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Viewing 1 to 30 of 233
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2462
Reza Torbati, Marco Federico Pidria, Giovanni Cerciello, Davide Rodonò
Partial flow filters (PFF) are devices that can capture particulate matter (PM) for a period of time sufficient for its catalytic oxidation. The filter consists of alternating layers of corrugated metal foil and porous sintered metal fleece which captures the particulates. The captured particles are then re-generated passively by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) produced by the oxidation of NO on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) placed before the filter. The filter's robust design and the ability to operate without any maintenance, i.e. no vehicle downtime, have led to an increasing demand for both heavy duty (HD) and light duty (LD) retrofit applications worldwide. Unlike diesel particulate filter (DPF), the PFF will not plug once filled with soot to its maximum capacity in the absence of passive regeneration (low load and low exhaust temperature conditions). Instead, the PM conversion efficiency will gradually decrease, allowing PM emissions to pass through.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2441
Xinyu Ge
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0054
Dushyant Bhatt, Shivraj Waje, K. V. R. Babu, Jurgen Henn, Sven Seifert, R. M. Cursetji, Dinesh Kumar, Touquire A. Siddiquie
Small Commercial Vehicle (SCV) is an emerging Commercial Vehicle (CV) segment both in India and throughout the world. Vehicles in this segment have diesel engine of capacity less than 1 l and GVW of less than 3.5 t. Normally for the CV, engines are tested on engine dynamometer for emission test, but SCV are tested on chassis dynamometer as they are classified as N1.1 class vehicles. Hence SCV have to follow same emission regulations as diesel passenger cars. The main challenge is to meet BS-IV NOx and PM emission target together with high torque optimization along with required durability targets. This paper addresses this challenge and reports the work carried out on an Indian SCV with 0.7 l naturally aspirated indirect injection diesel engine.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0133
Arvind R, Jayagopal S, Suryanarayanan V, Porpatham E, Senthil Kumar A
Brazil has implemented a new emission regulation for Light commercial vehicles named PROCONVE L6. This regulation follows Environmental Protection Act (EPA) driving cycle; FTP75. This cycle simulates an urban route of 12.07 km with frequent stops. The maximum speed is 91.2 km/h and the average speed is 31.5 km/h. The regulation has proposed that the gear shift pattern of the manual transmission vehicle can be varied according to the manufacturer's specification. This has lead to the strategy of optimizing gear shift pattern without compromising diesel combustion and engine-out emission with optimized exhaust-gas treatment-devices. The emission is demonstrated to Brazilan Authorities with good margins.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0206
Oscar Javier Duque Táutiva, Guido Roewer, Paolo Furlan
The purpose of this work is to show possible evolutions of the OBDBr-2 legislation, moving on the same level as stricter international standards looking for an alignment of OBD requirements, even taking into account the flex-fuel technologies.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2097
A. Wiartalla, L. Ruhkamp, Y. Rosefort, F. Maassen, B. Sliwinski, T. Schnorbus, T. Laible
From current point of view future emission legislations for heavy-duty engines as well as industrial engines will require complex engine internal measures in combination with sophisticated aftertreatment systems as well as according control strategies to reach the emission targets. With EU VI, JP 09/NLT and US10 for heavy-duty engines as well as future Tier4 final or stage IV emission legislation for industrial applications, EGR + DPF + SCR probably will be combined for most applications and therefore quite similar technological approaches will be followed up in Europe as well as in the US and in Japan. Most “emerging markets” all over the world follow up the European, US or Japanese emission legislation with a certain time delay. Therefore similar technologies need to be introduced in these markets in the future. On the other hand specific market boundary conditions and requirements have to be considered for the development of tailored system concepts in these markets.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0187
Magdi Khair, Jacques Lemaire, Stefan Fischer
The diesel engine has long been the most energy efficient powerplant for transportation. Moreover, diesels emit extremely low levels of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide that do not require post-combustion treatment to comply with current and projected standards. It is admittedly, however, difficult for diesel engines to simultaneously meet projected nitrogen oxides and particulate matter standards. Traditionally, measures aimed at reducing one of these two exhaust species have led to increasing the other. This physical characteristic, which is known as NOx/PM tradeoff, remains the subject of an intense research effort. Despite this challenge, there is significant evidence that heavy-duty highway engine manufacturers can achieve substantial emission reductions. Many development programs carried out over the last five years have yielded remarkable results in laboratory demonstrations.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2837
Dennis D Swanson
Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2844
M. Scott Buck
In the past, all machines were designed and developed by mechanical engineers. To the ‘gear head’, ‘metal bending’ engineers the onset of the electronics to their machines was sacrilegious. The electrical engineers knew how to contain the sleeping giant of electricity and put its power to work for the betterment of the machines. Now there is a mystical beast that has seen its way into almost everything that controls our everyday life. It even threatens to basically kill our current lifestyle in less than a year. The only one that knows how to corral the beast is the software engineer. In less than 20 years, software has become the glue that binds everyday life together into a seamless process. If we do not contain and develop software through strict processes that are followed and enforced, the year 2000 bug will seem like a minor hiccup in the world of tomorrow.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1947
Jose J. Garcia
