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Viewing 1 to 30 of 474
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0651
Joshua Pryor, Matt Pierce, Eric Fremond, Yanick Michou
This paper presents the efforts done by Volvo 3P, through a partnership with ThermoAnalytics Inc, to develop transient thermal simulation methodologies of the under hood of a truck. The verification process for the hot spots analysis currently in use at Volvo 3P is described and the key transient situations for the hot spots analysis are identified: hot shutdown, DPF regeneration and long drive cycle, are currently only covered by physical testing late in the project, contrary to steady-state operating conditions that are already managed through simulations in the early stage of the development phase. The goal of this work is to develop simulation methodologies for these transient situations which are likely to increase the efficiency of the verification process. The key issues to be satisfied are to minimize the model development and the simulation times while achieving an acceptable accuracy level.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9093
Rodrigo Mayer de Ávila, Milton Borsato
Facing a competitive and globalized market and with increasingly demanding customers, companies must constantly seek the development of practices in the development of new products. One of the current practices is the adoption of modularity. In that sense, the objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis of this practice in a Brazilian company, which manufactures agricultural machinery. The applicability of modular design in current products is focused. Therefore, a case study approach has been chosen. First, a review of the scientific literature was conducted, followed by field research, for collecting data based on interviews with product engineers and technical documentation. The case study shows the applicability of the modular design concept in a combine header, by increasing the number of repeated components. The modular header approach facilitates the implementation of engineering changes and allows greater standardization of components.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2360
G. Balaji, Ashwini Agarwal, Mahesh Mungi, Ranjit Babar, Vidyadhar Katkar PE
In automotive design and development, there are different stages for product design. In this fast changing scenario product design, digital verification of design (CAE), physical validation of the product and launching of the same in short time is important in product development life cycle of any new generation vehicle. This paper proposes a new approach towards development of a green-field platform for commercial vehicles by improving reliability of CAE and thereby reducing the need for prototype testing and hence shortening development cycle and costs - we call it “Hybrid Mule”. This Hybrid Mule has complete design intent under-body and engine-house while upper-body is made of simple representative tubular space frame. FRP skin panels are attached to this space frame to create a safe environment for test-driver. FRP skin also provides early feel of styling in running condition and evaluates basic ergonomics and visibility.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2709
Caner Demirdogen, Jim Ridge, Paul Pollock, Scott Anderson
Design of suspension systems for Heavy Trucks is always challenging due to the heavy loads the system is exposed to and the long life requirements for the total system. Historical solutions were over designed structures to get the needed life and reliability. This always meant heavier parts. In today's economy, the vehicle weight of commercial heavy trucks is a very important feature for our customers and the end user. Lighter, well-designed suspension components provide better ride quality to the drivers through lower un-sprung weight, lower initial costs and greater payloads. The latest available structural optimization techniques are a business requirement for tomorrow's products. This paper describes the developed methodology used by DANA Engineers to design a weight optimized upper control arm for Commercial Heavy Trucks in step by step fashion. The method starts with determining the loads on the component part.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2668
Hannes Hick, Klaus Denkmayr, Michael Aschaber
The AVL Load Matrix is a systematic approach to optimize durability and reliability test programs. It is based on component-specific test acceleration factors and uses damage models as well as statistics. Using the Load Matrix approach helps to achieve complete test programs while avoiding unrealistic over-testing. The paper describes the Load Matrix concept and structure as well as the process of setting up the Load Matrix for a system or component. Examples are provided on damage models, and the procedure to estimate the acceleration factors is discussed.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2667
Timothy J. Milburn
Product development and manufacturing organizations are moving from the traditional, multiple and serial design-build-test cycle approach to an integrated, concurrent task and systems engineering paradigm, led by upfront planning, analysis and simulation, supported by credible product test data. This “paradigm shift” includes a move from a predominance of physical testing for product prototype validation to simulation-led problem solving and performance validation, using Computer Aided Engineering, and Design (CAE and CAD) tools. Supported by use of Computer Aided Testing (CAT), physical testing capabilities have comparably grown in accuracy and application range. The role of testing is moving from mostly pre-production validation to include support of product design decisions throughout the development process, including upfront planning.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2656
Luciano Caletti, Jonny Carlos da Silva
This paper describes the development of an expert system project to design hydraulic power supply units, known as PHIDR, which is considered a natural expansion of KEOHPS Hydraulic Module. The expert system aims to support the designer in the process of selecting, in an efficient manner, the most adequate power supply unit based on design requirements and best practice rules. The text presents a description of the prototype system as well as its development process, including knowledge acquisition, representation, implementation and validation. Future issues on system expansion are also discussed.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0015
S. S. Thipse, K. P. Kavathekar, S. D. Rairikar, A. A. Tyagi, N. V. Marathe
A duel fuel diesel engine is a diesel engine fitted with a dual fuel conversion kit to enable use of clean burning alternative fuel like compressed natural gas. Dual fuel engines have number of potential advantages like fuel flexibility, lower emissions, higher compression ratio, better efficiency and easy conversion of existing diesel engines without major hardware modifications. In view of energy depletion and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compresed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecological friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Traditionally dual fuel technology has been popular for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationery engines. However its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of limited supply of alternative fuels.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0324
Roberto F. Britto, Eugênio P.D. Coelho, Sammi Frederico, Marcelo Machado, Daniel Martinek, Celso Rabello, Thaisa Tomita
Brazil has been a leader for the past 30 years in the development and commercialization of vehicles powered by ethanol, which contributes significantly to maintain the basic Brazilian energy less dependent on fossil fuels, but its usage was restricted to small vehicles with focus on gasoline replacement. Whereas the use of diesel fuel has significant impact on emission of greenhouse gases when it is compared to the whole production cycle of the alternative fuels (“well to wheel” analysis), these fuels have been the focus of studies, applications, federal government programs, and also the private sector, such as bio-diesel, sugar cane diesel, ethanol with additive for diesel cycle and diesel-gas Dual-Fuel. This paper will detail the development a high efficient engine fueled with 100% hydrated ethanol capable to achieve up to 42% of break efficiency, similar to a diesel efficiency running on Otto cycle.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2268
Nagesh Belludi, Joshua Receveur, Jeremy Raymond
This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2181
Qianfan (Harry) Xin
The two most important issues for diesel engine system engineers to handle engine applications are how to coordinate technical relationships in an organization/team and how to acquire working knowledge of different applications for system integration. This paper is the first part of a series of three inter-related papers (parts) addressing diesel engine applications (i.e., Part 1 - the relationship among applications, engine system design, systems engineering, and organization structure; Part 2 - general performance characteristics of diesel engine applications; and Part 3 - specific or special emissions, operating, and design characteristics of different applications). Specialization, departmentalization, and integration are the three most critical aspects in organization design for engine product development.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0320
Helio Kitagawa, Thiago B. Negretti, Juliana P. da Silva, Karina C. Malavazi
This paper presents a technique that reconstructs the geometry, using a known surface finite element mesh, starting from a finite element mesh previously modified by the structural optimization process. It is intended, through the geometry generated by the routine, to make it compatible with the CAD system, presenting sufficient results to reduce or even eliminate the reconstruction of the geometry, usually required by means of a CAE preprocessor.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2615
Michael Sevcovic, Jay Rotz
This paper describes the electrical system development for the headlight feature in an International High Performance Vehicle. Systems engineers developed several iterations of functional requirements, functional block diagrams, state diagrams, and body controller software requirements early in the development cycle at considerable engineering expense. The hardware design team found the functional block diagrams useful, however the software design team did not find the other artifacts useful. The software design teams chose to implement a design that was very similar to a current product offering and did not map to the system proposed by the systems engineering team. This paper provides examples of the Systems Engineering artifacts and shows when they were developed in the project timeline.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2054
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Senthilkumar Panneerselvam, Sreedharan D
The goal of any Lean organization is to understand customer value and to focus its efforts to continuously increase it. Lean applies to every business and every process and so is applicable for New Product Development (NPD) in Automobile industry, where the major output is the vehicle part numbers. Part numbers are generated based on the variant tree finalized. Customer requirements, benchmarks and organization assets such as lessons learnt and historical information provide input to the variant tree. Parts numbers for a particular model are generated during the concept Bill of Materials (BOM) stage and after which it exists during the complete product life cycle. Part number generation includes considerable effort by the design team, the validation team, and also includes overheads on the Product Life cycle Management (PLM) system.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2033
Christina Perdikoulias, Doug Akers
Effective requirements elicitation and management is a common need in supplier-OEM relationships, and continues to play a vital role in all aspects of the product development lifecycle. While traditional methods address the business goals for requirements and provide guidance in ensuring the accuracy of the “Descriptive-Prescriptive-Explanatory” outputs for requirements gathering and documentation, engineering organizations continue to encounter challenges with respect to capturing and communicating change, accommodating the addition of relevant design details and efficient propagation to inform development. These challenges become more difficult to overcome in mechatronic systems, which combine mechanical systems with integrated software. As software development can produce an overwhelming volume of information that requires accurate tracking and proliferation, it cannot be effectively managed using traditional hardware-centric systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0571
Guillaume Bernard, Mark Scaife, Amit Bhave, David Ooi, Julian Dizy
Abstract Internal combustion (IC) engines that meet Tier 4 Final emissions standards comprise of multiple engine operation and control parameters that are essential to achieve the low levels of NOx and soot emissions. Given the numerous degrees of freedom and the tight cost/time constraints related to the test bench, application of virtual engineering to IC engine development and emissions reduction programmes is increasingly gaining interest. In particular, system level simulations that account for multiple cycle simulations, incylinder turbulence, and chemical kinetics enable the analysis of combustion characteristics and emissions, i.e. beyond the conventional scope of focusing on engine performance only. Such a physico-chemical model can then be used to develop Electronic Control Unit in order to optimise the powertrain control strategy and/or the engine design parameters.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8032
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Andrei Keller, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract In this paper we consider a new design of adaptive suspension systems of vehicles with better technical characteristics and functional abilities in comparison with existing designs. We have developed the following main suspension components of vehicles: a lockable adaptive shock absorber with a wide range of control performance, implementing "lockout" mode by means of blocking adaptive shock absorber, and an elastic element with progressive non-linear characteristic and automatic optimization of localization of work areas. Advantages of our developments in the vehicle suspensions are the following: 1) when the vehicle is in a wide range of speeds in a so-called "comfort zone", we have managed, by applying the non-linear elastic element, to reduce significantly the stiffness of the elastic suspension elements in compare with the regular structures - at least in two times.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0006
Rohitt Ravi, Sivasubramanian, Bade Simhachalam, Dhanooj Balakrishnan, Krishna Srinivas
Abstract Tubular stabilizer bar for commercial vehicle is developed using advanced high strength steel material. Tubular section is proposed to replace the existing solid section. The tubular design is validated by component simulation using ANSYS Software. The tubes are then manufactured of the required size. The bend tool is designed to suit the size of the profile stabilizer bar and the prototypes are made using the tube bending machine. The strength of the tubular stabilizer is increased by using robotic induction hardening system. The tubular stabilizer bar is tested for fatigue load using Instron actuators. Higher weight reduction is achieved by replacing the existing solid stabilizer bar with the tubular stabilizer bar.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0281
Gelcino de Paula Brito, José Antônio Ferreira Borges, Gabriel Fernandes Garcia Nogueira
Abstract The vehicular safety is a very important subject in Brazil, after all, 40,000 people died in the country in 2013 due the traffic accidents. This work investigates the legislation and the blind area evolution of several kinds of vehicles through the years. The studies associate the results to vehicle structures evolution (rear side columns), specific aspects of some projects (structural rigidity) and to the accessories adoption (mirrors, head restraints, jackets and baggage handlers in motorcycles). Blind area were measured in the vicinity of vehicles of different models and categories, considering drivers of several statures aiming at represent the real conditions found in the traffic. The study established that trucks, mainly in older models, presents larger blind areas than passenger cars, opposing the theory that height elevated vehicles guarantees better visibility.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0409
Fatih Unal, Cem Sorusbay
Abstract In an effort to support design and testing activities at product development lifecycle of the engine, proper duty cycle is required. However, to collect data and develop accurate duty cycles, there are not any vehicles equipped with prototype engines at customers. Therefore, in this paper, discrete duty cycle development methodology is studied to generate trailer truck engine usage profile which represents driving conditions in Turkey for engines in development phase. Cycles are generated using several vehicles equipped with prototype engines and professional drivers that can mimic customer usage. Methodology is based on defining real-world customer driving profile, discretizing real-world drives into separate events, collecting vehicle data from each discrete drive, determining the weight of events by conducting customer surveys and creating a representative reference usage profile with data analysis.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2018
Yuki Jin, Narimasa Shinoda, Yosuke Uesaka, Tatsuyuki Kuki, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Tasuku Matsumoto, Philipp Kattouah, Claus Dieter Vogt
Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2886
Kebing Tang, Li He, Yao Zhao, Heinz Friz, Bo Li
Abstract The development of a new Dongfeng Heavy truck had very strict targets for fuel consumption. As the aerodynamic drag plays a crucial role for the fuel consumption, a low drag value had to be achieved. It was therefore essential to include evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamics in the development process. Because wind tunnel facilities were not available, the complete aerodynamics development was based on digital simulation. The major portion of the aerodynamic optimization was carried out during the styling phase where mirrors, sun visor, front bumper and aero devices were optimized for drag reduction. For optimizing corner vanes and mud guards, self-soiling from the wheel spray was included in the analysis. The aero results did also show that cooling air flow rates are sufficiently high to ensure proper cooling. During the detailed engineering phase an increase of the drag above the target required further optimization work to finally reach the target.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emissions become a necessary part for engines. The increased level of complexity poses technical challenges for the quality and reliability for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one conventional methodology focuses on every component's quality to ensure that the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. This conventional methodology tightens the component tolerance during the manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another conventional methodology that is on the other side of the spectrum focuses on tailoring an engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing differences. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the development and validation cost for engines.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8078
