Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 455
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2015
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2012
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0593
Lucian Andrei Gheorghe, Takashi Sunda
In order to build a useful and comfortable in-car human machine interface systems, the information presentation method should be easy to understand (low mental workload) and one should be able to respond with ease to the information presented (low response workload). We are making efforts to establish an evaluation method that would differentiate between mental workload and response workload. Here, we present the results of our trial using brain waves measurements (Eye Fixation Related Potentials). We focus on the relation between P3 latencies and drivers response workload compared to mental workload in a task involving eye movements. Previous experiments showed that P3 latency correlates strongly with the amount of information presented. The current experiment shows that P3 latencies seem to be independent to the type of response the subject is requested to perform.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0591
Haruhiko Nishiguchi, Kei Oshida
This paper presents a verification of the effectiveness of an image processing method, used to reduce the inconsistent speed perception caused by using the camera images in conjunction with side-view mirrors. Vision assistance technology using cameras is widely used in practical applications today. However, speed and distance perceived with camera images may differ from those viewed directly or viewed with conventional side-view mirrors. That is particularly evident in wide-angle camera images, and can easily cause a sense of discomfort experienced by the driver. A Side View Camera (SVC) shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. It is a system to compensate side-view mirrors, broadening the driver's field of view to eliminate bind spots. SVC is used in conjunction with the side-view mirrors.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0598
Nonnwats Anantapal, Songkran Kantawong, Tanasak Phanprasit
Advances in image processing and display technology have been increased interesting in using camera-based systems for all around view vision system especially for all rear-vision functions. The camera-based system is raised the possibility gain of providing driver with wide fields of view than conventional rear view mirrors such as eliminate blind spot area and reduce this sense of incongruity associated with perceiving vehicle movement. This paper presents a development of adaptive camera adopted to improve the image quality of the all-around view system. The all-around view or wide view images are analyzed and synthesized to create a single image seen from a virtual perspective overhead vehicle camera by image processing methods and display in a real view image as closed as possible.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0597
Shannon O'Day, Louis Tijerina
The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0596
Matthew P. Reed
This paper describes the development of the fixed seat eyellipse in the October 2008 revision of SAE Recommended Practice J941. The eye locations of 23 men and women with a wide range of stature were recorded as they sat in each of three second-row bench seats in a laboratory mockup. Testing was conducted at 19-, 23-, and 27-degree seat back angles. Regression analysis demonstrated that passenger eye location was significantly affected by stature and by seat back angle. The regression results were used to develop an elliptical approximation of the distribution of adult passenger eye locations, applying a methodology previously used to develop the driver eyellipse in SAE J941-2002.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0595
Robert E. Llaneras, M. Lucas Neurauter, Charles Quinn, Charles Green
Research was conducted to assess driver acceptance and performance associated with a spotter mirror feature intended to reduce the incidence of lane-change conflicts by enhancing drivers' ability to detect vehicles in their side blind zone. The spotter mirror consisted of an integrated spherical convex blind zone mirror inset within a larger planar mirror. The spotter mirror's field-of-view was designed to target the vehicle's side blind zone area and to help drivers quickly detect the presence or absence of a vehicle in the blind zone. The study captured normative lane-change behavior during an extended drive on public roadways, with and without access to the spotter mirror system, for a sample of familiar and unfamiliar supplemental mirror users. In order to capture more naturalistic lane-change behavior, drivers were informed that the purpose of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of existing road signs for navigating to a destination.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0182
Raunak Santosh, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0442
James K. Sprague, Peggy Shibata, Jack L. Auflick
Abstract A complete analysis of any vehicular collision needs to consider certain aspects of human factors. However, this is especially true of nighttime collisions, in which a more specialized approach is required. Classical collision investigation (frequently referred to as accident reconstruction) is comprised of kinetic and kinematic considerations including skid analysis, momentum techniques and other methods. While analysis based on these concepts is typically unaffected by low visibility conditions, the opposite is true of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a “humans-in-the-loop” analysis, which can be enormously impacted by low visibility. Only by applying appropriate human factors techniques can the analyst make a defensible determination of how and why a nighttime collision occurred.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0801
Bong-Ha Hwang
Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2256
William H. Havins, Ph.D.
The present paper provides a general review of trends in vehicle information display designs, specifically “dashboards,” noting that the purpose of those dashboard displays is to provide information that allows for safe and lawful operation of those vehicles. The author describes how these trends appear to have been driven by a combination of historical precedents including vehicle interior design, available vehicle display technology, and, later, by development of vehicle data busses. The paper describes human factors and cognitive neuroscience issues that affect an operator's ability to read gauges in a dashboard display. The paper reports the results of the author's 2008 research where 71 of 101 survey respondents indicated that they find it hard to read their recreational vehicle gauges. It describes participants' significantly positive responses to the author's dashboard display prototype developed using human factors and cognitive neuroscience principles.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0645
Kohei Kawai, Yoshiyuki Matsuoka
Against discomfort of vehicles for wheelchair users, countermeasures such as a vibration absorber are required. To determine the optimal characteristics of the absorber, we had proposed the Comfort Evaluation Prediction System (CEPS) that can predict subjective evaluation from floor vibration, considering passengers' constitutions and wheelchair types. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model that simulates the vibration transmited to the passenger as part of the CEPS. We modeled a wheelchair-bound passenger and estimated unknown parameters by the result of a modal experiment. Then some simulations were carried out to suggest applicability of the model.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3736
Ina Rastetter
This paper describes the procedure used to ensure that new trucks of the brand Mercedes-Benz meet the ergonomic requirements of all drivers, using the example of the semitrailer. Mercedes-Benz trucks are sold in different countries. Because of this, varying legal requirements, different sizes of drivers and different lifestyles and habits have to be considered. To solve this problem perfectly, new methods and tools have been acquired, resulting in increasing optimization of the process of truck development.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3735
Dennis Gryp
Many advancements have been made through the use of technology that give seat manufacturers the capability to provide greatly improved truck seats. Until recently the design and development of new seating was accomplished primarily through static surveys. Modern technologies available today will reduce cost, development time, and the overall effort associated with utilizing real people to develop a seating project. In many instances when these seats were placed into vehicles with actual truck drivers riding in them for many hours a day, the drivers inputs resulted in multiple revisions to the original seat to satisfy their comfort issues. With modern technologies such as computer generated seat modeling, pressure mapping, and our state of the art test equipment such as a six–axis ride simulator, it has become part of any new seat development program to acquire field ride data in specific trucks and duplicate these inputs in the test laboratory.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0048
Shigeru Ueki, Yutaka Takada
Eco-Driving which is environmentally friendly driving manner is greatly effective way to prevent global warming and to improve air pollution caused by exhaust emissions from vehicles. LEVO has been conducting the EMS promotion program for freight companies etc. since 2005. This program aims at implementing Eco-Driving continuously and well-systematically for drivers. More than 96,000 trucks and buses in 5,140 companies have been joined the program and implementing environmentally friendly driving manner by using Eco-Driving support devices. In this paper, the outcome of Eco-Driving promotion conducted by LEVO is described and the effects on fuel saving and the effect of CO2 reduction attributed to the Eco-Driving management activities are shown.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0269
Everton Corte, Maria Lúcia Machado Duarte, Henrique Schaeffer Batista, Gabriel Silva
This paper discusses the importance of vibration transmitted from the ground to the driver from the perspective of human whole-body vibration (WBV). The scope of analysis is to compare the main vehicle frequencies with those important from the human vibration health and comfort point of view. That was performed by mapping the vibration transmissibility present in different sub sections of the vehicle. The first is the transmissibility between the axles and the chassis rail, the following between the chassis rail and the cabin. The last would be between the cabin and the drivers' seat, although that was not possible from the acquisition point of view. The vehicles measured have mechanical suspension and elastomeric cabin coupling. It is known that all suspension systems in vehicle are highly nonlinear, although here linear dynamic analysis methods were used.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1424
Yi G. Glaser, Robert E. Llaneras, Daniel S. Glaser, Charles A. Green
Abstract Partially automated driving involves the relinquishment of longitudinal and/or latitudinal control to the vehicle. Partially automated systems, however, are fallible and require driver oversight to avoid all road hazards. Researchers have expressed concern that automation promotes extended eyes-off-road (EOR) behavior that may lead to a loss of situational awareness (SA), degrading a driver’s ability to detect hazards and make necessary overrides. A potential countermeasure to visual inattention is the orientation of the driver’s glances towards potential hazards via cuing. This method is based on the assumption that drivers are able to rapidly identify hazards once their attention is drawn to the area of interest regardless of preceding EOR duration. This work examined this assumption in a simulated automated driving context by projecting hazardous and nonhazardous road scenes to a participant while sitting in a stationary vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
Abstract The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance accuracy, image detection time, and distortion.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2838
Dharmar Ganesh, Riyaz Mohammed, Hareesh Krishnan, Radakrishnan Rambabu
Abstract In-vehicle displays such as an instrument cluster in a vehicle provide vital information to the user. The information in terms of displays and tell-tales needs to be perceived by the user with minimal glance during driving. Drivers must recognize the condition of the vehicle and the state of its surroundings through primarily visual means. Drivers then process this in the brain, draw on their memory to identify problem situations, decide on a plan of action and execute it in order to avoid an accident. There are visual hindrances seen in real world scenario such as obscuration, reflection and glare on the instrument cluster which prevents the vital information flow from vehicle to the driver. In order to ensure safety while driving, the instrument cluster or driver displays should be placed in an optimized location.
