Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 584
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9093
Rodrigo Mayer de Ávila, Milton Borsato
Facing a competitive and globalized market and with increasingly demanding customers, companies must constantly seek the development of practices in the development of new products. One of the current practices is the adoption of modularity. In that sense, the objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis of this practice in a Brazilian company, which manufactures agricultural machinery. The applicability of modular design in current products is focused. Therefore, a case study approach has been chosen. First, a review of the scientific literature was conducted, followed by field research, for collecting data based on interviews with product engineers and technical documentation. The case study shows the applicability of the modular design concept in a combine header, by increasing the number of repeated components. The modular header approach facilitates the implementation of engineering changes and allows greater standardization of components.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2398
Mahendra Muli, Jace Allen
The Model-Based Development (MBD) process has been the key enabler of technical advancement. MBD helps manage complexity, while making product development faster by bringing clarity and transparency to the entire product development process, specifically software components. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated toolchains, like the ones provided by dSPACE, that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. MBD is an efficient iterative process that allows engineers to improve quality and deliver on demanding needs of product variants in the current competitive environment. However, the MBD process described commonly using the ‘V-Cycle’ diagram leads to the generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work products. The iterative process, variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3752
Alain L. Kornhauser
This paper documents the current realities of in-vehicle navigation systems in terms of their functionality, scope and responsiveness. It discusses the evolution of these systems with the advent of wireless communications. Addressed are the issues associated with delivery and utilization of real-time traffic, incident, and weather information to and by in-vehicle navigation systems. Also discussed are other High-level in-vehicle decisions that can be supported by the marriage of wireless communications with in-vehicle navigation. Applications considered range from the choosing of alternate waypoints and destinations (where to get gas, where to park), to the host of nRouteCommerce transactions that can be more efficiently achieved with the support of in-vehicle navigation (reserving a parking space, resetting household thermostats as you approach home). Implications on driver workload, in-vehicle processing, wireless bandwidth and Internet traffic are discussed.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2033
Christina Perdikoulias, Doug Akers
Effective requirements elicitation and management is a common need in supplier-OEM relationships, and continues to play a vital role in all aspects of the product development lifecycle. While traditional methods address the business goals for requirements and provide guidance in ensuring the accuracy of the “Descriptive-Prescriptive-Explanatory” outputs for requirements gathering and documentation, engineering organizations continue to encounter challenges with respect to capturing and communicating change, accommodating the addition of relevant design details and efficient propagation to inform development. These challenges become more difficult to overcome in mechatronic systems, which combine mechanical systems with integrated software. As software development can produce an overwhelming volume of information that requires accurate tracking and proliferation, it cannot be effectively managed using traditional hardware-centric systems.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210028
N J OCKSREIDER
In this day of transportation engineering, the requirements of each customer must be diagnosed accurately and the economic waste due to wrong selling eliminated. Stating that 32 classes of trades, divided into 350 sub-classes, use motor trucks, the author expresses the view that, in applying the science of selling by analysis, it is necessary to know the cost of shipping every pound of goods, deducing in turn the correct size of truck for a given kind of work. Referring to the fact that a truck cannot be designed to stand up under all conditions and that selling a truck which is unsuitable for a particular task means a dissatisfied customer, the author gives the opinion that a truck of mediocre merit will in many cases perform more satisfactorily than the best truck built operating under improper conditions.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240026
J F WINCHESTER
Solicitation of sales and the delivery of the product to the customer constitute the most important operative features of the motor-truck fleet supervised by the author. Endeavor is made to install the vehicles in the various fields along standardized lines. The volume and the extent of the business and the topographical conditions of each locality determine the size and the mechanical equipment of the vehicle that is employed, and it is installed only after a study of all the conditions pertaining to its operation. Adequate training of vehicle operators, not only along mechanical lines but also as direct sales representatives of the company, is made a feature; and so is accident prevention. These interests are promoted in various standard ways and are furthered by the publication of “house organs.” After a vehicle is installed the slogan adopted is: Keep It Moving With a Pay Load.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230027
F C HORNER
