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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1325
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2033
Gergis W. William
Currently, the chassis assembly contributes about 73 percent of the overall weight of a 14.63 m long haul trailer. This paper presents alternative design concepts for the structural floor of a van trailer utilizing sandwich panels with various material and geometric characteristics of the core layer in order to reduce its weight significantly below that of the current design configuration. The main objective of the new designs is to achieve optimal tradeoffs between the overall structural weight and the flexural stiffness of the floor. Various preliminary design concepts of the core designs were compared on the basis of a single section of the core structure. Six different designs were analyzed by weight, maximum displacement and maximum stress under bending and torsion loads. Each concept was kept uniform by length, thickness, loading and boundary conditions. Each design concept was examined through testing of scaled model for floor assemblies.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2036
Gergis W. William
Recent advances in Metal Matrix Composites have made them ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. Such new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel. The increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability motivated the potential application of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. However, significant technical barriers such as joining are likely to hinder the broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the feasibility of manufacturing and the behavior of bolted joint connections made from aluminum matrix reinforced with Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles. Two reinforcement ratios: 20% and 45% were considered in this study. The first part of the paper concentrates on experimental evaluation of bolted MMC joints.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0333
Yousef Jeihouni, Stefan Pischinger, Ludger Ruhkamp, Thomas Koerfer
Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0335
Lucas Murphy, David Rothamer
The effects of jet fuel properties on compression ignition engine operation were investigated under high-load conditions for jet fuels with varying cetane number. A single-cylinder oil-test engine (SCOTE) with 2.44 L displacement was used to test a baseline #2 diesel fuel with a cetane number of 43, a Jet-A fuel with a cetane number of 47, and two mixtures of Jet-A and a Fishcer-Tropsch JP-8 with cetane numbers of 36 and 42, respectively. The engine was operated under high-load conditions corresponding to traditional diesel combustion, using a single injection of fuel near TDC. The fuels were tested using two different intake camshafts with closing times of -143 and -85 CAD BTDC. Injection timing sweeps were performed over a range of injection timings near TDC for each camshaft. The apparent net heat release rate (AHRR) data showed an increase in the premixed burn magnitude as cetane number decreased in agreement with previous work.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0108
Rainer Neumann, Thorsten Warwel
Due to the general requirements in the automotive industry to reduce the power consumption, fuel consumption rate and CO2 emission a new HID (High Intensity Discharge) bulb with only 25W is under development for front lighting systems. A first headlamp integrated in a hybrid vehicle is now launched as a first application in the market. The current regulation in ECE allows to get rid of the mandatory headlamp cleaning system and the automatic leveling requirement once the 25W HID bulb is applied. The reason for this is the objective luminous flux of the 25W HID bulb, which emits less than 2000 lm, a boundary defined in the regulation, where a headlamp cleaning and an automatic leveling is requested. That simplifies especially the integration in smaller vehicles and electric and hybrid vehicles. The paper describes the special design of the headlamp, the projector unit, the light performance, packaging advantages and future outlook of further applications in the near future.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2475
Taizo Shimada, Mitsuo Notomi, Junya Tanaka, Koji Korematsu
In recent years, trans-esterified vegetable oils have been widely applied to diesel engine in order to suppress greenhouse gas emissions. However, “neat” vegetable oils are expected to be directly used to resolve some difficulties faced in their use, such high viscosity and slightly high fuel consumption. In this study neat linseed oil has been investigated as a neat vegetable oil. It was found to show higher fuel consumption than diesel fuel, however at the same time it showed lower indicated fuel consumption than diesel fuel. These results suggest some increase in engine friction loss in a neat biofuel diesel engine. Studies have been extensively investigated the difference in friction loss and a newly developed “improved deceleration method” has been applied.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2451
Lian Soto Izquierdo, Gian Gomes Marques, Vanessa Balieiro
Studies aimed at partial or total use of renewable fuels in diesel engines has increasingly attracted the interest of the automotive industry, in particular due to its characteristics of strength, durability and greater thermal efficiency. The oil esters derived from biological sources, who receive the generic name for biodiesel, is one of the alternatives used internationally. Their physicochemical properties are similar to diesel oil for providing an acceptable dynamic process of preparation and combustion in the engine. This paper presents and evaluates the results of experimental tests carried out in four trucks used exclusively B20 biodiesel (20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel), and one with B100 (pure biodiesel), in real operating conditions.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2453
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β).
