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Viewing 1 to 30 of 452
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2687
Paul G. Evans, Kevin Johanson
This paper describes a radical new approach to variable flow oil pump design, which addresses some concerns of earlier designs and also conventional fixed displacement pumps. Detailed here are the testing and results to date, the potential areas for the future work, together with the reduction in parasitic power loss and potential fuel consumption savings. Also discussed are the benefits that can be realised by using this product as a tool for radically changing current automotive lubrication systems.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0145
Eduardo Sala Polati, Paulo Henrique Rohenkhol
The commercialization of additives for treating internal combustion engine oils in Brazil was regulated by ANP Ordinance n° 131, from 30.7.1999 and revoked by ANP Resolution n° 10, from 07.03.2007, where requires the performance proof of the referred additive following the ASTM Sequence IIIF bench engine test. The test PB/IMI-1109S3FGM151-2 establishes a procedure to evaluate internal combustion engine oils as well as additives against special performance conditions particularly operating at high temperature based on ASTM D 6984-09 Sequence IIIF procedure. This test measures oil thickening, sludge and varnish formation in engine components, piston deposits, oil consumption and camshaft wear. The ASTM procedure also suggests the use of any engine that proves the competence to accelerate thermochemical deterioration of lubricants under severe operating conditions and temperature, allowing in that way the development of this test procedure.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1207
Wim Van Dam, Mark W. Cooper, Kenneth Oxorn, Scott Richards
Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1206
Wim van Dam, Trevor Miller, Gary Parsons
The heightened interest level in Fuel Economy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines the industry has seen over the last few years continues to be high, and is not likely to change. Lowering the fuel consumption of all internal combustion engines remains a priority for years to come, driven by economic, legislative, and environmental reasons. While it is generally assumed that lower viscosity grade lubricants offer fuel economy benefits, there is a lot of confusion about exactly what drives the fuel economy benefits. Fuel Economy claims in trade literature vary over a broad range and it is difficult for the end user to determine what to expect when a change in lubricant viscosity is adopted for a fleet of vehicles in a certain type of operation. This publication makes an attempt at clarifying a number of these uncertainties with the help of additional engine test data, and more extensive data analysis.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1163
Mrinmoy Dam, John Nuszkowski, Gregory J. Thompson
Diesel engines are highly reliable, durable and are used for a wide range of applications with low fuel usage owing to its higher thermal efficiency compared to other mobile power sources. Heavy-duty diesel engines are used for both on-road and off-road applications and dominate the heavy-duty engine segment of the United States transportation market. Due to their high reliability, there are considerable numbers of on-road legacy heavy-duty diesel engine fleets still in use in the United States. These engines are relatively higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) producers than post 2007 model year diesel engines. There have been various emission certification or verification programs which are carried out in states like California and Texas for different aftermarket retrofit devices, fuels and additive technologies for reducing NOx and PM emissions from these legacy diesel engines.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1531
Michael Thivant, pascal BOUVET PhD, Alexandre Carbonelli
Due to the increasing focus on noise and vibration for future vehicles, there is a need for a clear definition of the requirements between vehicle manufacturers and auxiliary suppliers. Auxiliary characterisations are also needed as input for structure-borne numerical prediction models. Strongly coupled systems are amongst the most difficult structure-borne noise issues, as the transmitted forces and powers are strongly dependent upon the mobilities of both the vibration source and receiver. The so-called “blocked forces” can be used as intrinsic source descriptions. The challenge is then to design auxiliary test benches perfectly rigid in the frequency range of interest. The current paper is based on the French research program MACOVAM dedicated to the vibro-acoustic characterisation of oil pumps for truck engines. An original test bench was designed to measure quasi-blocked forces over the [150 Hz-2800 Hz] frequency range.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2124
W. van Dam, T. Miller, G. M. Parsons, Y. Takeuchi