The author discusses the factors that must be considered in solving the transportation problems and then describes the operation of the English-railway cartage-system in some detail under the two main divisions of delivery and collection. An important feature of the system is that of the control afforded by locating a controller, or dispatcher, in a central office and holding him responsible for the movements of the carmen, or drivers. The details of this control are explained. The field for the motor truck in railway-terminal service is outlined and a presentation is made of the merits and demerits of unit containers, together with an illustrated description of the English “fiats,” or demountable bodies. Other subjects treated include cartage costs, tonnage hauled, unified control of cartage and expressions of opinion quoted from numerous English trade organizations.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230017
S VON AMMON
A record of an investigation of heavy-duty truck-axles carried out by the Bureau of Standards at the request of the motor transport division of the Quartermaster Corps, this paper deals in particular with the mechanical efficiency of the axles tested. The investigation included, in addition to several worm-drive Class-B Army-truck axles with different types of bearing, a number of axles usually designated respectively as “internal-gear” and “multiple-reduction” type. Each of these types was represented by axles in successful use in commercial trucks of 5-ton rating. In analyzing the results of the tests it was found possible to separate the losses into no-load losses and load losses; the total loss being the sum of these two. In general, the no-load losses were primarily controlled by the viscosity and the method of application of the lubricant. They were greater in those axles in which the parts rotating at high speeds were immersed most completely in the lubricant.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230026
J F MURPHY
The author describes a system of automotive transportation for intra-city hauling and the moving of merchandise between railroad terminals that has enabled the company he represents to serve the city of St. Louis and the railroad terminals there with a high degree of efficiency through the utilization of tractor and semi-trailer units and a thorough supervision of their movements. The units are described and illustrated, and the conditions governing their usage are set forth. The salient features of the paper include discussions of the necessity for adequate terminals, off-track versus on-track railroad depots, the volume of tonnage, tractor and semi-trailer operation and methods of procedure and control, weight and protection of loads, haulage distance, economy and a specific statement of the principal advantages gained through the use of automotive equipment of the type described.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0177
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Public transport has been considered the preferred strategy to reduce congestion and pollution from urban road traffic. For low to medium capacity, bus systems are considered the most affordable and flexible mode. Currently, diesel based systems still dominate transit bus market, due to their high productivity, low deployment costs, technological maturity, operational reliability and flexibility (high daily ranges, fast refuelling and no infrastructure requirement along the routes). However, although some important improvements in engine technology and aftertreatment devices, enforced by emission standards improvements (Euro VI, US 2010 and those related), have been achieved, it is well known that there is a limit to cleaning exhaust diesel buses exhaust. In this context, transit authorities and operators have been under pressure to shift for more environmental friendly technologies.
1928-01-01
Technical Paper
280068
ETHELBERT FAVARY
ASSERTING as a premise that highway legislation should be purely a matter of economics, the author draws a comparison between the costs of building a cheap road and hauling with 2½-ton trucks and building a heavier road and hauling with 5-ton trucks. He shows by this illustration that the latter proceeding is the more economical. Most States permit gross weights of vehicle and load that make it possible to haul pay-loads of about 5 tons. If 5-ton trucks show a saving in transportation costs over 2½-ton trucks, still larger capacity four-wheel trucks might show a corresponding saving over 5-ton trucks, from which it might be argued that all roads should be built sufficiently strong to carry the heavier vehicles and loads without damage. But it is pointed out that there are a great many secondary roads on which traffic is light, and that it is uneconomic to build roads and roadbeds stronger than is warranted by economic needs.
1928-01-01
Technical Paper
280030
W. B. STOUT
PSYCHOLOGY of the public, as well as engineering structure and aerodynamics, is involved in commercial aviation. The public has confidence in metal. With quantity production in view, the author and his associates considered costs of production as related to quantity and also costs of maintenance at airports and in the field, and chose metal as the material of construction. Structural members are fashioned from sheet duralumin rather than from tubes and a type of construction was evolved that can be made with the minimum investment in tools, that is cheap to put together and that can be repaired with the smallest amount of equipment and labor. For compression loads, duralumin has a great deal more strength for a given weight than has steel. It cannot be used, however, for compression members in combination with steel in tension members because of the difference in coefficient of expansion.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250008
A H HOFFMAN
Utilizing an opportunity presented by a mountain-road construction-project in California, eight Class-B 3½-ton trucks were assigned to the work and a test of air-cleaners was conducted during its progress. Six trucks were each equipped with an air-cleaner; two were not. The trucks had dump-bodies and were specially prepared for the test, details of this preparation being specified. Due to varied air-cleaner design, it was not feasible to locate the cleaners identically on all the trucks, and differences in mounting may have influenced the resulting air-cleaner efficiency, but mountings were made as nearly identical as possible. Tables of average wear of piston-rings, engine cylinders and crankpins, for 1000 hr. of use, are presented, and details of how the measurements were made are stated, together with a discussion of the “growth” of pistons and of the peculiarities of wear.
1929-01-01
Technical Paper
290086
E. D. SIRRINE
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370144
B. B. Bachman
THE author makes a brief recapitulation of the paper that was presented at the Metropolitan Section of the Society last spring and carries through an analysis of reports that have been received on the operation of some 30 of these units both in the East and on the West Coast. The discussion covers the general operating characteristics of these units together with a further study of a comparison between two Diesel units and a gasoline unit from the basis of operating cost.
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370155
T. C. Smith
BY means of representative cases this paper shows some of the marked developments in utility fleets in the past 41 years. Among the examples discussed are a horse-powered truck of 1896, one of the first motor trucks used for the purpose in 1910, a number of light modern “mosquito-fleet” units adapted for special applications from light-weight passenger cars, heavier units with five- or seven-man cabs, and highly specialized units for erecting poles and pulling-in underground cables with their trailers and auxiliary equipment. Considerable technical information on the design and construction of these special bodies and their auxiliary equipment is presented. In conclusion the author recommends four general objectives for consideration in rebuilding a fleet.
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370132
R. J. Minshall, John K. Ball, F. P. Laudan
THIS paper contains a general discussion of the problems involved in arriving at the final design of large airplanes having gross weights of 35,000 lb. up to approximately 100,000 lb. It deals with certain aerodynamic features that evidence themselves when airplanes are increased to the sizes just noted. Comments are made on wing-taper airfoil sections and the possibility of increasing the L/D in large airplanes, and on certain factors that enter into the control of large airplanes. A rather detailed account of structural considerations is undertaken; it shows the methods used by the aircraft designer in scaling up his ideas from airplanes of a year ago to the larger types to follow. Several types of aircraft construction are discussed, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The question of strength-weight ratios also is discussed. The methods of analyzing semi-monocoque and pure monocoque structures are reviewed, and examples are given of the analysis procedure.
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370112
Joseph A. Anglada
This paper contains a general discussion of the trends of truck construction touching upon such subjects as cab over engine, six wheel, and all wheel driven vehicles. Comments are made on various parts, such as axles, engines, etc. A comparison of English truck design as affected by legal requirements and design as affected by S.A.E. proposed standards of weight and size limitations is included.
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370111
Billings Wilson
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370040
A. R. Walker
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370081
B. B. Bachman
1937-01-01
Technical Paper
370094
R. Cass
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320022
Austin M. Wolf's
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330040
M. C. Horine
BY their lack of uniformity and disregard of scientific and economic fact, legislative restrictions on motor-transport vehicles now in force in the states militate against efficient transportation and thus retard economic recovery. In this indirect way and in several direct ways the same situation presents problems to truck builders. Variations in state requirements necessitate undue diversity of designs, present difficult engineering problems, discourage enterprise, threaten the American system of production and penalize good engineering and sound manufacture.
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360135
Austin M. Wolf
BOTH the tractor-semi-trailer and the six-wheel vehicle have the same number of axles and wheels and each has its own particular advantages. They are seldom competitive if the transportation problem is analyzed properly and legislation does not unduly oppress either. The six-wheeler has the advantage over the tractor-semi-trailer of weight saving, more traction if four driving wheels are used, lower insurance rates, and it is free from any “jack-knifing” proclivities. The chief distinction in the construction of six-wheelers depends upon the types of axles used, whether they be dead or driving. There are five classifications in use today, ranging in various combinations all the way from three driving axles to one. The rear bogie unit may have two driving axles or a driving and a trailing axle. There is a natural resistance to turning in a bogie unit since the wheels do not roll tangentially when the vehicle travels around a curve.
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360138
Fred W. Herman
THE introduction to this paper includes definitions of the major items under discussion, and is followed by a discussion of the materials most widely used in metal-aircraft construction and their important physical properties. In the remainder of the paper are described some of the problems encountered in metal construction and the processes that have been developed to facilitate manufacture. The following specific items are discussed: (1) Design, (2) Tooling, including lofting, (3) Fabrication, (4) Assembly, (5) Inspection, and (6) Protective coating. Special equipment and tools are illustrated.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 584

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: