific operation requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits. The publication shows a cost efficient, reliable and durable approach based on the example of a tractor engine jointly developed by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. (M&M) and AVL. It was found that a naturally aspirated (NA) application equipped with common rail and combined with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is able to fulfill all legal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 requirements with a minimum effort on the exhaust aftertreatment side by using only a diesel oxidation catalyst.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2453
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β).
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2424
Jyotirmoy Barman
Exhaust gas recirculation is one important measure to achieve the Bharat Stage IV, Bharat Stage V as well as the Euro V emissions legislation. EGR is one of the most promising solutions to reduce NOx to achieve Bharat Stage IV emission norms for any high specific power engine. An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of EGR and multiple injections on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. Recent work has shown that multiple injections are effective at reducing particulate. Thus, it was of interest to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing particulate and NOx with the combined use of EGR and multiple injections. The tests were conducted on a four cylinder four valve light duty truck engine. Tests were done at emission modes (A, B & C Modes) with EGR are variation along with different injection strategies. The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2430
James Smith, Justin Greuel, Brian Ratkos, Ethan Schauer
Implementation of EPA's heavy-duty engine NOx standard of 0.20 g/bhp-hr has resulted in the introduction of a new generation of emission control systems for on-highway heavy-duty diesel engines. These new control systems are predominantly based around aftertreatment systems utilizing urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) techniques, with only one manufacturer relying solely on in-cylinder NOx emission reduction techniques. As with any new technology, EPA is interested in evaluating whether these systems are delivering the expected emissions reductions under real-world conditions and where areas for improvement may lie. To accomplish these goals, an in-situ gaseous emissions measurement study was conducted using portable emissions measurement devices. The first stage of this study, and subject of this paper, focused on engines typically used in line-haul trucking applications (12-15L displacement).
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2754
Suramya Naik, David Johnson, John Koszewnik, Laurence Fromm, Fabien Redon, Gerhard Regner, Kevin Fuqua
Opposed-piston (OP) engines have attracted the interest of the automotive industry in recent years because of their potential for significantly improved fuel economy. Opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engine technology amplifies this fuel efficiency advantage and offers lower cost and weight due to fewer parts. While OP engines can help automotive manufacturers comply with current, and future, efficiency standards, there is still work required to prepare the engines for production. This work is mainly related to packaging and durability. At Achates Power, the OP2S technology is being developed for various applications such as commercial vehicles (heavy-and medium-duty), SUVs, pick-up trucks and passenger cars (i.e. light-duty), military vehicles, large ships and stationary power (generator sets).
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2759
Pedro Manuel Barroso Guzman, Xavier Ribas, José María García Sr, Mario Pita Sr
The objective of this study is to describe the results on Particle Matter and CO2 emissions when an existing Heavy-Duty diesel engine for on-highway truck applications is converted to a Dual-fuel engine (diesel + Natural Gas) during the freeway part of transient worldwide emission tests. A Dual-fuel engine with Homogeneous Gas Charge Injection in the intake line before turbocharger was considered. The results showed the feasibility of this kind of technology for transient operation reaching a significant reduction of Particle Matter plus a decrement in CO2 emissions compared to diesel baseline engine. The results of gas energy replacement ratio, brake fuel conversion efficiency, CO and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases are also shown.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0170
Hemanth Kappanna, Marc Besch, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Oscar Delgado, Alessandro Cozzolini, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam, Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Alberto Ayala, Adewale Oshinuga, Randall Pasek
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0150
Georgios Fontaras, Martin Rexeis, Panagiota Dilara, Stefan Hausberger, Konstantinos Anagnostopoulos
Following its commitment to reduce CO2 emissions from road transport in Europe, the European Commission has launched the development of a new methodology for monitoring CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Due to the diversity and particular characteristics of the HDV sector it was decided that the core of the proposed methodology will be based on a combination of component testing and vehicle simulation. A detailed methodology for the measurement of each individual vehicle component of relevance and a corresponding vehicle simulation is being elaborated in close collaboration with the European HDV manufacturers, component suppliers and other stakeholders. Similar approaches have been already adopted in other major HDV markets such as the US, Japan and China.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0177