The heightened interest level in Fuel Economy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines the industry has seen over the last few years continues to be high, and is not likely to change. Lowering the fuel consumption of all internal combustion engines remains a priority for years to come, driven by economic, legislative, and environmental reasons. While it is generally assumed that lower viscosity grade lubricants offer fuel economy benefits, there is a lot of confusion about exactly what drives the fuel economy benefits. Fuel Economy claims in trade literature vary over a broad range and it is difficult for the end user to determine what to expect when a change in lubricant viscosity is adopted for a fleet of vehicles in a certain type of operation. This publication makes an attempt at clarifying a number of these uncertainties with the help of additional engine test data, and more extensive data analysis.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2129
David Andrew Green, K. Selby, R. Mainwaring, R. Herrera
It is expected that the world's energy demand will double by 2050, which requires energy-efficient technologies to be readily available. With the increasing number of vehicles on our roads the demand for energy is increasing rapidly, and with this there is an associated increase in CO₂ emissions. Through the careful use of optimized lubricants it is possible to significantly reduce vehicle fuel consumption and hence CO₂. This paper evaluates the effects on fuel economy of high quality, low viscosity heavy-duty diesel engine type lubricants against mainstream type products for all elements of the vehicle driveline. Testing was performed on Shell's driveline test facility for the evaluation of fuel consumption effects due to engine, gearbox and axle oils and the variation with engine operating conditions.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2130
Robert Taylor, K. Selby, R. Herrera, D. A. Green
A predictive model for estimating the fuel saving of “top tier” engine, axle and transmission lubricants (compared to “mainstream” lubricants), in a heavy duty truck, operating on a realistic driving cycle, is described. Simulations have been performed for different truck weights (10, 20 and 40 tonnes) and it was found that the model predicts percentage fuel economy benefits that are of a similar magnitude to those measured in well controlled field trials1. The model predicts the percentage fuel saving from the engine oil should decrease as the vehicle load increases (which is in agreement with field trial results). The percentage fuel saving from the axle and gearbox oils initially decreases with load and then stays more or less constant. This behaviour is due to the detailed way in which axle and gearbox efficiency varies with speed/load and lubricant type.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2114
Jai G. Bansal, Patrick Colby, Maryann Devine, Jack Emert, Kaustav Sinha
This paper is first in a series of papers designed to investigate wear processes in modern heavy duty diesel engines. The objective of the series is to discuss the effects that engine drive cycle, lubricant formulations and in-service ageing of lubricants have on wear of critical engine components. In this paper, the Radioactive Tracer Technology technique was used to study the steady state wear behavior of a number of contacting surfaces in a Caterpillar 1P engine, as a function of the drive cycle. A test protocol consisting of 7 modes or stages was used to simulate a variety of drive cycles. The results from this work provide useful insights into the wear behavior of these surfaces under a variety of speed and load conditions.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2113
Masataka Hashimoto, Tadanori Azuma, Morio Sumimoto, Kanji Mitsuda
A new type of lube oil cleaning system is successfully developed for semi-permanent use of oil by always keeping oil clean with the result of no oil change and no waste oil. It is in practical use in many marine diesel engines and in some other fields. In recent years, possibility of semi-permanent use of engines themselves has been expected based on the field data. A ship test for 7 years has verified the expected semi-permanent use of engines with almost no wear and constant thermal efficiency during the test. We present the characteristics of the oil cleaning system and the result of the test. Also, a new type of fuel oil cleaning system is presented which is useful for cleaning low quality fuel oil. As a whole, this test is the beginning of the new stage of our work following the semi-permanent use of lube oil, which has been verified and established in many diesel engines since the 1980s.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3574
Thomas W. Ryan, Ed Owens, David Naegeli, Jim Doglio, Glenn Blyth, Wim van Dam, Bernard Damin, Cherian Olikara, Fred Villforth
The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0164
Sandro Oliveira, Cleber Gomes
This article is a new methodology to create a strong and reliable procedure to measure oil level at dealers. Most of time, commercial trucks run full loaded. Engine oil level indication systems are designed to measure oil level at that condition. However commercial trucks are assembled and sold empty and without bodies for trucks. In result of this condition, vehicles with a false indication of low engine oil level are detected at dealers' pre-delivery inspection, resulting in oil addition. This oil addition causes unnecessary costs, since vehicles are produced with maximum oil level. The methodology presented in this study analyzes and treats all variables involved in engine oil level measurements from engine production line until dealers' pre-delivery inspection
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0331
Phil Carden, Carl Pisani, Jon Andersson, Ian Field, Emmanuel Lainé, Jai Bansal, Maryann Devine
This paper describes the results of a series of tests on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine using conventional and low viscosity lubricants. The objectives were to explore the impact of reducing lubricant viscosity on wear, friction and fuel consumption. The radiotracing Thin Layer Activation method was used to make on-line measurements of wear at the cylinder liner, top piston ring, connecting rod small end bush and intake cam lobe. The engine was operated under a wide range of conditions (load, speed and temperature) and with lubricants of several different viscosity grades. Results indicate the relationship between lubricant viscosity and wear at four critical locations. Wear at other locations was assessed by analysis of wear metals and post test inspection. The fuel consumption was then measured on the same engine with the same lubricants. Results indicate the relationship between oil viscosity and fuel consumption under a wide range of operating conditions.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8085
Yanjun Ren, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Li Zhou, Ruobing Zhan
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device generally equipped on commercial vehicles. Its oil temperature change influences the brake performance of hydraulic retarder. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a good means to recover exhausted heat. Moreover, it can cool oil and stably control oil temperature with the help of heat absorption related with evaporation. Comprehensively considering the heat-producing characteristics of hydraulic retarder and the temperature control demand, the aimed boundary conditions are determined. Also the changing rules about the working medium flow rate are obtained. In this work, the heat-producing properties of hydraulic retarder under different conditions and the oil external circulating performance is firstly analyzed. By researching the system’s adaptation to the limiting conditions, the aimed temperature to control is prescribed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0966
Sauhard Singh, Anil Bhardwaj, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh, B P Das, Nishant Tyagi, Jaywant Mohite, N B Chougule
Abstract The ever increasing demand of fuels for vehicles can only be met by use of alternate fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and is considered to be the first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy. While, automotive industry matures up with the usage of new engines, lubricant manufacturers are also moving on to the next stage by formulating oils to be used in gas engines such as CNG, HCNG etc. This paper presents the evaluation of gas engine oil on 6-cylinder heavy duty CNG engine using HCNG. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. The engine was optimized for using HCNG fuel. Initial performance of the engine using HCNG was compared vis-à-vis CNG and, thereafter, the engine was subjected to endurance test of 500 hours as per 8 mode engine simulated driving cycle.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0166
Carla K. Mauerberg Gerulaitis, Cleber Willian Gomes, Paulo Carpenito
Abstract This paper describes the strategy of lubricant oil service interval for commercial truck based on new engine technology (PROCONVE P7), the fleet owner's needs, vehicle typical application route, operational costs related to oil change, design of oil pan to adequate the oil volume and lubricant oil available technology. In result, this analysis shows the best annual operational cost for customer in terms of oil change.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2031
Moritsugu Kasai, Nao Yoshimura, Yoriyuki Takashima, Izumi Terada
Recently, deposition of ash derived from engine oil on the surface of a diesel particle filter (DPF) has been reported to worsen the performance of the DPF. It is generally known that phosphorus in engine oil is adsorbed on the surface of an automotive exhaust catalyst and reduces the performance of the catalyst. Thus, the amounts of ash and phosphorus in engine oil have been decreased. We have developed a non-phosphorus and non-ash engine oil (NPNA) that does not contain metal-based detergents and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZnDTP). We performed a performance test for NPNA using an actual engine and reported that the piston detergency and anti-wear performance of NPNA were sufficiently high. However, the piston detergency of NPNA required further improvement when engine running conditions were more severe.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2030
Kotaro Mori, Naoya Sugimoto, Koji Yamane, Kiyoshi Kawasaki