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
Currently the downsizing of IC Engine has become the mainstream to meet fuel economy and emission regulations. It is required that higher power output while with lighter weight that is actually a daunting challenge for a common four-stroke IC engine, because it needs lots of new technologies and high manufacturing cost. For recent years the two-stroke opposed piston engine has drawn much attention in many developed countries for fundamental advantages itself. Double firing frequency means the increased power density brings about smaller engine size and lighter weight. However, the low scavenge efficiency has been assumed the main disadvantage for a two-stroke engine for a long period, and adverse to combustion efficiency. The uniflow scavenging process was investigated by the transient CFD simulation for multiple Cases. The influence of port timing and exhaust back pressure on scavenging was analyzed for two different intake port layouts.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8074
Gaurav Kumar, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav, Sandip Gaidhane, Sarfaraj Shaikh
Abstract With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8062
Jham Kunwar Tikoliya, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Ramesh Kumar, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula
Abstract The existing head cover is having external oil and blow by separation unit, which is not only costlier but also complex and leads to increase in overall height of engine which was difficult to integrate in new variants of vehicles. A new head cover has been designed with internal baffle type oil and blow by separation system to ensure efficient separation and proper packaging of the system in new variants. The new system has been finalized after 26 DOE’s of different wire mesh sizes and different baffle plate size and positions. The final system has two bowl shaped separation unit with wire mesh, two cup type oil separation passages and one baffle plate for separating blow by. The system works on condensation and gravity method. The blow by is guided through a well-defined passage integrated in aluminum cylinder head cover itself. The passage angle is maintained to ensure minimum oil flow with blow by.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0194
Srikanta Nahak, Sagar Bhojne
Abstract Earth moving machines are steered using various steering methodology. Articulated steering mechanism is the most popular type of steering methods. It is actuated by hydraulic cylinders connected to the steering linkages. While the machine is deployed with articulated type steering, vehicle stability is proportionate to the steering velocity. Articulated steering provides two important features, shorter turning radius, allows front and back axle to be solid. Directional stability refers to a vehicle’s ability to stabilize its direction of motion against disturbances. Majority of earth moving equipment operates on basic cycle of Load-Haul-Dump. During each cycle, vehicle needs to be steered at least once. To optimize the machine performance for improved productivity it is essential to study the correlation between articulation speed and operational weight of the vehicle.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0195
Bibin Alias, Eswar Kurukundu, Savitha Nandagudi
Abstract A simplified mathematical model of tandem suspension is presented to study the different parameters of tandem suspension. The equations of motion are compiled considering the system to be 3 degrees of freedom system, taking into accounts both oscillation and deflection of the leaf spring. The response characteristics for vibration isolation for the company test track road profiles at different speeds of the vehicle are calculated. The sensitivity of acceleration to variations in un-sprung masses and axle spacing is illustrated. Further, the usefulness of the model for studying the effect of shock absorber positioning on ride of tandem bogie suspension system is demonstrated.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0203
Krishnakanth Pandurangan, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Exposure to high level of vibrations encountered in driver’s cabin of heavy duty truck over extended time causes driver fatigue and leads to serious health disorders. In most of the current heavy duty trucks in India, absence of proper vibration isolation system for driver’s seat results in transmission of high levels of vibration to the driver. A proper seat isolation system, combined with proper cushioning of seat can considerably reduce vibration transmissibility to the driver. The work presented here addresses the problem of vibration levels in a heavy duty truck and proposes solution for reducing vibration transmissibility to driver seat by using isolation and cushioning system. Vibration levels on floor, driver’s seat and seat back of an existing truck were measured using tri-axial accelerometer and 9 channel spectrum analyzer. Measured vibration levels in the vertical direction were found to be exceeding comfortable level.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1093
Takao Ohki, Tomoyasu Wada, Tomoyuki Kano, Tomoyoshi Ishimaru, Hideya Osawa
Abstract In recent years, awareness of environmental problems has increased on a global scale, and the development of low fuel consumption technologies has become more and more important in commercial vehicles, as it has been in passenger vehicles. A new 6-speed manual transmission was developed with direct-drive double-overdrive to contribute to the fuel economy performance and engine power of commercial vehicles through gear ratio optimization.
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