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2422
Yu Zhang, Ilya Sagalovich, William De Ojeda, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, David D. Wickman
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1588
Adam B. Cooper, Michael Kokkolaras, Panos Y. Papalambros
Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1939
Paul Richards, B. Terry, J. Chadderton, M. W. Vincent
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1007
M. Pasquali, G. Pede, M. P. Valentini, M. Gallori, G. P. Raimondi
A feasibility study related to the realization of a fuel-cell medium-size bus, has been committed by the Tuscany Region with the support of the municipality of Florence and Bologna, and realized by the association ONLUS I2T3 (Industrial Innovation Through Technological Transfer), ENEA, the Italian National Agency for Energy and Environment, and CAM, Carrozzeria Autodromo Modena, an Italian company leader in the field of eco-compatible solutions in the public transport sector. A hybrid traction system has been chosen, to reduce costs and to boost the vehicle efficiency thanks to regenerated energy during deceleration. The paper deals with the general strategic framework, the mission, the vehicle design and, finally, costs and benefits of FCHEVs, compared to conventional buses and hybrid-electric buses with motorgenerators.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2687
Paul G. Evans, Kevin Johanson
This paper describes a radical new approach to variable flow oil pump design, which addresses some concerns of earlier designs and also conventional fixed displacement pumps. Detailed here are the testing and results to date, the potential areas for the future work, together with the reduction in parasitic power loss and potential fuel consumption savings. Also discussed are the benefits that can be realised by using this product as a tool for radically changing current automotive lubrication systems.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0110
Max Kofod, Trevor Stephenson
The EU Commission's “Clean Power for Transport” initiative aims to break the EU's dependence on imported oil whilst promoting the use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among the options considered is the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a substitute for diesel in long haul trucks. It is interesting to ask how the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of LNG compare with conventional diesel fuel for this application. The LNG available in Europe is mainly imported. This paper considers the “well-to-tank” emissions of LNG from various production routes, including: gas production, treatment and liquefaction, shipping to Europe, terminal, distribution and refuelling operations. “Tank-to-Wheel” emissions are considered for a range of currently-available engine technologies of varying efficiency relative to diesel.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0015
S. S. Thipse, K. P. Kavathekar, S. D. Rairikar, A. A. Tyagi, N. V. Marathe
A duel fuel diesel engine is a diesel engine fitted with a dual fuel conversion kit to enable use of clean burning alternative fuel like compressed natural gas. Dual fuel engines have number of potential advantages like fuel flexibility, lower emissions, higher compression ratio, better efficiency and easy conversion of existing diesel engines without major hardware modifications. In view of energy depletion and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compresed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecological friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Traditionally dual fuel technology has been popular for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationery engines. However its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of limited supply of alternative fuels.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0018
Rajeev Verma, Nikhil Nahar, Zhijun Tang, Benjamin Saltsman
Commercial vehicle operators and governments around the world are looking for ways to cut down on fuel consumption for economic and environmental reasons. Two main factors affecting the fuel consumption of a vehicle are the drive route and the driver behavior. The drive route can be specified by information such as speed limit, road grade, road curvature, traffic etc. The driver behavior, on the other hand, is difficult to classify and can be responsible for as much as 35% variation in fuel consumption. In this work, nearly 600,000 miles of drive data is utilized to identify driving behaviors that significantly affect fuel consumption. Based on this analysis, driving scenarios and related driver behaviors are identified that result in the most efficient vehicle operation. A driver assistance system is presented in this paper that assists the driver in driving more efficiently by issuing scenario specific advice.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0313
Fernando Z. Sánchez, Carlos V. M. Braga, Leonardo C. Braga, Sergio L. Braga, Flávio G. Dias, Franck Y. Turkovics, Renata N. C. De Souza
Nowadays, many researches are being carried out to replace the diesel by alternative fuels. Biodiesel and ethanol are strong candidates for this purpose. However, the experimental study of the combustion of biofuels in engines is not an easy task. Due to the large differences between the properties of the new fuels and the conventional diesel, radical changes may be needed in current engines, developed specifically for the fossil fuel. So, the experimental study of ethanol compression ignition (CI) combustion is not simple to be obtained in conventional engines. Therefore, some experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM), are useful to conduct this kind of study. This paper describes the RCM adaptations made in order to run CI combustion tests using Ethanol-Powered (ED95) and Diesel (S50) for different compression ratios and injection timing.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0182
M. Pontoppidan, G. Montanari
The paper gives a short introduction to the bio-diesel mixture approach for diesel engines. The paper continues with a description of the design of a strategy for recognition of a random bio-diesel fraction, Bx, by a purely software-based sensing technique, which creates an image of the temporal combustion behavior and uses only sensors already in service for current common rail mixture preparation systems. A short description is made of a baseline approach of sensing technique based on the presence of a crank angle speed sensor. Hereafter the paper presents the introduction of several integral or Upper Level (UL) key-parameters used to enhance the precision of the Bx-detection or completely replace the original lower level combustion key-parameter set, which relates the instantaneous fraction of bio-diesel, Bx, to the engine torque.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0209
Anibal Godoy Machado, Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa
With the purpose of minimizing the gaseous emissions impacts on the metropolitan areas, many alternative fuel resources has been developed as alternatives to fossil fuels. An environmentally and economical interesting alternative for the Brazilian market is the diesel made from sugar cane (Farnesene - C15H32). The Farnesene, made by sugar cane juice fermentation in presence of a genetically modified yeast is basically a saturated hydrocarbon molecule (C15H32) with more than 98% purity and that presents properties comparable to fossil diesel and when used in regular diesel cycle engines can bring significantly reductions not only in soot levels (Particulate Matter - PM) but also on the Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), unlike the biodiesel, that is well known that it brings increases on NOx emission level due its physic-chemical properties. Reduction on CO2 levels on life cycle is another important benefit of using such fuel since it's made by renewable feedstock.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0208
Anibal Godoy Machado, Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa
With focus on reducing the Green House Gases emissions, the use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel, in special for buses that runs on the Brazilian metropolitan areas has been even higher. Additionally, with the introduction of the new legislation for diesel engines in 2012, CONAMA PROCONVE P7, that in order to attempt to its requirements uses different kinds of exhaust gases after treatment systems, the necessity of knowing the behavior of those “P7 engines” operating with different biodiesel contents on blends with regular fossil fuel or even pure biodiesel has been an important issue to ensure the benefits of using such alternative fuel. On this evaluation, blends of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% of biodiesel content in ANP65/2011 A_S50 Diesel Fuel (50ppm Sulfur content) was experimented in a Mercedes-Benz OM926LA E5 engine with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reaction) exhaust gases after treatment system.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0324
Roberto F. Britto, Eugênio P.D. Coelho, Sammi Frederico, Marcelo Machado, Daniel Martinek, Celso Rabello, Thaisa Tomita
Brazil has been a leader for the past 30 years in the development and commercialization of vehicles powered by ethanol, which contributes significantly to maintain the basic Brazilian energy less dependent on fossil fuels, but its usage was restricted to small vehicles with focus on gasoline replacement. Whereas the use of diesel fuel has significant impact on emission of greenhouse gases when it is compared to the whole production cycle of the alternative fuels (“well to wheel” analysis), these fuels have been the focus of studies, applications, federal government programs, and also the private sector, such as bio-diesel, sugar cane diesel, ethanol with additive for diesel cycle and diesel-gas Dual-Fuel. This paper will detail the development a high efficient engine fueled with 100% hydrated ethanol capable to achieve up to 42% of break efficiency, similar to a diesel efficiency running on Otto cycle.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0319
Glécia Virgolino da Silva Luz, Pilar Hidalgo, Carlos Gurgel Veras, Simona Merola, Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Luca Marchitto
The use of biodiesel as alternative to fossil fuel for light duty CI engines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was widely investigated. However, poor stability of biodiesel - diesel mixture limits the use of biodiesel to low volume concentrations. This paper presents the results concerning the use of a novel fuel additive package containing antioxidant (AS), pour-point depressant (D) and biocide (Bi) with the aim to increase the quality and amount of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blends. Some of the goals are linked to the degradative effects due to free radicals oxidation, contamination by water and microorganisms. The interaction between two different additive packages and two biodiesel (soybean and rapeseed) - diesel blends at 20% in volume was investigated. Optical studies have been performed to characterize the spatial and temporal spray evolution both in a high pressure quiescent vessel and in an optically-accessible single-cylinder 2-stroke CI engine.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0571
B. Heuser, M. Jakob, F. Kremer, Stefan Pischinger, B. Kerschgens, H. Pitsch
In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, the cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Recently, new pathways have been discovered to synthesize octanol [1] and di-n-butylether (DNBE). These molecules are identical in the number of included hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms, but differ in the molecular structure: for octanol, the oxygen atom is at the end of the molecule, whereas for DNBE it is located in the middle. In this paper the utilization of octanol and DNBE in a state-of-the-art single cylinder diesel research engine will be discussed. The major interest has been on engine emissions (NOx, PM, HC, CO, noise) compared to conventional diesel fuel.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0490
Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa, Rodrigo Mozardo, Celso Macarini da Costa, Wilson Muraro, Thomas Lemcke, Aníbal Zambotti
With the discovery of oil and gas in the pre-salt Santos and Campos basin, the supply of natural gas (NG) is expected to increase considerably, so the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in city buses will be an important option for reducing the overall consumption of fossil diesel fuel and a reduction in operating costs in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Areas in Brazil. A vehicle with an engine that can run on pure diesel or diesel and CNG has advantage over a vehicle that works exclusively with CNG, because when there is no availability or the lack of CNG, the vehicle / engine operates with diesel only. Another benefit of this technology is the resale value in Brazil, because after the life cycle of use in theses two big cities, Urban Buses are sold country side to small cities where CNG is not available.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0491