Philipp Vögelin, Peter Obrecht, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Future engine emission legislation regulates soot from Diesel engines strictly and requires improvements in engine calibration, fast response sensor equipment and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The in-cylinder phenomena of soot formation and oxidation can be analysed using a pyrometer with optical access to the combustion chamber. The pyrometer collects the radiation of soot particles during diffusion combustion, and allows the calculation of soot temperature and a proportional value for the in-cylinder soot density (KL). A four-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine was equipped in all cylinders with prototype pyrometers and state of the art pressure transducers. The cylinder specific data was recorded crank angle-resolved for a set of steady-state and transient operating conditions, as well as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) addition and over a wide range of soot emissions.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0016
Daniele Farrace, Michele Bolla, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia National Laboratories have been performed with the multidimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) model using a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. Simulation results are compared to the high-fidelity experimental data by means of pressure traces, apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and time-resolved in-cylinder soot mass derived from optical soot luminosity and multiple wavelength pyrometry in conjunction with high speed soot cloud imaging. In addition, spatial distributions of soot relevant quantities are given for several operating conditions.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2385
N. Santosh Datta
With evolution of emission norms in diesel engines, NOx emission limits became more stringent and can be met only with specific NOx emission control systems. The NOx control systems in heavy duty diesel engines are monitored for OBD regulations in on-highway applications. Additionally driver warning and inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems are to be complied in both on-highway and off-highway applications. The driver inducement requirements are defined with intent to enforce and ensure correct operation of NOx control system. The NOx control systems and inducement measures are implemented in engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) software to be compliant to legislation. The paper focuses on driver inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems. The paper summarizes the inducement requirements with a system overview and software design to meet driver inducement requirements for EUVI legislation and CARB/EPA compliance.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2348
Yajun Liu, Wei Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Wei Wei, John Lumkes
Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1939
Paul Richards, B. Terry, J. Chadderton, M. W. Vincent
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0923
E. G. Pariotis, D. T. Hountalas
This work is a part of an extended investigation conducted by the authors to validate and improve a newly developed quasi-dimensional combustion model. The model has been initially applied on an old technology, naturally aspirated HSDI Diesel engine and the results were satisfying as far as performance and pollutant emissions (Soot and NO) are concerned. But since obviously further and more extended validation is required, in the present study the model is applied on a new technology, heavy-duty turbocharged DI Diesel engine equipped with a high pressure PLN fuel injection system. The main feature of the model is that it describes the air-fuel mixing mechanism in a more fundamental way compared to existing multi-zone phenomenological combustion models, while being less time consuming and complicated compared to the more accurate CFD models. The finite volume method is used to solve the conservation equations of mass, energy and species concentration.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2667
Timothy J. Milburn
Product development and manufacturing organizations are moving from the traditional, multiple and serial design-build-test cycle approach to an integrated, concurrent task and systems engineering paradigm, led by upfront planning, analysis and simulation, supported by credible product test data. This “paradigm shift” includes a move from a predominance of physical testing for product prototype validation to simulation-led problem solving and performance validation, using Computer Aided Engineering, and Design (CAE and CAD) tools. Supported by use of Computer Aided Testing (CAT), physical testing capabilities have comparably grown in accuracy and application range. The role of testing is moving from mostly pre-production validation to include support of product design decisions throughout the development process, including upfront planning.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2658
William Wangard, Aleksandra Egelja, Hossam Metwally
A transient, 3-dimensional, continuum CFD model of soot loading and regeneration has been developed for a single channel unit in a diesel particulate filter. The detailed model is used to predict the soot loading, velocity, temperature, and species distributions in both the air channels and porous walls of the filter. The simulation is performed in two phases: loading and regeneration. In the loading phase, soot profiles are estimated for a clean filter using a steady-state simulation. In the second phase, transient regeneration is modeled using a single-step, irreversible heterogeneous mechanism is used to predict the formation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide products during the regeneration process, incorporating a fractionization scheme. Reaction rates are predicted via an Arrhenius rate law, but may be tempered due to diffusion-limiting conditions in the porous reaction zone. Simulations are performed with a commercial CFD package and user-defined functions.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0110
Max Kofod, Trevor Stephenson
The EU Commission's “Clean Power for Transport” initiative aims to break the EU's dependence on imported oil whilst promoting the use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among the options considered is the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a substitute for diesel in long haul trucks. It is interesting to ask how the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of LNG compare with conventional diesel fuel for this application. The LNG available in Europe is mainly imported. This paper considers the “well-to-tank” emissions of LNG from various production routes, including: gas production, treatment and liquefaction, shipping to Europe, terminal, distribution and refuelling operations. “Tank-to-Wheel” emissions are considered for a range of currently-available engine technologies of varying efficiency relative to diesel.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0049
Teuvo Maunula, Arto Viitanen, Toni Kinnunen, Kauko Kanniainen
The emission regulations for mobile applications become stricter in Euro-IV to Euro-VI levels. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon can be removed by efficient Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) but Particulate Matter (PM) and NOx are more demanding requiring the use of active methods (urea-SCR and DPF) which will be world-wide implemented in the 2010's. Durable, coated V-SCR catalysts are based on stabilized raw materials and tailored preparation methods. Coated V2O5/TiO2-WO3 catalysts (ceramic 300/400 cpsi and metallic 500/600 cpsi) were evaluated by laboratory and engine bench experiments. Traditional V-SCR catalysts are durable up to about 600°C and have a high efficiency at 300°C-500°C. SCR activities were tailored to be higher also at 200°C-300°C or 500°C-600°C. The use of thermal stabilizers or the vanadium loading variation enabled the changes in operation window and stability.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0054
Dushyant Bhatt, Shivraj Waje, K. V. R. Babu, Jurgen Henn, Sven Seifert, R. M. Cursetji, Dinesh Kumar, Touquire A. Siddiquie
Small Commercial Vehicle (SCV) is an emerging Commercial Vehicle (CV) segment both in India and throughout the world. Vehicles in this segment have diesel engine of capacity less than 1 l and GVW of less than 3.5 t. Normally for the CV, engines are tested on engine dynamometer for emission test, but SCV are tested on chassis dynamometer as they are classified as N1.1 class vehicles. Hence SCV have to follow same emission regulations as diesel passenger cars. The main challenge is to meet BS-IV NOx and PM emission target together with high torque optimization along with required durability targets. This paper addresses this challenge and reports the work carried out on an Indian SCV with 0.7 l naturally aspirated indirect injection diesel engine.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0119
Luiz Carlos Gertz, André Cervieri, Antonio Flavio Aires Rodrigues, Edison Reus Silveira
The depletion of non-renewable energy, emissions of harmful gases to the atmosphere and the impact of fuel consumption in road transport of cargo in Brazil, are motivating the study proposed by this work. In order to reduce fuel consumption, field tests were conducted, where tests were performed for three main segments of heavy transport in the state of Rio Grande Sul We used different combinations of engine power and ratio gear. The test vehicles were operated on a test route that has similarity to the main trade routes of the state that is Porto Alegre - São Paulo, where consumption showed differences between the settings, always indicating the best specification, validating the methodology applied.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0184
Leonardo de Oliveira Costa, James Edward Godden, Rafael Batista Amadio, Rodrigo Silva Santos
Emission standards are becoming more stringent and at the same time the standards for the On-Board Diagnostic System (OBD) are also continuously enhancing to ensure a more efficient and robust engine emissions monitoring system during the whole vehicle useful life and to improve the quality of the information delivered to the user. In the case of heavy duty diesel vehicles, the Brazilian standards are developed according to the existing European standards (Euro), for example the current standard in Brazil (so called Proconve P7) follows the same requirements of the Euro V with some minor differences. As a consequence, the applied technologies for exhaust gas after-treatment and sensing systems to meet the requirements are already used in European applications such as Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), as well as temperature, NOx and differential pressure sensors.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0209