New emission regulations require innovation in the engine intake air loop. To satisfy these requirements, new architectures of cooling systems are in the process of development. These systems use valves to regulate the exhaust gas pressure and distribution in the intake cooling loop and ultimately combustion chambers. Since lower pressure is involved in the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Water Charge Air Cooler (WCAC) or Air Charge Air Cooler (ACAC), the condensation of exhaust gas takes place and very acidic solutions are generated. In the absence of such new architecture of cooling system in service and in order to evaluate the corrosion risk that the acidic solutions from exhaust gases condensate could create in the EGR system, several tests have been proposed as representative for simulation of service conditions.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8014
David A. Schaller, Michael D. Roeth
Abstract This report provides an overview of recent technical solution adoption rates by fleets from detailed fleet surveys. Manufacturers’ contributions in terms of technology development, cost reduction, durability and refinement will also be discussed. OEM vehicle integration and product line offerings (standard, optional, and post-production upfits) are shared. All of this background will set the stage for a review of the proposed Greenhouse Gas Phase 2 regulations, the technologies expected to be utilized to meet the targets, and the hurdles the industry must successfully clear for profitable fleet use in commercial vehicle freight transportation. Fuel efficiency has always been important to fleets and as fuel costs have risen, a plethora of fuel efficient technologies have emerged. The industry also cares about sustainability and emissions reductions and now Greenhouse Gas regulations exist to further encourage development, integration and adoption of such technologies.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0230
Timothy Dallmann, Zhenying Shao, Aparna Menon, Anup Bandivadekar
Abstract Diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment are a significant source of pollutant emissions that contribute to poor air quality, negative human health impacts, and climate change. Efforts to mitigate the emissions impact of these sources, such as regulatory control programs, have played a key role in air quality management strategies around the world, and have helped to spur the development of advanced engine and emission control technologies. As non-road engine emissions control programs are developed in a growing number of countries around the world, it is instructive to look at the development of programs in two of the regions that have progressed furthest in controlling emissions from non-road engines, the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0998
Paul Mentink, Rob van den Nieuwenhof, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems, Dennis Kooijman
Abstract Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0167
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Emissions from motor vehicles have been a subject of concern in urban areas, as great amounts of population have been permanently exposed to large amounts of pollutants, with intrinsic adverse health effects. In this context, in the last two decades, stringent emissions standards have been developed to control the maximum emission limits of the so called regulated pollutants. This continuous reduction of emission targets has imposed a great effort to engine and vehicle manufacturer in the development of technological solutions for emission limits compliance, which can be done by reducing engine-out emissions through improvements in combustion process and fuel management system, as well as by using aftertreatment devices in the exhaust system.
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370112
Joseph A. Anglada
This paper contains a general discussion of the trends of truck construction touching upon such subjects as cab over engine, six wheel, and all wheel driven vehicles. Comments are made on various parts, such as axles, engines, etc. A comparison of English truck design as affected by legal requirements and design as affected by S.A.E. proposed standards of weight and size limitations is included.
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370111
Billings Wilson
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330040
M. C. Horine
BY their lack of uniformity and disregard of scientific and economic fact, legislative restrictions on motor-transport vehicles now in force in the states militate against efficient transportation and thus retard economic recovery. In this indirect way and in several direct ways the same situation presents problems to truck builders. Variations in state requirements necessitate undue diversity of designs, present difficult engineering problems, discourage enterprise, threaten the American system of production and penalize good engineering and sound manufacture.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350017
P. R. Croll, L. E. DuBey
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350059
H. W. McQuaid
1951-01-01
Technical Paper
510116
JOHN A. CALDWELL
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4298
Deborah M. Freund
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the laws, implementing regulations, and industry consensus standards that form the basis for the design, manufacturing, and use of commercial vehicles (CVs) and their operation in highway and off-road settings. The paper begins with an introduction to CVs as transporters of people and goods and as enablers for the provision of services. It briefly describes governmental interest in CV safety and the use of CVs as tools in systems - including the importance of safety research and technology assessment programs. The safety focus is described in terms of the Haddon Matrix, a safety model that shows the time and activity relationships between the operator, vehicle, and environment. Next, the paper provides a history of important safety legislation related to vehicle design, manufacture, and operation.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4225
Rolf Dreisbach, Gernot Graf, Gerhard Kreuzig, Helmut Theissl, Ulrich Pfahl
This paper describes development challenges for Heavy-Duty (HD) on-highway Diesel Direct Injection (DDI™) engines to meet the extremely advanced US-EPA 2010 (later named US 2010) emission limits while further increasing power density in combination with competitive engine efficiency. It discusses technologies and solutions for lowest engine-out emissions in combination with most competitive fuel consumption values and excellent dynamic behavior. To achieve these challenging targets, base engine hardware requirements are described. In detail the development of EGR systems, especially the challenges of running high EGR rates over the whole engine speed range also at high load, the dynamic EGR control for transient engine operation to achieve lowest NOx emissions at the smoke limit with excellent load response is discussed. Also the effect of the turbo-machinery on power density and transient engine behavior is shown.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4199
Tim Juan, Mark Schmale, Ron Schoon, Mike Eifert
This paper presents a compact temperature control device to cool down hot exhaust gas coming out of an aftertreatment emission control system. Active DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) regeneration is required for aftertreatment emission controls to meet the 2007 EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) PM(Particulate Matter) standard. However, regeneration of the DPF temporarily elevates temperatures in the filter to eliminate accumulated soot. This can increase the temperature of the exhaust gas. The temperature control device in this paper draws ambient air into the hot exhaust stream and mixes them together in such a fashion to maximize temperature drop and minimize back pressure for a limited space without any moving parts or supply of extra power. The simple and compact design of the device makes it a cost-effective candidate to retrofit to an existing aftertreatment system.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2650
Chris Hedges, Frank Perry
The FCC allocated the 5.9 GHz spectrum to enhance the safety and productivity of the nations transportation system. Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is a medium range wireless communication protocol that supports vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-roadside, and roadside-to-vehicle communication. It enables both public safety and licensed private transactions. DSRC contrasts cellular and Wi-Fi by providing fast acquisition, low latency communication in a relatively close communication range. IEEE is developing the Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) communication standards to provide the groundwork for DSRC and enable seamless, interoperable services. The WAVE architecture includes IEEE P1609.1 (Application layer), IEEE P1609.2 (Security layer), IEEE P1609.3 (Network layer), IEEE P1609.4 (Upper MAC Layer), and IEEE 802.11p (Lower MAC and Physical layers).
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0021
Sougato Chatterjee, Andrew P. Walker, Philip G. Blakeman
The modern Diesel engine is one of the most versatile power sources available for mobile applications. The high fuel economy and torque of the Diesel engine has long resulted in global application for heavy-duty applications. Moreover, the high power and excellent driveability of today's turbo-charged small high-speed Diesel engines, coupled with their low CO2 emissions, has resulted in an increasing demand for Diesel powered light-duty vehicles. However, the demand for Diesel vehicles can only be realised if their exhaust emissions meet the increasingly stringent emissions legislation being introduced around the world. In the USA, both HDD and LDD vehicles are meeting strict emissions legislations since 2007 with the introduction of particle filters which will be further restricted from 2010 with the use of additional NOx contr5ol systems. In Europe, similar strict requirements are being implemented with Euro IV, Euro V and finally through Euro VI legislations.
1992-11-01
Technical Paper
922490
Laszlo Straub
Due to the functional advantages, manufacturers of braking systems and vehicles are irresistibly continuing the development of electronically controlled braking systems. Therefore it is necessary to take these systems into consideration with reference to international regulations (ECE, RREG). An informal working group of GRRF works at a proposal to amend and expand the ECE Regulation 13. Main target of the proposal is to take into account all possible electronic solutions from the simplest partially electronic device to the highly sophisticated fully electronic controlled system and to ensure compatibility of towing and towed vehicles equipped with braking systems having different control transmission (electronic, pneumatic etc.).
1992-11-01
Technical Paper
922497
Deborah A. Johnson
Throughout the next decade the application of technology to promote efficient transportation will occur at an unprecedented velocity. A new vision of tomorrow's freight transportation system has been created by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). By requiring all states to participate in the International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) and the International Registration Plan (IRP), and through funding of an Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System Program (IVHS), a new transportation system dependent upon the implementation and use of a variety of computer and communication technologies will be developed. In terms of regulatory functions, neither the states nor the motor carrier industry has traditionally been technology oriented.
1990-10-01
Technical Paper
902217
Jon F. White, Lee Lackey
Abstract The heavy truck industry, during the 1990's faces increasing numbers of electronically controlled component systems; two factors have been recognized and are being addressed by SAE and The Maintenance Council (TMC) of the ATA: (a) the on-board electronic based component modules must communicate in an efficient manner; (b) off-board diagnostic tools, most likely computerized, must be developed and offered to the industry to insure efficient maintenance of these on-board components. This paper provides the background and the current status of the effort, primarily chartered by TMC, to recommend a more standard or universal environment for diagnostic technology.
1990-10-01
Technical Paper
902241
Larry R. Sparkes
: Today the utility industry can choose from the widest variety of truck mounted equipment and chassis than ever before available. The increasing complexity of today's utility work vehicles and their regulatory environment requires increased emphasis on, and understanding of, how to predict and prevent vehicle weight distribution problems, and the design considerations which must be applied in order to provide a safe, legal, and successful complete truck assembly.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 233

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