Biodiesel fuel can be used in diesel engines with no major modification, but there are some issues derived from the properties of the fuel. Engine oil dilution is a major issue caused by lower volatility and low oxidation stability in biodiesel fuel. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of oil dilution by biodiesel fuel on oxidative degradation characteristics, including the acid value (AV), carbon residue (CR), and kinematic viscosity of diesel engine lubricant oil. Degradation assessment was carried out on lubricant oil during operation of a small diesel engine generator, as well as an oxidative acceleration test using a mixture of biodiesel and lubricant oil. It was found that the kinematic viscosity decreased to 23% from its initial value, the dilution rate increased almost linearly, amounting to 2.8 mass-% after 102 hours of engine operation, and deterioration was greater in JASO DH-1 grade lubricant oil mixed with biodiesel than in JASO DH-2.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2033
Takashi Honda, Satoshi Ogano
Increased attention has been focused on fuel economy (FE) of passenger vehicle lubricants. For diesel engine oils, FE is significantly lost in service due to soot loading in oils which inhibits adsorption of friction modifier (FM) on rubbing metal surfaces. On the other hand, soot may have a positive aspect because this has a similar molecular structure to graphite which may have a possibility to work well as a solid lubricant, i.e., FM in oils. This suggests that management of soot in diesel engine oils could achieve lower frictional performance, and thus enhance further improvement of fuel economy. The impact of soot properties on friction coefficient by physical and chemical characterization of soot accumulated in diesel engine oils have been firstly discussed in our previous paper. In this paper, the frictional response was investigated in the presence of soot at various test conditions and surface roughness.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2032
Kenji Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Umehara, Yukiya Moriizumi, Shinji Iino, Noriyoshi Tanaka
This study examines friction reducing and fuel economy improving performance of MoDTC with heavy duty diesel engine oil (HDDO) using several friction tests and fleet trucks. As a result, a fuel economy improvement of approximately 2 % was observed without any negative influence on the engines, and the friction reducing performance of MoDTC remained for more than 50,000km.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2034
Yoichiro Nakamura, Kenji Tomizawa, Takahiro Onishi, Takashi Hashimoto, Motoshige Sato, Takahiro Tatani, Atsushi Akamatsu, Hideaki Inaba, Ryuji Aoki
More stringent emissions regulations, fuel economy standards, and regulations are currently being discussed to help reduce both CO2 and exhaust emissions. Vehicle manufacturers have been developing new engine technologies, such as downsizing and down-speeding with reduced friction loss, improved engine combustion and efficiency, heat loss recycling, power-train friction loss recycling, and reduced power-train friction loss. The use of more efficient fuel economy 5W-30 engine oils for heavy duty commercial vehicles has started to expand since 2009 in Japan as one technological solution to help reduce CO2 emissions. However, fuel economy 5W-30 oils for use in heavy duty vehicles in Europe are mainly based on synthetic oils, which are much expensive than the mineral oils that are predominantly used in Japan.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2036
Mao Ueda, Kiyoshi Hanyuda, Kouichi Kubo
The interest on improving fuel efficiency of vehicles is increasing day by day. Fuel efficiency standard for diesel commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks was published in Japan. Using a fuel efficient engine lubricant is one of the effective paths and there are several 5W-30 diesel engine lubricants in Japanese market which are advertised to give a benefit on fuel efficiency against 10W-30 oil. During the development of 5W-30 fuel efficient diesel engine oil, it was revealed that the piston underside was significantly blackened by the detergency engine test (JASO M 336: 2014). In this paper, the causative agent which blackened the piston underside was investigated and the formulation to inhibit this blackening phenomenon was studied. Through several tests, it was considered that use of poly methacrylate based viscosity index improver and ester type friction modifier deteriorated detergency performance.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2041
Vishnu Vijayakumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, A K Sehgal
In this paper, the characteristics of particle size distribution in the exhaust of a turbocharged 5.9 liter Cummins gas engine lubricated by two commonly used oils of different viscometrics (15W-40 and 20W-50) have been investigated. The study also attempts to differentiate the performance of the lubricants on the basis of fuel economy. A test procedure developed in- house was used for the evaluation, wherein the engine was operated at various speeds (1200-2800rpm) and load (25 %, 50% & 75%) conditions. Particle size distribution is measured using Engine Exhaust Particle Sizing Spectrometer (TSI EEPS Model 3090). Results indicate that a majority of the particle emissions are observed in the nucleation region (particle diameter < 50nm) and particle size distribution is found to significantly vary with engine speed.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2044