Anibal Godoy Machado, Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa
With the purpose of minimizing the gaseous emissions impacts on the metropolitan areas, many alternative fuel resources has been developed as alternatives to fossil fuels. An environmentally and economical interesting alternative for the Brazilian market is the diesel made from sugar cane (Farnesene - C15H32). The Farnesene, made by sugar cane juice fermentation in presence of a genetically modified yeast is basically a saturated hydrocarbon molecule (C15H32) with more than 98% purity and that presents properties comparable to fossil diesel and when used in regular diesel cycle engines can bring significantly reductions not only in soot levels (Particulate Matter - PM) but also on the Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), unlike the biodiesel, that is well known that it brings increases on NOx emission level due its physic-chemical properties. Reduction on CO2 levels on life cycle is another important benefit of using such fuel since it's made by renewable feedstock.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0208
Anibal Godoy Machado, Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa
With focus on reducing the Green House Gases emissions, the use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel, in special for buses that runs on the Brazilian metropolitan areas has been even higher. Additionally, with the introduction of the new legislation for diesel engines in 2012, CONAMA PROCONVE P7, that in order to attempt to its requirements uses different kinds of exhaust gases after treatment systems, the necessity of knowing the behavior of those “P7 engines” operating with different biodiesel contents on blends with regular fossil fuel or even pure biodiesel has been an important issue to ensure the benefits of using such alternative fuel. On this evaluation, blends of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% of biodiesel content in ANP65/2011 A_S50 Diesel Fuel (50ppm Sulfur content) was experimented in a Mercedes-Benz OM926LA E5 engine with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reaction) exhaust gases after treatment system.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0319
Glécia Virgolino da Silva Luz, Pilar Hidalgo, Carlos Gurgel Veras, Simona Merola, Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Luca Marchitto
The use of biodiesel as alternative to fossil fuel for light duty CI engines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was widely investigated. However, poor stability of biodiesel - diesel mixture limits the use of biodiesel to low volume concentrations. This paper presents the results concerning the use of a novel fuel additive package containing antioxidant (AS), pour-point depressant (D) and biocide (Bi) with the aim to increase the quality and amount of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blends. Some of the goals are linked to the degradative effects due to free radicals oxidation, contamination by water and microorganisms. The interaction between two different additive packages and two biodiesel (soybean and rapeseed) - diesel blends at 20% in volume was investigated. Optical studies have been performed to characterize the spatial and temporal spray evolution both in a high pressure quiescent vessel and in an optically-accessible single-cylinder 2-stroke CI engine.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0571
B. Heuser, M. Jakob, F. Kremer, Stefan Pischinger, B. Kerschgens, H. Pitsch
In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, the cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Recently, new pathways have been discovered to synthesize octanol [1] and di-n-butylether (DNBE). These molecules are identical in the number of included hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms, but differ in the molecular structure: for octanol, the oxygen atom is at the end of the molecule, whereas for DNBE it is located in the middle. In this paper the utilization of octanol and DNBE in a state-of-the-art single cylinder diesel research engine will be discussed. The major interest has been on engine emissions (NOx, PM, HC, CO, noise) compared to conventional diesel fuel.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0093
Riccardo Rossi, Ettore Musu, Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Rolf D. Reitz
Due to concerns regarding pollutant and CO2 emissions, advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency have been widely investigated. The main characteristic of the new combustion strategies, such as HCCI and LTC, is that the formation of a homogenous mixture or a controllable stratified mixture is required prior to ignition. The major issue with these approaches is the lack of a direct method for the control of ignition timing and combustion rate, which can be only indirectly controlled using high EGR rates and/or lean mixtures. Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) is based on the split-cycle principle. Intake and compression phases are performed in a reciprocating external compressor, which drives the air into the combustor cylinder during the combustion process, through a transfer duct. A transfer valve is positioned between the compressor cylinder and the transfer duct.
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