Fabio Nicora, Tiago Bahia Santos, Henrique Augusto Pires Rezende
Natural gas is considered today a real alternative to diesel for the use in commercial vehicles in Europe, China, India and United States. While in Brazil natural gas is often the energy source for industrial processes and passenger's cars, opportunities to extend its utilization in light, medium commercial vehicles and buses could become realty in Brazil and Latin America. At the date, most of 12.000 IVECO CNG vehicles are running in different European countries and different customers' applications mainly refuse collection, urban logistics and urban people transport. Trucks running with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) represent today an opportunity to improve quality of life for communities, reducing the pollutant and noise emissions and allow, for the fleets operators, a cost saving directly related to fuel. In the 2011 IVECO Latin America started a CNG program to introduce CNG technology into Brazilian market.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0106
Steven G. Fritz, John C. Hedrick, James A. Rutherford
The objective of this project was to assess the effects of various blends of biodiesel on locomotive engine exhaust emissions. Systematic, credible, and carefully designed and executed locomotive fuel effect studies produce statistically significant conclusions are very scarce, and only cover a very limited number of locomotive models. Most locomotive biodiesel work has been limited to cursory demonstration programs. Of primary concern to railroads and regulators is understanding any exhaust emission associated with biodiesel use, especially NOX emissions. In this study, emissions tests were conducted on two locomotive models, a Tier 2 EMD SD70ACe and a Tier 1+ GE Dash9-44CW with two baseline fuels, conventional EPA ASTM No. 2-D S15 (commonly referred to as ultra-low sulfur diesel - ULSD) certification diesel fuel, and commercially available California Air Resource Board (CARB) ULSD fuel.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0893
Keith Buford, Jonathan Williams, Matthew Simonini
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV) are using large lithium ion battery packs to store energy for powering electric traction motors. These batteries, or Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS), have a narrow temperature operating range and require thermal management systems to properly condition the batteries for use in automotive applications. This paper will focus on energy optimization of a RESS cooling system. The battery thermal management system for the General Motors Chevrolet Volt has three distinct modes for battery cooling: active cooling, passive cooling, and bypass. Testing was conducted on each individual thermal cooling mode to optimize, through control models, the energy efficiency of the system with the goal of maximizing electric vehicle range.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1206
Wim van Dam, Trevor Miller, Gary Parsons
The heightened interest level in Fuel Economy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines the industry has seen over the last few years continues to be high, and is not likely to change. Lowering the fuel consumption of all internal combustion engines remains a priority for years to come, driven by economic, legislative, and environmental reasons. While it is generally assumed that lower viscosity grade lubricants offer fuel economy benefits, there is a lot of confusion about exactly what drives the fuel economy benefits. Fuel Economy claims in trade literature vary over a broad range and it is difficult for the end user to determine what to expect when a change in lubricant viscosity is adopted for a fleet of vehicles in a certain type of operation. This publication makes an attempt at clarifying a number of these uncertainties with the help of additional engine test data, and more extensive data analysis.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1998
Vilmar AEsoy, Per Magne Einang, Dag Stenersen, Erik Hennie, Ingebrigt Valberg
The maritime transportation sector is facing new international restrictions on exhaust emissions. NOx and SOx emissions from traditional marine fuels are a major challenge, which make natural gas a promising new clean alternative. Since the late 1980s, new concepts for medium-speed natural gas-fuelled engines have been developed, primarily for stationary power generation. This technology is currently entering the mobile sector, where Spark Ignition engines, Dual-Fuel engines and High Pressure Gas engines offer advantages such as high efficiency, low emissions and fuel flexibility. The availability of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is increasing, not least via small-scale distribution systems. In Norway, 23 coastal traffic vessels operate on LNG supplied by a distribution system that also supplies city bus fleets. This paper discusses the development of natural gas engines and fuel system technology, and describes experiences from LNG-fuelled ships in operation in Norway.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1961
Takashi Hara, Naoki Shimazaki, Naoki Yanagisawa, Takeshi Seto, Shigehisa Takase, Takeshi Tokumaru, Takurou Mita, Takeshi Okamoto, Yoshio Sato
Study of DME diesel engines was conducted to improve fuel consumption and emissions of its. Additionally, DME trucks were built for the promotion and the road tests of these trucks were executed on EFV21 project. In this paper, results of diesel engine tests and DME truck driving tests are presented. As for DME diesel engines, the performance of a DME turbocharged diesel engine with LPL-EGR was evaluated and the influence of the compression ratio was also explored. As for DME trucks, a 100,000km road test was conducted on a DME light duty truck. After the road test, the engine was disassembled for investigation. Furthermore, two DME medium duty trucks have been developed and are now the undergoing practical road testing in each area of two transportation companies in Japan.
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