Akemi Ito, Yusuke Chubachi, Takumi Yamamoto, Noriyoshi Tanaka, Yukiya Moriizumi, Keisuke Yari, Bengt Otterholm
The reduction of friction losses is a subject of central importance in a diesel engine. The piston frictions of low viscosity engine oil and molybdenum dialkyl dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) have been measured by floating liner method. It was found that the low viscosity engine oil lower than 5W-30 is not effective against the reduction of friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) related to the fuel consumption. MoDTC showed a good performance against the reduction of FMEP. In the friction measurement points, the reduction ratio of 10W-30 with MoDTC to 10W-30 was greater than that of 5W-30 to 10W-30.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2720
Sundarram Arunachalam, Ramprabhu Kannan, Jayaramareddy Sekar
Abstract Steering gear box function is one of the important requirements in heavy vehicles in order to reduce driver fatigue. Improper functioning of steering gear box not only increases the driver fatigue, also concerns the safety of the vehicle. In this present investigation, the engine oil mixing up with steering oil has been identified and steering gear box failure has been observed in the customer vehicle. The root cause of failure has been analyzed. Based on the investigations, in particular design of steering pump has been failed at customer end. The same design of steering pump were segregated and analyzed. Initial pressure mapping study has been conducted. The pressure mapping results revealed that the cavity pressure obstructs the flow of suction pressure. It indicates that obstacle at suction port due to the existence of internal leakage that causes back pressure in the internal cavity of steering pump which sucks engine oil.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2876
Shankar Patil, P Mahesh, Krishnan Sadagopan, Senniappan Arunachalam Gokhul
Abstract In tropical conditions, twelve numbers of ten ton intermediate commercial vehicles run at regular interval from zero to 60000 kilometer. Vehicle field run data were composed and analyzed with intended duty cycle for engine oil drain life estimation. The intermediate commercial vehicle trucks with sump capacity 0.083- 0.104 liter/HP and SAE 15W40 viscosity of oil meeting API CH-4, API CI-4+ from group-I and group-II base stocks are considered. The engine wear is more a function of silica concentration, load factor and age than the API category of the oil. Oil drain interval is found to be proportional to the sump volume for the same stress on the oil. Iron concentration and kinematic viscosity decide to be useful oil life with respect to the limits fixed by the engine manufacturer. In tropical conditions, field trials are carried out on 10 ton payload vehicles at higher temperature, humidity, dust levels and payload factor.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0153
Bernardo Luiz Harry Diniz Lemos, Eduardo Abreu Salomão, Matheus Philipe Ribeiro Viana, Rogério Jorge Amorim
Abstract Two-stroke engines are used in several purposes, such as lawn mowers, chainsaws, power generators and for motorcycles in some dirt tracks competitions. In addition, small Wankel engines are used in snowmobiles, motorized paragliders and range extenders. Both types of engines are known for the great power produced per displacement, ideal for the purposes aforementioned, but its bigger emissions due to lubricating oil mixed with fossil fuels, such as gasoline, do not pass legislation's standards, which limits their use. In order to reduce emissions, tests with ethanol and castor oil, eco-friendly fuel and lubricant, respectively, will be presented to adequate these organic compounds to the engine's operation.
1958-01-01
Technical Paper
580330
C. C. COLYER, J. M. MILLER
Multigrade motor oils formulated to meet both Ordnance Supplement 1 and API service “MS” requirements were subjected to over three million miles of heavy-duty field tests. Engine wear and oil consumption were equal to, or lower than, results obtained with single-grade oils in similar service. Trucks, buses, and tractors favor multigrade oils over single-grade oils in engine starting at low temperatures and in fuel economy. Well-formulated multigrade oils also extend the period between engine overhauls and decrease inventory requirements. The savings realized in fuel economy and ease of starting far outweigh the additional cost of multigrade oils. Properly blended multigrade oils give an additional bonus in engine life. These results are dispelling the reservations held by some engine builders and fleet operators concerning multigrade oils.
1951-01-01
Technical Paper
510078
Leland A. Wendt
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