2014-11-04
Technical Paper
2014-36-0793
Elton J. Zanol, Letícia Fleck Fadel Miguel, Tiago Becker
Abstract Bus drivers are daily exposed to whole-body vibrations (WBV) submitted to risks for develop health problems related to these conditions. Numerous studies focused to quantify and identify the risks that drivers are exposed have been developed in recent years. Many factors influence the transmission of vibration to the body. Road type may be an important factor in determining the WBV exposure a bus driver receives. In urban areas, common types of routes include several road surfaces like: smooth highway, older rough freeway, pavement, bumpy, speed humps, and others. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different kinds of road surfaces, found in urban routes, cause different WBV responses, and determine the influence for each road type in daily exposure to WBV according the standard ISO 2631-1 (1997).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0440
Li Jie, Wang Wenzhu, Gao Xiong, Zhang Zhenwei
Abstract The ride comfort of heavy trucks is related to many factors, which include vehicle operating scenarios and vehicle structure parameters. An investigation of the influence of different factors on the ride comfort of heavy trucks was conducted. Based on the elastic theory of a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam with both ends free, a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) half rigid-elastic vibration model of the vertical dynamic response was developed. The rigid-elastic model is more suitable to describe the actual movement of heavy trucks. The DOFs include vertical displacements of the body and each of two axles, the pitch displacement of the body, and the first and second order bending displacements of the body. The root mean square (RMS) values of body accelerations, dynamic deflections and relative dynamic loads form the evaluation index. Based on the rigid-elastic model, the influence of different factors on the ride comfort of heavy trucks is analyzed in the frequency domain.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2767
Sanjay Lakshmanan, Arthanareeswaran Palaniappan, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract The emerging trends in commercial vehicle technology have increased the necessity for critical attribute engineering refinements. Drivability is emerging as one of the most significant attributes in the automotive sector. The degree of smoothness in a vehicle's response to the driver's input is termed as drivability. This attribute has to be rigorously refined in order to achieve brand specific vehicle characteristics, which will ensure a thorough product differentiation. In order to calibrate for a positive drivability feel, a methodology for evaluation of drivability is a prerequisite. The scope of this paper is aimed at describing the methodology for subjective and objective evaluation of drivability attributes in commercial vehicles. Drivability is a highly subjectively perceived attribute, therefore a subjective assessment technique to assess drivability attributes and sub-attributes are essential.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2766
Sai Venkatesh Muravaneni, Egalaivan Srinivasan, Jagankumar Mari
Abstract Steering wheel being the most used tactile point in a vehicle, its feel and response is an important factor based on which the vehicle quality is judged. Engineering the right feel and response into the system requires knowledge of the objective parameters that relate to the driver perception. Extensive correlation work has been done in the past pertaining to passenger cars, but the driver requirements for commercial vehicles vary significantly. Often it becomes difficult to match the right parameters to the steering feel experienced by the drivers, since most of the standard ISO weave test units used to describe them are of zero or first order parameters. Analyzing the second order parameters gave a better method to reason driver related feel. Also, each subjective attribute was fragmented into sub-attributes to identify the reason for such a rating resulting in the identification of the major subjective parameters affecting driver ratings.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2853
Ammar Ali, Aditya S. Luktuke, E. Ramachandran, N.V. Karanth
Greater customer awareness is driving the automotive industry to constantly look to innovate and ensure that greater time, efforts and considerable resources are spent in developing a better vehicle. As we move away from noisy vehicles, the differentiating parameter in vehicles is the perception of quality in the vehicle noise or sound. As the masking effect due to overall vehicle noise level abates, many low noise sources gain prominence, which directly influences the perception of noise refinement. Hence, the concept of vehicle interior noise is not only limited to lower noise levels but has also extended to better sound quality (SQ). SQ technique involves use of relevant parameters for quantifying a subjective quality into an objective quantity. This paper will look at parameters relevant to subjective perception of vehicle interior noise and consider a benchmarking methodology targeting vehicle sound quality.
1952-01-01
Technical Paper
520240
A.K. Simons
IF the maximum is to be achieved from our design efforts, says the author, we are finding that we must specifically design the machine around the human operator and his physical and mental capacities. Mr. Simons shows here what is being done to incorporate this philosophy into the design of tractor seats. His approach to the problem is: 1. To record the absolute tractor motion in all three dimensions simultaneously while the field operation is in progress. 2. To analyze these records in the light of human tolerances. 3. To design the seat suspension to isolate against the objectionable part of this motion.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 455

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: